Special Issue "Metallic Glasses: Pathways to Viable Applications"

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 December 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Eun Soo Park
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro Gwanak-gu Seoul 08826 Korea
Interests: tailor-made materials design; phase transformation; microstructural characterization; microstructure-property relationships
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Metallic glasses (often referred to as glassy alloys or amorphous alloys) were first widely studied in the 1960s, because they possess both desirable properties of conventional crystalline metals and the formability of conventional oxide glasses. The successful synthesis of various bulk metallic glasses in the late 1980s, permitting minimum section thickness over 1 cm or even larger, has stimulated great enthusiasm in the study of this class of novel metallic materials. Since the beginning of the 1990s, substantial progress has been made in the understanding of physical, chemical and mechanical properties of metallic glasses. Then, over the past 20 years there have been a number of attempts to commercialize bulk metallic glasses. Metallic glasses are still a subject of intensive research in the international metals community. From an application perspective, it is clear that metallic glasses have an interesting combination of properties such as very high strength, very high hardness, large elastic elongation limit, potential for high fracture toughness, and superior corrosion resistance. However, to obtain viable industrial applications we need an alloy is harder and stronger than and is at least as tough as stainless steels, with similar costs. The alloy also needs to have superior corrosion resistance and is high processability. Although we understand metallic glasses much better today, there are still significant gaps in our knowledge that hinder widespread uses of metallic glasses. The goal of this Special Issue is to discuss major materials issues for metallic glasses, from tailor-made design to process optimization, from structures to properties, and from the fundamental science to viable industrial applications. In this Special Issue, we hope to deepen understanding of why metallic glasses attract such intensive interest, as well as highlight some challenging issues awaiting resolution to provide viable paths to more active applications of metallic glasses.

Prof. Eun Soo Park
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Metallic glasses and composites
  • Material fabrication and processing
  • Theoretical modeling and simulation
  • Properties (mechanical, physical, magnetic, electric, thermal, and corrosion)
  • Industrial applications

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
FeSiBPNbCu Bulk Nanocrystalline Alloys with High GFA and Excellent Soft-Magnetic Properties
Metals 2019, 9(2), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9020219 - 13 Feb 2019
Abstract
(Fe0.76Si0.09B0.1P0.05)99.3−xNbxCu0.7 (x = 0–1.5 at. %) bulk nanocrystalline alloys were prepared to investigate the alloying effects of Nb on glass forming ability, thermal stability, soft magnetic properties, and [...] Read more.
(Fe0.76Si0.09B0.1P0.05)99.3−xNbxCu0.7 (x = 0–1.5 at. %) bulk nanocrystalline alloys were prepared to investigate the alloying effects of Nb on glass forming ability, thermal stability, soft magnetic properties, and crystallization behavior. It was found that the amorphous forming ability was greatly improved with the addition of minor Nb. The thermal stability of Nb-containing alloy was significantly improved because the initial crystallization temperature and crystallization activation of the primary phase were obviously better than that of the Nb-free alloy. Further, the larger intervals of two-phase crystallization temperature and the significantly higher activation energy of crystallization of the second phase in the Nb-containing alloys favor the formation of a single α-Fe(Si) nanocrystalline structure. Moreover, Nb-containing alloys exhibit excellent soft magnetic properties, including high saturation magnetization of 1.42–1.49 T, low coercivity of around 1.0 A/m, and high permeability of about 18,000 at 1 kHz, which makes the alloys promising soft magnetic materials for industrial applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Glasses: Pathways to Viable Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Metalloid Elements on the Nanocrystallization Behavior and Soft Magnetic Properties of FeCBSiPCu Amorphous Alloys
Metals 2018, 8(4), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8040283 - 19 Apr 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Soft magnetic properties of Fe-based metallic glasses (MGs) are dependent on their nanocrystallization behavior, particularly the precipitation of α-Fe embedded in the amorphous matrix. In this study, the effects of metalloid elements of C, B, Si, and P on thermal stability, nanocrystallization behavior, [...] Read more.
Soft magnetic properties of Fe-based metallic glasses (MGs) are dependent on their nanocrystallization behavior, particularly the precipitation of α-Fe embedded in the amorphous matrix. In this study, the effects of metalloid elements of C, B, Si, and P on thermal stability, nanocrystallization behavior, and soft magnetic properties of typical Fe-based amorphous alloys, i.e., the Fe-Cu-(CBSiP) glassy alloys, were investigated systematically. It is found that the addition of the metalloid elements can effectively retard the precipitation process of α-Fe during reheating of the Fe-based MGs due to the long-range diffusion of the metalloids; however, their individual effects on the compositional portioning and formation of other crystalline phases are varied. To achieve desirable soft magnetic properties, a species of metalloids and their concentrations have to be carefully controlled so that the formation of α-Fe does not interfere with that of other crystalline phases, especially those hard-magnetic phases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Glasses: Pathways to Viable Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Martensitic Transformation and Plastic Deformation of TiCuNiZr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Composites
Metals 2018, 8(3), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8030196 - 20 Mar 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
In this study, the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of TiCuNiZr-based bulk metallic glass (BMGs) composites were systematically investigated in order to optimize both the strength and the ductility of BMGs. By tailoring the glass-forming compositions, TiCuNiZr-based BMG composites with different volume fractions [...] Read more.
In this study, the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of TiCuNiZr-based bulk metallic glass (BMGs) composites were systematically investigated in order to optimize both the strength and the ductility of BMGs. By tailoring the glass-forming compositions, TiCuNiZr-based BMG composites with different volume fractions of B2 (Ti,Zr)(Cu,Ni) crystals precipitating in the glassy matrix exhibit not only macroscopic ductility but also high strength as well as work-hardening, which is due to the formation of multiple shear bands and martensitic transformation during deformation. Optimized mechanical properties can be achieved when the crystalline volume fraction is at least higher than 44 vol. %, which is attributed to the sizeable difference between Young’s moduli of the B2 (Ti,Zr)(Cu,Ni) crystals and the glassy matrix, and the precipitation of Ti2Cu intermetallic compounds at the B2 crystal boundaries. Our study provides a complementary understanding of how to tailor mechanical properties of TiCu-based BMG composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Glasses: Pathways to Viable Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Resistivity and Passivity Characterization of Ni-Base Glassy Alloys in NaOH Media
Metals 2018, 8(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8010064 - 18 Jan 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Resistivity and passivation behavior of two Ni-base bulk metallic glasses, with the nominal composition of Ni70Cr21Si0.5B0.5P8C ≤ 0.1Co ≤ 1Fe ≤ 1 (VZ1) and Ni72.65Cr7.3-Si6.7B2.15C [...] Read more.
Resistivity and passivation behavior of two Ni-base bulk metallic glasses, with the nominal composition of Ni70Cr21Si0.5B0.5P8C ≤ 0.1Co ≤ 1Fe ≤ 1 (VZ1) and Ni72.65Cr7.3-Si6.7B2.15C ≤ 0.06Fe8.2Mo3 (VZ2), in various concentrations of NaOH solutions were studied. The investigations involved cyclic polarization (CP), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM) methods. Cyclic polarization measurements showed spontaneous passivation for both Ni-base glassy alloys at all alkaline concentrations, due to the presence of chromium as an alloying element that formed an oxide film on the alloy surface. The EIS analysis showed that the passive layers grown on the two Ni-base glassy alloy surfaces are formed by a double oxide layer structure. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) examinations of the electrode surface showed Cr, Ni, Fe, and O rich corrosion products that reduced the extent of corrosion damage. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging technique was used to evaluate the topographic and morphologic features of surface layers formed on the surface of the alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Glasses: Pathways to Viable Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
The Corrosion Behavior of Ti-Based Metallic Glass Matrix Composites in the H2SO4 Solution
Metals 2018, 8(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8010052 - 17 Jan 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
In-situ metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) are a new kind of promising structural engineering material. In this study, a comprehensive study about the corrosion behavior of in-situ Ti46Zr20V12Cu5Be17 MGMCs versus their size was conducted. [...] Read more.
In-situ metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) are a new kind of promising structural engineering material. In this study, a comprehensive study about the corrosion behavior of in-situ Ti46Zr20V12Cu5Be17 MGMCs versus their size was conducted. It is interesting to find that the large sample exhibits a more excellent corrosion resistance than the small sample in the 10% H2SO4 solution both in chemical and electrochemical tests at room temperature. Furthermore, the results obtained from X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) demonstrate that the quality of the passive film formed on the large-sized sample is indeed superior to the small-sized sample. Based on (scanning electron microscope) SEM observation, the possible mechanisms of the observed phenomenon have been discussed in the present study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Glasses: Pathways to Viable Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Free Volume Contributing to the Different Yield Behaviors between Tension and Compression Deformations in Metallic Glasses
Metals 2017, 7(10), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7100444 - 20 Oct 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
The different deformation behaviors in the yield stage, in particular, of metallic glasses under uniaxial tension and compression are investigated from an atomic structural perspective, by applying both experimental and simulation methods. A new computational approach for quantitatively calculating free volumes (FVs) in [...] Read more.
The different deformation behaviors in the yield stage, in particular, of metallic glasses under uniaxial tension and compression are investigated from an atomic structural perspective, by applying both experimental and simulation methods. A new computational approach for quantitatively calculating free volumes (FVs) in structural models is developed, based on which the manner in which FVs contribute to deformation is studied. It is found that FVs have different expansion behaviors in terms of their saturation sizes and corresponding strain values, which are essential structural causes of different yield behaviors in these two deformations in metallic glasses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Glasses: Pathways to Viable Applications)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Measuring Structural Heterogeneities in Metallic Glasses Using Transmission Electron Microscopy
Metals 2018, 8(12), 1085; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8121085 - 19 Dec 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Local heterogeneities in the structure and properties of metallic glasses have recently been predicted by computer simulations and also observed in experiments. These heterogeneities are important in understanding the stability and performance of metallic glasses. Progress has been made in measuring heterogeneities in [...] Read more.
Local heterogeneities in the structure and properties of metallic glasses have recently been predicted by computer simulations and also observed in experiments. These heterogeneities are important in understanding the stability and performance of metallic glasses. Progress has been made in measuring heterogeneities in elastic properties and local density down to length scales of less than 10 nm. In this review, we focus on studies of structural and mechanical heterogeneities with emphasis on those achieved by transmission electron microscopy which has an excellent spatial resolution, multifunctional detection modes, as well as in-situ testing capabilities. We argue that the next important step in understanding the behavior of metallic glasses lies in understanding the spatial and temporal correlations between the various structural and mechanical heterogeneities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Glasses: Pathways to Viable Applications)
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Open AccessReview
Metallic Glass Structures for Mechanical-Energy-Dissipation Purpose: A Review
Metals 2018, 8(9), 689; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8090689 - 31 Aug 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Metallic glasses (MGs), a new class of advanced structural materials with extraordinary mechanical properties, such as high strength approaching the theoretical value and an elastic limit several times larger than the conventional metals, are being used to develop cellular structures with excellent mechanical-energy-dissipation [...] Read more.
Metallic glasses (MGs), a new class of advanced structural materials with extraordinary mechanical properties, such as high strength approaching the theoretical value and an elastic limit several times larger than the conventional metals, are being used to develop cellular structures with excellent mechanical-energy-dissipation performance. In this paper, the research progress on the development of MG structures for energy-dissipation applications is reviewed, including MG foams, MG honeycombs, cellular MGs with macroscopic cellular structures, microscopic MG lattice structures and kirigami MG structures. MG structures not only have high plastic energy absorption capacity superior to conventional cellular metals, but also demonstrate great potential for storing the elastic energy during cyclic loading. The deformation behavior as well as the mechanisms for the excellent energy-dissipation performance of varying kinds MG structures is compared and discussed. Suggestions on the future development/optimization of MG structures for enhanced energy-dissipation performance are proposed, which can be helpful for exploring the widespread structural-application of MGs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Glasses: Pathways to Viable Applications)
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