Diffusion Bonding and Brazing of Advanced Materials

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2018) | Viewed by 47114

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Oporto University, 4099-002 Porto, Portugal
Interests: metal matrix nanocomposites; nanomaterials; reactive multilayers; microstructural characterization; advanced materials; joining technologies; titanium alloys; diffusion bonding
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Advanced materials generally require the development of novel joining techniques, as this is crucial to integrate them into functional structures and to widen their application field. Additionally, joining constitutes a technology, which influences all the industrial sectors, playing a key role in the economic and social development of a country.

Diffusion bonding and brazing are two straightforward techniques for producing sound and reliable joints since these processes are capable of joining a wide range of materials of interest in the aerospace industry, as well as in many other industrial applications, offering remarkable advantages over conventional fusion welding processes.

Production of dissimilar joints is also crucial for application of these materials. For instance, the combination of advanced ceramic with lightweight alloys, such as titanium or aluminium alloys, is quite attractive, combining the extraordinary properties of the two materials and extending the potential applications particularly into components for the automotive and aerospace industries. The major challenge in the production of these joints is to overcome the enormous differences in mechanical behaviour, as well as thermal expansion coefficients and so new approaches need to be developed to produce dissimilar joints successfully.

This Special Issue aims at showcasing the recent progresses in the joining technologies of advanced materials, with a particular attention for the microstructure–mechanical properties relationships of the bonded joints. Both theoretical and experimental research, review articles, and novel results are welcome.

Prof. Sónia Simões
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Advanced materials
  • Metals, Ceramics and Composites
  • Diffusion Bonding
  • Brazing
  • Micro and nanojoining
  • Dissimilar joints
  • Microstrutural characterization
  • Mechanical properties
  • New approaches to joining technologies
  • Modelling and simulation

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 190 KiB  
Editorial
Diffusion Bonding and Brazing of Advanced Materials
by Sónia Simões
Metals 2018, 8(11), 959; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8110959 - 16 Nov 2018
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2795
Abstract
Advanced materials generally require the development of novel joining techniques, as this is crucial to integrate them into functional structures and to widen their application field. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diffusion Bonding and Brazing of Advanced Materials)

Research

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13 pages, 5089 KiB  
Article
Interfacial Reactions and Fracture Behavior of Ti Alloy-Ag28Cu Brazing Joints: Influence of Titanium Alloy Composition
by Joachim Gussone, Galina Kasperovich, Jan Haubrich and Guillermo Requena
Metals 2018, 8(10), 830; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8100830 - 16 Oct 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3562
Abstract
Brazing of titanium provides a joining technique suitable for the fabrication of highly-loaded aerospace components, but it still poses numerous challenges, such as the formation of brittle intermetallic interphases. This study of the interphase formation in brazed joints consisting of different titanium alloys [...] Read more.
Brazing of titanium provides a joining technique suitable for the fabrication of highly-loaded aerospace components, but it still poses numerous challenges, such as the formation of brittle intermetallic interphases. This study of the interphase formation in brazed joints consisting of different titanium alloys (Ti-CP2, Ti-CP4, Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-2Mo-4Zr-2Sn) and Ag28Cu shows that complex reactions lead to the formation of various intermetallic phases including a Ti2Cu-TiCu boundary zone. The compositions of the titanium alloys influenced the particular microstructures, which have been characterized with various methods including synchrotron X-ray microtomography. Tensile tests evidence high ultimate tensile strengths that are, importantly, not directly limited by the strength of the brazing alloy. The strength of the Ti2Cu-TiCu phase boundary is significantly increased by the alloying elements in Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-2Mo-4Zr-2Sn and the crack paths change from boundary failure to transcrystalline fracture through TiCu as well as Ag-rich regions. Cu diffusion into the titanium substrate, leading to a coarse grained β-phase that transforms eutectoidally into a lamellar α-Ti + Ti2Cu structure during cooling, occurred in all systems except Ti-6Al-2Mo-4Zr-2Sn where Mo stabilized a fine grained microstructure and enabled the formation of a columnar TiCu structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diffusion Bonding and Brazing of Advanced Materials)
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14 pages, 3237 KiB  
Article
Joining of γ-TiAl Alloy to Ni-Based Superalloy Using Ag-Cu Sputtered Coated Ti Brazing Filler Foil
by Sónia Simões, Carlos José Tavares and Aníbal Guedes
Metals 2018, 8(9), 723; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8090723 - 14 Sep 2018
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4236
Abstract
Joining γ-TiAl alloy to Ni-based superalloy Hastelloy using Ag-Cu sputtered coated Ti foil as brazing filler was investigated in this study. Brazing experiments were performed at 900, 950, and 980 °C with a dwelling stage of 10 min in vacuum. The microstructure and [...] Read more.
Joining γ-TiAl alloy to Ni-based superalloy Hastelloy using Ag-Cu sputtered coated Ti foil as brazing filler was investigated in this study. Brazing experiments were performed at 900, 950, and 980 °C with a dwelling stage of 10 min in vacuum. The microstructure and the chemical composition of the resulting interfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. Sound joints were produced after brazing at 980 °C, presenting a multilayered interface, consisting mainly of Ti-Al and Ti-Ni-Al intermetallics close to the γ-TiAl alloy, and of Ti-rich, Ti-Ni, and Cr-Ni-Mo rich phases near Hastelloy. The hardness of the interface, ranging from around 300 to 1100 HV0.01, is higher than both base materials, but no segregation of either Ag solid solution or coarse intermetallic particles was observed. Therefore, the developed brazing filler also avoids the need to perform post-brazing heat treatments that aim to eliminate detrimental extensive segregation of either soft phases or of hard and brittle compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diffusion Bonding and Brazing of Advanced Materials)
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13 pages, 8033 KiB  
Article
Microstructural Characterization of Dissimilar Titanium Alloys Joints Using Ni/Al Nanolayers
by Sónia Simões, Filomena Viana, Ana S. Ramos, M. Teresa Vieira and Manuel F. Vieira
Metals 2018, 8(9), 715; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8090715 - 12 Sep 2018
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3741
Abstract
This study demonstrates the potential of the use of Ni/Al nanolayers for joining dissimilar titanium alloys. For this purpose, a detailed microstructural characterization of the diffusion bonding interfaces of TiAl to Ti6Al4V, TiAl to TiNi and TiNi to Ti6Al4V was carried out. The [...] Read more.
This study demonstrates the potential of the use of Ni/Al nanolayers for joining dissimilar titanium alloys. For this purpose, a detailed microstructural characterization of the diffusion bonding interfaces of TiAl to Ti6Al4V, TiAl to TiNi and TiNi to Ti6Al4V was carried out. The nanolayers (alternated aluminum and nickel (Ni-7V wt.%) layers) were deposited onto the base material surfaces. Diffusion bonding was performed at 700 and 800 °C under pressures ranging from 5 to 40 MPa and at dwell times between 60 and 180 min. Microstructural characterization was performed using high resolution transmission and scanning electron microscopies. The results revealed that dissimilar titanium joints (TiAl to Ti6Al4V, TiAl to TiNi and TiNi to Ti6Al4V) assisted by Ni/Al nanolayers can be obtained successfully at 800 °C for 60 min using a pressure of 20 MPa. The bond interfaces are thin (less than 10 µm) and mainly composed of NiAl grains with a few nanometric grains of Al8V5. Thin layers of Al-Ni-Ti intermetallic compounds were formed adjacent to the base materials due to their reaction with the nanolayers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diffusion Bonding and Brazing of Advanced Materials)
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13 pages, 5223 KiB  
Article
Brazed Joint Interface Bonding Strength of AR500 Steel and AA7075 Aluminium Alloy
by Mohd Najib Muhamed, Mohd Zaidi Omar, Shahrum Abdullah, Zainuddin Sajuri, Wan Fathul Hakim Wan Zamri and Mohd Faizal Abdullah
Metals 2018, 8(9), 668; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8090668 - 27 Aug 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3807
Abstract
The joining of aluminium alloys to steels has been extensively studied, especially in the automotive sector. However, aluminium alloys are known to be difficult to join with steels when methods involving fusion welding are used because of the hot cracking problem. Hence, a [...] Read more.
The joining of aluminium alloys to steels has been extensively studied, especially in the automotive sector. However, aluminium alloys are known to be difficult to join with steels when methods involving fusion welding are used because of the hot cracking problem. Hence, a high-strength joint between these dissimilar metals would be of benefit especially in reducing the weight of products. In this work, the torch-brazing method was applied to join AR500 steel with AA7075 aluminium alloy using Al–Si–Zn base filler metal at various flame times. The effects of the brazing work on the intermetallic phase formation and the mechanical strength of the joints were investigated. In this work, the maximum shear load obtained was 6460 N and the presence of the intermetallic phases had reduced the shear strength of the brazed joints. However, the torch-brazing process using Al–Si–Zn filler metal had successfully facilitated the joining of these dissimilar metals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diffusion Bonding and Brazing of Advanced Materials)
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13 pages, 6041 KiB  
Article
Transient Liquid Phase Bonding of Semi-Solid Metal 7075 Aluminum Alloy using ZA27 Zinc Alloy Interlayer
by Chaiyoot Meengam, Yongyuth Dunyakul, Dech Maunkhaw and Suppachai Chainarong
Metals 2018, 8(8), 637; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8080637 - 13 Aug 2018
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 6497
Abstract
Transient Liquid Phase Bonding (TLPB) process of semi-solid metal 7075 aluminum alloys (SSM7075) using 50 μm thick of ZA27 zinc alloys as interlayers for the experiment were carried out under bonding temperatures of 480 and 540 °C and bonding times of 30, 60, [...] Read more.
Transient Liquid Phase Bonding (TLPB) process of semi-solid metal 7075 aluminum alloys (SSM7075) using 50 μm thick of ZA27 zinc alloys as interlayers for the experiment were carried out under bonding temperatures of 480 and 540 °C and bonding times of 30, 60, 90 and 120 min respectively. In the bonding zone, the semi-solid state of ZA27 zinc alloy interlayers were diffused into the SSM7075 aluminum alloy. Examination of the bonding zone using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) showed that the precipitation of the intermetallic compound of η(Zn–Al–Cu), β(Al2Mg3Zn3), T′(Zn10Al35Cu55) and MgZn2 were formed in the bonding zone. The better homogenized microstructure in the bonding zone was formed when increasing bonding time and bonding temperature. The highest bonding strength was recorded at 17.44 MPa and average hardness was at 87.67 HV with the bonding time of 120 min and temperature at 540 °C. Statistically, the coefficient of determination analysis of bonding strength data was at 99.1%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diffusion Bonding and Brazing of Advanced Materials)
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14 pages, 16505 KiB  
Article
Joining of Aluminium Alloy Sheets to Aluminium Alloy Foam Using Metal Glasses
by Muhammad Kashif Bangash, Graziano Ubertalli, Davide Di Saverio, Monica Ferraris and Niu Jitai
Metals 2018, 8(8), 614; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8080614 - 6 Aug 2018
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 5926
Abstract
Aluminium alloy foam is a lightweight material with high energy absorption properties and can potentially replace bulk Al-components. The aim of this work is to develop a brazing technique to join aluminium facing sheets to aluminium alloy foam to obtain aluminium foam sandwich [...] Read more.
Aluminium alloy foam is a lightweight material with high energy absorption properties and can potentially replace bulk Al-components. The aim of this work is to develop a brazing technique to join aluminium facing sheets to aluminium alloy foam to obtain aluminium foam sandwich panels for applications where high service temperature is a requirement. Al-6016 alloy sheets were brazed to aluminium alloy foam using two aluminium based (Al-Cu-Mg and Al-Si-Mg-Ti) metal glasses at 560 °C–590 °C in an argon atmosphere. Microstructure and microhardness profiles of the aluminium alloy sheet/aluminium alloy foam brazed joints were analysed using a microhardness tester and scanning electron microscope equipped with electron dispersion spectroscopy. A three-point bending test was conducted to study the flexural behaviour of the aluminium foam sandwich composite panels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diffusion Bonding and Brazing of Advanced Materials)
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10 pages, 14132 KiB  
Article
Transient Liquid Phase Bonding of Magnesium Alloy AZ31 Using Cu Coatings and Cu Coatings with Sn Interlayers
by Abdulaziz Nasser AlHazaa, Muhammad Ali Shar, Anas Mahmoud Atieh and Hiroshi Nishikawa
Metals 2018, 8(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8010060 - 16 Jan 2018
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4898
Abstract
Transient liquid phase bonding (TLP) of AZ31 samples has been investigated using Cu coatings and Cu coatings with Sn interlayer. Copper coatings were used for one set of the bonds, and a combination of Cu coatings and Sn interlayer was used for the [...] Read more.
Transient liquid phase bonding (TLP) of AZ31 samples has been investigated using Cu coatings and Cu coatings with Sn interlayer. Copper coatings were used for one set of the bonds, and a combination of Cu coatings and Sn interlayer was used for the other set of bonds. The bonding temperature was fixed at 520 °C, and various bonding times were applied. This study shows that the bonds produced using only Cu coatings have shown weaker bonds compared to the bonds made using Cu coatings and Sn interlayer. The Cu2Mg particles were detected at the joint region of both bonds made by Cu coatings and Cu coatings with Sn interlayer by X-ray diffraction (XRD). However, it has been observed that the joint region was dominated by solid solution which is rich in Mg. Sn interlayer was not contributed to the intermetallic compound (IMC) at the joint region, and therefore it was diffused away through the Mg matrix. Within the joint interface, a slight increase of micro-hardness was observed compared to Mg base metal alloy. This was attributed to the formation and presence of IMC’s within the joint region. It was noticed that the presence of the Sn interlayer improved the joint strength by reducing the pores at the joint region. Pores were clearly observed for those bonds made using Cu coatings—especially for region where the fracture occurs; this was accomplished by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diffusion Bonding and Brazing of Advanced Materials)
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13209 KiB  
Article
Microstructure and Properties of Porous Si3N4/Dense Si3N4 Joints Bonded Using RE–Si–Al–O–N (RE = Y or Yb) Glasses
by Ling Li, Liangbo Sun, Chunfeng Liu, Xinhua Wang, Xuanzhi Wang and Jie Zhang
Metals 2017, 7(11), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7110500 - 13 Nov 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4167
Abstract
The joining of porous Si3N4 to dense Si3N4 ceramics has been successfully performed using mixed RE2O3 (RE = Y or Yb), Al2O3, SiO2, and α-Si3N4 [...] Read more.
The joining of porous Si3N4 to dense Si3N4 ceramics has been successfully performed using mixed RE2O3 (RE = Y or Yb), Al2O3, SiO2, and α-Si3N4 powders. The results suggested that the α-Si3N4 powders partly transformed into β-SiAlON and partly dissolved into oxide glass to form oxynitride glass. Thus, composites of glass/β-SiAlON-ceramic formed in the seam of joints. Due to the capillary action of the porous Si3N4 ceramic, the molten glass solder infiltrated into the porous Si3N4 ceramic side during the joining process and formed the “infiltration zone” with a thickness of about 400 μm, which contributed to the heterogeneous distribution of the RE–Si–Al–O–N glasses in the porous Si3N4 substrate. In-situ formation of β-SiAlON in the seam resulted in a high bonding strength. The maximum bending strength of 103 MPa and 88 MPa was reached for the porous Si3N4/dense Si3N4 joints using Y–Si–Al–O–N and Yb–Si–Al–O–N glass solders, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diffusion Bonding and Brazing of Advanced Materials)
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Review

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29 pages, 9441 KiB  
Review
Recent Progress in the Joining of Titanium Alloys to Ceramics
by Sónia Simões
Metals 2018, 8(11), 876; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8110876 - 26 Oct 2018
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 6082
Abstract
The prospect of joining titanium alloys to advanced ceramics and producing components with extraordinary and unique properties can expand the range of potential applications. This is extremely attractive in components for the automotive and aerospace industries where combining high temperature resistance, wear resistance [...] Read more.
The prospect of joining titanium alloys to advanced ceramics and producing components with extraordinary and unique properties can expand the range of potential applications. This is extremely attractive in components for the automotive and aerospace industries where combining high temperature resistance, wear resistance and thermal stability with low density materials, good flowability and high oxidation resistance is likely. Therefore, a combination of distinct properties and characteristics that would not be possible through conventional production routes is expected. Due to the differences between the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) and Young's modulus of metals and ceramics, the most appropriate methods for such dissimilar bonding are brazing, diffusion bonding, and transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding. For the joining of titanium alloys to ceramics, brazing appears to be the most promising and cost-effective process although diffusion bonding and TLP bonding have clear advantages in the production of reliable joints. However, several challenges must be overcome to successfully produce these dissimilar joints. In this context, the purpose of this review is to point out the same challenges and the most recent advances that have been investigated to produce reliable titanium alloys and ceramic joints. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diffusion Bonding and Brazing of Advanced Materials)
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