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Wear and MnS Layer Adhesion in Uncoated Cutting Tools When Dry and Wet Turning Free-Cutting Steels

1
Center for Research and Development in Mechanics, National Institute of Industrial Technology (INTI), Avenida General Paz 5445, 1650 Miguelete, Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina
2
Faculty of Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Lomas de Zamora, Juan XXIII y Camino de Cintura, 1832 Buenos Aires, Argentina
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering (EPSEVG), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. de Víctor Balaguer, 1, Vilanova i la Geltrú, 08800 Barcelona, Spain
4
Department of Mechanical Engineering (EEBE), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Eduard Maristany, 16, 08019 Barcelona, Spain
5
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aeronautics Advanced Manufacturing Center (CFAA), Faculty of Engineering of Bilbao, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2019, 9(5), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9050556
Received: 12 April 2019 / Revised: 7 May 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 12 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Processes and Machine Tools for Advanced Metal Alloys)
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Abstract

Free-cutting steels are developed to produce large quantities of parts with low mechanical behavior, mainly for automotive sector. These alloys contain phosphorous, lead, sulfur, and manganese that help to improve the machinability and surface roughness. However, due to the toxicity of lead, steel mills in recent years have been focusing on non-toxic steels to produce minimum environmental pollution and better machinability. The present work investigates the tool wear during dry and wet turning of free-cutting steels (SAE 1212, SAE 12L14, and SAE 1215) by using uncoated hard metal inserts at three cutting speeds. Additionally, a EDS analysis was performed to determine the presence of Mn and S elements at the rake face of the cutting tool that can induce a higher adhesion of manganese sulfide (MnS). The results show that the SAE 12L14 steel has the best performance in terms of tool life at different cutting speeds. This difference is maximum at the lowest cutting speed, which gradually decreases with the increase of the cutting speed. The wear behavior is evaluated in the three steel alloys at each cutting speed and, consequently, the tool wear exhibits a slightly better performance in the dry machining condition for higher cutting speeds (180 and 240 m/min), independent of the steel alloy. Finally, EDS analysis confirms the presence of Mn and S elements at the rake face of the inserts machined in dry condition. Hence, MnS is expected to interpose between the machined surface and cutting tool surface to behave similar to tribofilm by reducing the wear on the cutting edge. View Full-Text
Keywords: free-cutting steel; wear; dry turning; wet turning; uncoated carbide; adhesion layer free-cutting steel; wear; dry turning; wet turning; uncoated carbide; adhesion layer
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Martinez Krahmer, D.; Hameed, S.; Sánchez Egea, A.J.; Pérez, D.; Canales, J.; López de Lacalle, L.N. Wear and MnS Layer Adhesion in Uncoated Cutting Tools When Dry and Wet Turning Free-Cutting Steels. Metals 2019, 9, 556.

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