Preparation and Processing Technology of Advanced Magnesium Alloys

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701). This special issue belongs to the section "Metal Casting, Forming and Heat Treatment".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 May 2024) | Viewed by 10614

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001, China
Interests: magnesium alloy; aluminum alloy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As one of the lightest engineering metallic materials, magnesium alloys have become a significant area of research in the field of metal materials. In recent years, more and more reseachers have engaged in reseach about magnesium alloys and their processing technologies.

This Special Issue, titled Preparation and Processing Technology of Advanced Magnesium Alloys, will focus on the newly developments of magnesium alloys. Specifically, it will cover new Mg alloys, the technical of casting, deformation technologies, microstructure characterization, and mechanical and functional properties.

Prof. Dr. Ruizhi Wu
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • magnesium alloy
  • microstructure
  • mechanical properties
  • functional properties
  • processing technology

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 3660 KiB  
Article
Study on the Optimization of the Preparation Process of ZM5 Magnesium Alloy Micro-Arc Oxidation Hard Ceramic Coatings and Coatings Properties
by Bingchun Jiang, Zejun Wen, Peiwen Wang, Xinting Huang, Xin Yang, Minghua Yuan and Jianjun Xi
Metals 2024, 14(5), 594; https://doi.org/10.3390/met14050594 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 476
Abstract
Hard ceramic coatings were successfully prepared on the surface of ZM5 magnesium alloy by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) technology in silicate and aluminate electrolytes, respectively. The optimization of hard ceramic coatings prepared in these electrolyte systems was investigated through an orthogonal experimental design. The [...] Read more.
Hard ceramic coatings were successfully prepared on the surface of ZM5 magnesium alloy by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) technology in silicate and aluminate electrolytes, respectively. The optimization of hard ceramic coatings prepared in these electrolyte systems was investigated through an orthogonal experimental design. The microstructure, elemental composition, phase composition, and tribological properties of the coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and tribological testing equipment. The results show that the growth of the hard ceramic coatings is significantly influenced by the different electrolyte systems. Coatings prepared from both systems have shown good wear resistance, with the aluminate electrolyte system being superior to the silicate system in performance. The optimized formulation for the silicate electrolyte solution has been determined to be sodium silicate at 8 g/L, sodium dihydrogen phosphate at 0.2 g/L, sodium tetraborate at 2 g/L, and potassium hydroxide at 1 g/L. The optimized formulation for the aluminate electrolyte solution consists of sodium aluminate at 5 g/L, sodium fluoride at 3 g/L, sodium citrate at 3 g/L, and sodium hydroxide at 0.5 g/L. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparation and Processing Technology of Advanced Magnesium Alloys)
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14 pages, 10752 KiB  
Article
Improving the Corrosion Resistance of Micro-Arc Oxidization Film on AZ91D Mg Alloy through Silanization
by Junchi Liu, Hang Yin, Zhengyi Xu, Yawei Shao and Yanqiu Wang
Metals 2024, 14(5), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/met14050569 - 12 May 2024
Viewed by 807
Abstract
The presence of inherent micro-pores and micro-cracks in the micro-arc oxidation (MAO) film of Mg alloys is a key factor contributing to substrate corrosion. A composite film layer with high corrosion resistance was achieved through silanizing the micro-arc oxidation film. The corrosion performance [...] Read more.
The presence of inherent micro-pores and micro-cracks in the micro-arc oxidation (MAO) film of Mg alloys is a key factor contributing to substrate corrosion. A composite film layer with high corrosion resistance was achieved through silanizing the micro-arc oxidation film. The corrosion performance of the MAO films treated with various silane coupling agents was assessed through morphological characterization and electrochemical tests. SEM graphs depicted that the silane film can effectively seal the defects existing in micro-arc oxidation film, and electrochemical tests indicated the significant corrosion resistance improvement of MAO film after silanization treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparation and Processing Technology of Advanced Magnesium Alloys)
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10 pages, 4412 KiB  
Article
Cold Formability of Twin-Roll Cast, Rolled and Annealed Mg Strips
by Madlen Ullmann, Kristina Kittner and Ulrich Prahl
Metals 2024, 14(1), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/met14010121 - 19 Jan 2024
Viewed by 923
Abstract
This study investigates the cold formability of twin-roll cast and rolled magnesium strips, specifically focusing on AZ31 and ZAX210 alloys. The aim is to assess the suitability of these alloys for various forming processes. The mechanical properties and formability characteristics of the strips [...] Read more.
This study investigates the cold formability of twin-roll cast and rolled magnesium strips, specifically focusing on AZ31 and ZAX210 alloys. The aim is to assess the suitability of these alloys for various forming processes. The mechanical properties and formability characteristics of the strips were thoroughly examined to provide insights into their potential applications in transportation industries such as automotive and aerospace. The AZ31 and ZAX210 alloys were subjected to twin-roll casting and rolling processes to produce thin strips. The resulting strips were then evaluated for their cold formability. The results indicate that both alloys exhibit favourable cold formability. The ZAX210 alloy, in particular, demonstrates medium strengths with an average tensile strength of approximately 240 MPa at room temperature. The 0.2% proof stress values range between 136 MPa and 159 MPa, depending on the sampling direction. The total elongation values vary from 28% in the transverse direction to 32% at a 45° angle, indicating excellent ductility. Comparing the two alloys, the AZ31 alloy shows higher strengths due to its higher aluminium content. However, it also exhibits a more pronounced directional dependence of mechanical properties due to the formation of a strong basal texture during hot rolling. The transverse direction experiences reduced total elongation compared to the rolling direction, achieving only about 50% of the total elongation. The average Erichsen Index recorded for AZ31 and ZAX210 strips were 4.9 mm and 7.1 mm, respectively. The ZAX210 strip displays superior formability, which can be attributed to the fine-grained microstructure and the texture softening resulting from the weakening of the basal texture intensity and the splitting of the basal pole towards the rolling direction. In conclusion, the investigated twin-roll cast, rolled and annealed AZ31 and ZAX210 magnesium strips exhibit promising cold formability characteristics. The findings of this study contribute to the understanding of their mechanical behaviour and can guide the selection and optimisation of these alloys for various forming applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparation and Processing Technology of Advanced Magnesium Alloys)
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17 pages, 10993 KiB  
Article
Structure, Phase Composition, and Mechanical Properties of ZK51A Alloy with AlN Nanoparticles after Heat Treatment
by Anastasia A. Akhmadieva, Anton P. Khrustalev, Mikhail V. Grigoriev, Ilya A. Zhukov and Alexander B. Vorozhtsov
Metals 2024, 14(1), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/met14010071 - 8 Jan 2024
Viewed by 859
Abstract
The paper studies the influence of the content of aluminum nitride nanoparticles on the structure and mechanical properties of the ZK51A magnesium alloy. The microstructure investigations with optical and electron microscopy show that 1 wt.% AlN promotes the best grain refinement and size [...] Read more.
The paper studies the influence of the content of aluminum nitride nanoparticles on the structure and mechanical properties of the ZK51A magnesium alloy. The microstructure investigations with optical and electron microscopy show that 1 wt.% AlN promotes the best grain refinement and size distribution. According to tensile strength testing of the ZK51A alloy, grain refinement is not a dominating mechanism in the property improvement of the alloy after heat treatment. The maximum values of mechanical parameters are achieved at the lowest (0.1 wt.%) content of aluminum nitride. The main mechanism of mechanical characteristics increase with the addition of AlN nanoparticles is dispersion hardening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparation and Processing Technology of Advanced Magnesium Alloys)
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23 pages, 11305 KiB  
Article
Influence of Aluminum Content on the Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, and Hot Deformation Behavior of Mg-Al-Zn Alloys
by Marie Moses, Madlen Ullmann and Ulrich Prahl
Metals 2023, 13(9), 1599; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13091599 - 15 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 972
Abstract
This study compares AZ91 with AZ31 to investigate the influence of a higher Al content on the resulting microstructure, mechanical properties, and hot deformation behavior. While AZ31 exhibits a globular structure after casting, AZ91 shows a fully developed dendritic structure due to the [...] Read more.
This study compares AZ91 with AZ31 to investigate the influence of a higher Al content on the resulting microstructure, mechanical properties, and hot deformation behavior. While AZ31 exhibits a globular structure after casting, AZ91 shows a fully developed dendritic structure due to the promotion of dendrites. A heat treatment helped to homogenize AZ31, dissolved a large part of the Mg-Al precipitations in AZ91, and formed globular grains in AZ91. Due to the impact of Al on constitutional supercooling, AZ91 exhibits smaller grains than AZ31. Because of the strengthening of the solid solution, AZ91 also exhibits higher strength and hardness compared to AZ31. Cylindric compression tests of the heat-treated samples were conducted at different temperatures (300–400 °C) and strain rates (0.1 × 10 s−1). The main dynamic recrystallization (DRX) mechanisms in AZ31 and AZ91 are twinning-induced DRX and discontinuous DRX. It was detected that Mg17Al12 precipitates at the grain boundaries in AZ91, which influences the grain size through pinning. Similar results could be conducted in rolling trials. Although both alloys have similar grain sizes after rolling, AZ91 exhibits higher strengths, while AZ31 shows higher ductility. This can be explained by the solid solution strengthening in AZ91 and less brittle Mg17Al12 precipitations in AZ31. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparation and Processing Technology of Advanced Magnesium Alloys)
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13 pages, 7793 KiB  
Article
Simultaneous Improvement of Strength, Ductility and Damping Capacity of Single β-Phase Mg–Li–Al–Zn Alloys
by Xinhe Yang, Yang Jin, Ruizhi Wu, Jiahao Wang, Dan Wang, Xiaochun Ma, Legan Hou, Vladimir Serebryany, Iya I. Tashlykova-Bushkevich and Sergey Ya. Betsofen
Metals 2023, 13(1), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13010159 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1571
Abstract
Body-centered cubic (BCC) Mg–Li alloy can be effectively strengthened by with the addition of Al and Zn. However, adding excessive amounts result in reduced mechanical properties and damping capacity of the alloy during subsequent heat treatment and deformation. The effects of solution-hot rolling-aging [...] Read more.
Body-centered cubic (BCC) Mg–Li alloy can be effectively strengthened by with the addition of Al and Zn. However, adding excessive amounts result in reduced mechanical properties and damping capacity of the alloy during subsequent heat treatment and deformation. The effects of solution-hot rolling-aging on the mechanical properties and damping capacity of LAZ1333 alloy and LAZ1366 alloy were studied. The solid solution strengthening greatly increases the hardness of the alloy, but the ductility is extremely poor. The AlLi softening phase precipitated during the subsequent hot rolling and aging process greatly improves the ductility of the alloy, but the excess precipitation of in the AlLi softening phase and the solid solution of excess Zn element are not conducive to the substantial improvement of the strength and ductility of the alloy. Excessive addition of alloying elements is detrimental to the damping capacity of the alloy, but the damping capacity of the alloy can be significantly improved by depleting the number of solute atoms through subsequent ageing treatments. The UTS and FE of as-cast LAZ 1333 alloy are 111 MPa and 16.9%, respectively. The as-aged LAZ1333 alloy has the best mechanical properties and damping capacity, and the UTS and FE are increased by 65.8% and 89.3%, respectively, compared to the as-cast alloy, and the damping capacity increased from 0.011 to 0.015. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparation and Processing Technology of Advanced Magnesium Alloys)
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12 pages, 5481 KiB  
Article
BCC-Based Mg–Li Alloy with Nano-Precipitated MgZn2 Phase Prepared by Multidirectional Cryogenic Rolling
by Qing Ji, Xiaochun Ma, Ruizhi Wu, Siyuan Jin, Jinghuai Zhang and Legan Hou
Metals 2022, 12(12), 2114; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12122114 - 8 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1085
Abstract
In this study, we deformed the single β phase Mg–Li alloy, Mg–16Li–4Zn–1Er (LZE1641), with conventional rolling (R) and multi-directional rolling (MDR), both at cryogenic temperature. Results showed that the nano-precipitation phase MgZn2 appeared in the alloy after MDR, but this phenomenon was [...] Read more.
In this study, we deformed the single β phase Mg–Li alloy, Mg–16Li–4Zn–1Er (LZE1641), with conventional rolling (R) and multi-directional rolling (MDR), both at cryogenic temperature. Results showed that the nano-precipitation phase MgZn2 appeared in the alloy after MDR, but this phenomenon was not present in the alloy after R. The finite element simulation result showed that the different deformation modes changed the stress distribution inside the alloy, which affected the microstructures and the motion law of the solute atoms. The high-density and dispersively distributed MgZn2 particles with a size of about 35 nm were able to significantly inhibit the grain boundary migration. They further hindered the dislocation movement and consolidated the dislocation strengthening and fine-grain strengthening effects. Compared with the compressive strength after R (273 MPa), the alloy compressive strength was improved by 21% after MDR (331 MPa). After 100 °C compression, the MgZn2 remained stable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparation and Processing Technology of Advanced Magnesium Alloys)
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16 pages, 8582 KiB  
Article
Research on Dynamic Marine Atmospheric Corrosion Behavior of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy
by Ying Wang, Weichen Xu, Xiutong Wang, Quantong Jiang, Yantao Li, Yanliang Huang and Lihui Yang
Metals 2022, 12(11), 1886; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12111886 - 4 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1453
Abstract
The dynamic marine atmospheric corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy was investigated in situ exposed on the deck of marine scientific research vessel for 1 year. The marine scientific research vessel carried out five voyages from the coast of China to the western [...] Read more.
The dynamic marine atmospheric corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy was investigated in situ exposed on the deck of marine scientific research vessel for 1 year. The marine scientific research vessel carried out five voyages from the coast of China to the western Pacific Ocean, while the navigation track and environmental data were collected and analyzed. The corrosion rate and characteristics were evaluated by using weight loss tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrochemical measurements. The corrosion rate from weight loss values was 52.23 μm∙y−1 after exposure for 1 year, which was several times higher than that of the static field exposure test in marine atmospheric environment of other reported literature. The main corrosion products were Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·4H2O, MgCO3·3H2O and Mg2(OH)3Cl·4H2O. The corrosion was initiated from pitting corrosion and evolved into general corrosion gradually. The serious corrosion maybe due to the harsh corrosive environment with alternating changes in temperature and relative humidity caused by multiple longitude and latitude changes, and particularly high deposition rate of chloride during voyage, which was nearly twenty times that on the coast of China. This study provides effective data for the application of magnesium alloy in shipboard aircraft and other equipment, and provides a reference for indoor simulation experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparation and Processing Technology of Advanced Magnesium Alloys)
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14 pages, 27928 KiB  
Article
Evolution of the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheets during Multi-Pass Lowered-Temperature Rolling
by Qing Miao, Lantao Zhu, Wenke Wang, Zhihao Wang, Bin Shao, Wenzhen Chen, Yang Yu and Wencong Zhang
Metals 2022, 12(11), 1811; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12111811 - 26 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1583
Abstract
AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets with 2 mm thickness were successfully fabricated by multi-pass lowered-temperature rolling. The evolution of the microstructure, texture, and mechanical properties during the rolling process was investigated. Based on the effect of multiple dynamic recrystallization, multi-pass lowered-temperature rolling not only [...] Read more.
AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets with 2 mm thickness were successfully fabricated by multi-pass lowered-temperature rolling. The evolution of the microstructure, texture, and mechanical properties during the rolling process was investigated. Based on the effect of multiple dynamic recrystallization, multi-pass lowered-temperature rolling not only refined the grain size obviously but also markedly improved the microstructure homogeneity. The resulting sheets had the optimal microstructure morphology with an average grain size of 4.38 μm. For the texture evolution, the stress state of the rolling process made the (0002) basal plane gradually rotate toward the rolling plane. However, the activation of non-basal slips due to the higher rolling temperature slightly rotated the (0002) basal plane point to the rolling direction (RD). As a result, the grain refinement strengthening and the texture strengthening together increased the yield stress to 202 MPa in the transverse direction (TD) and 189.8 MPa in the RD. Importantly, the resulting sheet concurrently exhibited excellent fracture elongation, about 38% in the TD and 39.2% in the RD. This was mainly ascribed to the finer grain size, giving rise to a significant effect of grain boundary sliding and the activation amount of non-basal slips. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparation and Processing Technology of Advanced Magnesium Alloys)
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