Advanced Techniques for Metallurgical Characterization

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 June 2023) | Viewed by 8402

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Oporto University, 4099-002 Porto, Portugal
Interests: metal matrix nanocomposites; nanomaterials; reactive multilayers; microstructural characterization; advanced materials; joining technologies; titanium alloys; diffusion bonding
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The metallurgical characterization of materials is crucial for their industrial development and implementation. The microstructure of materials is interconnected with a large number of mechanical properties and is dependent on the manufacturing process used. In recent years, advanced techniques in the metallurgical characterization of the metals and alloys have been applied in an effort to understandand the relantionship between the metallurgical aspect of materials and their properties and processing conditions. Electron backscatter diffraction, transmission eletron microscopy and in situ experiments are important tools in the complete characterization of materials.

In this context, this Special Issue will include works on the application of advanced characterization techniques to characterize metallic materials at different scales, present the main challenges and applications of characterization, and show different characterization methods that can be performed, as well as the full potential of the characterization of advanced materials. Both theoretical and experimental research, review articles and novel results are welcome. The specific scope of interest includes (but is not limited to) the characterization of metals, alloys, nanomaterials and metal matrix nanocomposites using advanced techniques in order to evaluate metallurgical aspects such as grain growth, deformation behavior, texture, phase transformation, etc.

Prof. Dr. Sónia Simões
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • EBSD
  • TEM
  • HRTEM
  • in situ
  • microstructural characterization
  • texture
  • grain boundaries
  • grain size
  • diffraction
  • deformation

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 3375 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Al Alloys Injected through Vacuum-Assisted HPDC and Influence of T6 Heat Treatment
by Gonçalo Soares, Rui Neto, Rui Madureira, Rui Soares, José Silva, Rui Pedro Silva and Luís Araújo
Metals 2023, 13(2), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13020389 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1834
Abstract
AlSi12(Fe), AlSi10Mg(Fe), AlSi10MnMg, and AlMg4Fe2 die-casting alloys were produced by high-pressure die casting (HPDC) and vacuum-assisted high-pressure die casting (VADC) under a vacuum level of 200 mbar. The chemical composition, hardness, gas and shrinkage porosity, and mechanical properties were analyzed. The parts under [...] Read more.
AlSi12(Fe), AlSi10Mg(Fe), AlSi10MnMg, and AlMg4Fe2 die-casting alloys were produced by high-pressure die casting (HPDC) and vacuum-assisted high-pressure die casting (VADC) under a vacuum level of 200 mbar. The chemical composition, hardness, gas and shrinkage porosity, and mechanical properties were analyzed. The parts under study were subjected to a T6 heat treatment. The VADC led to a decrease in the percentage of defects in the as-cast state for all the alloys, due to a reduction in the amount of gas porosities. After heat treatment, the quantity of gas and shrinkage porosities increased. The efficiency and level of vacuum used were not sufficient to improve the mechanical properties in the as-cast state. The ductility of AlSi10Mg(Fe) and AlSi10MnMg alloys was improved after heat treatment; however, the YS and UTS of AlSi10Mg(Fe) did not increase. The primary aluminum alloys presented higher elongation values than the secondary aluminum alloys due to the reduced amount of the needle-like β-Al5FeSi phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Techniques for Metallurgical Characterization)
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19 pages, 6502 KiB  
Article
Microstructural Characterization of Spheroidal Graphite Irons: A Study of the Effect of Preconditioning Treatment
by António Pires, Sónia Simões, Leander Michels, Emmanuelle Ott, Cathrine Hartung and Carlos Silva Ribeiro
Metals 2023, 13(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13010005 - 20 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2159
Abstract
The effect of preconditioning treatments on the control and improvement of spheroidal graphite iron (SGI) microstructure was evaluated. In the melt, 0.15% of Zr-(Ca, Al) FeSi preconditioner was added into different conditions. Four samples were produced for this investigation: (1) in the first [...] Read more.
The effect of preconditioning treatments on the control and improvement of spheroidal graphite iron (SGI) microstructure was evaluated. In the melt, 0.15% of Zr-(Ca, Al) FeSi preconditioner was added into different conditions. Four samples were produced for this investigation: (1) in the first melt, there was no addition of a preconditioner for comparative purposes; (2) in the second melt, the preconditioner was added at the cold charge; (3) in the third melt, the preconditioner was added before the last cold charge; and (4) in the fourth melt, the preconditioner was added at tapping from the furnace. Microstructural characterization was conducted to understand the effect of the treatment on the SGI. Optical microscopy results show that preconditioning treatment increases graphite’s nodule density, ferrite content, and nodularity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive energy (EDS), and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis were used to identify the types of microparticles present in the graphite nodules. Some complex microparticles were identified as AlMg2.5Si2.5N6, MgS, and CaS. The microstructural characteristics of the matrix, such as grain size, crystallographic orientation, and misorientation, were also evaluated by the EBSD. The addition of the preconditioning at tapping results in a higher ferrite fraction, smaller grain size, misorientation, and hardness values. This work suggests that the different preconditioning practice has a crucial effect on the microstructural characteristics of the SGI. This knowledge is vital, allowing the microstructure tailoring to enhance the mechanical properties of SGI to obtain the best performance of these materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Techniques for Metallurgical Characterization)
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11 pages, 3366 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Texture and Anisotropic Elastic Properties of Additively Manufactured Ni-Base Alloys
by Thomas Obermayer, Christian Krempaszky and Ewald Werner
Metals 2022, 12(11), 1991; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12111991 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1562
Abstract
Additive manufacturing of metallic materials generates strong crystallographic textures, leading to anisotropic elastic properties on the macroscopic scale. The impact of the processing parameters on the resulting texture requires suitable techniques for the prediction and the experimental determination of elastic properties to exploit [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing of metallic materials generates strong crystallographic textures, leading to anisotropic elastic properties on the macroscopic scale. The impact of the processing parameters on the resulting texture requires suitable techniques for the prediction and the experimental determination of elastic properties to exploit the anisotropy in the design process. Within this study mechanical as well as microstructure based approaches are applied on a batch of specimens manufactured from IN718 by selective laser melting to assess the elastic behavior on macroscropic scale. Tensile loading experiments and the impulse excitation technique are applied for the determination of elastic properties without additional constitutive data. Furthermore, the elastic behavior is estimated from single-crystal elastic properties and texture data measured by electron backscatter diffraction and high energy X-ray diffraction. The results of the applied approaches are discussed and compared, allowing also to assess the homogeneity of the elastic properties within the batch of specimens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Techniques for Metallurgical Characterization)
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Review

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26 pages, 12662 KiB  
Review
A Review on Direct Laser Deposition of Inconel 625 and Inconel 625-Based Composites—Challenges and Prospects
by Fahad Zafar, Omid Emadinia, João Conceição, Manuel Vieira and Ana Reis
Metals 2023, 13(4), 787; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13040787 - 17 Apr 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2007
Abstract
The direct laser deposition (DLD) process has seen rigorous research in the past two decades due to its ability to directly manufacture products followed by minimal machining. The process input variables play a vital role in determining the properties achieved in the products [...] Read more.
The direct laser deposition (DLD) process has seen rigorous research in the past two decades due to its ability to directly manufacture products followed by minimal machining. The process input variables play a vital role in determining the properties achieved in the products manufactured by the DLD method. Inconel 625, a nickel-based superalloy with exceptional mechanical performance and corrosion resistance, has been used in critical applications within the aerospace, process, and marine industry. However, its poor machinability and higher load requirements for plastic deformation have been challenging for manufacturers. Therefore, many studies have explored the additive manufacturing of Inconel 625 to overcome these problems. This article focuses on the DLD of Inconel 625 and its composites, presenting the state-of-the-art, drawing a relation among laser processing parameters and resulting material properties, microstructure and phase evolution, and the high-temperature performance of DLD Inconel 625. The paper highlights the areas on which further studies may focus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Techniques for Metallurgical Characterization)
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