Special Issue "Superparamagnetic Materials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Advanced Composites".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 July 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Szczepan Zapotoczny Website E-Mail
Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 2, 30-387 Krakow, Poland
Interests: polymeric materials; superparamagnetic nanoparticles; polymer brushes; biopolymers; drug delivery systems
Guest Editor
Prof. Czesław Kapusta Website E-Mail
AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
Interests: magnetic nanomaterials; magnetic properties; Mössbauer spectroscopy; nanocomposites

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Superparamagnetic materials, composed of very small magnetic grains or nanoparticles, have been gaining increasing interest, especially for biomedical technologies. The interest has been stimulated by their numerous promising applications, such as in anticancer magnetic hyperthermia, magnetofection, magnetic resonance imaging, and also in the form of ferrofluids that may be used for liquid seals, efficient heat transfer and damping.

While various forms of iron oxide nanoparticles have been most commonly regarded as superparamagnetic materials also other doped metal oxides or zero valent metal nanoparticles have been found to exhibit superior superparamagnetic properties. Moreover, formation of functional coatings, as well as embedding the superparamagnetic nanoparticles into matrices, may be used to enhance or modify their properties for a given application.

In this Special Issue, we are calling for papers that report on the synthesis and characterization of superparamagnetic materials focusing on recent advances from fundamental research to applications. Original papers, as well as critical reviews, are very welcome.

It is our pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript for this Special Issue.

Prof. Szczepan Zapotoczny
Prof. Czesław Kapusta
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • superparamagnetic nanoparticles
  • magnetic nanocomposites
  • magnetic hyperthermia
  • magnetic resonance imaging

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Dynamics of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles with Various Polymeric Coatings
Materials 2019, 12(11), 1793; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12111793 - 03 Jun 2019
Abstract
In this article, the results of a study of the magnetic dynamics of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) with chitosan and polyethylene glycol (PEG) coatings are reported. The materials were prepared by the co-precipitation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering [...] Read more.
In this article, the results of a study of the magnetic dynamics of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) with chitosan and polyethylene glycol (PEG) coatings are reported. The materials were prepared by the co-precipitation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering and scanning transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that the cores contain maghemite, and their hydrodynamic diameters vary from 49 nm for PEG-coated to 200 nm for chitosan-coated particles. The magnetic dynamics of the nanoparticles in terms of the function of temperature was studied with magnetic susceptometry and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Their superparamagnetic fluctuations frequencies, determined from the fits of Mössbauer spectra, range from tens to hundreds of megahertz at room temperature and mostly decrease in the applied magnetic field. For water suspensions of nanoparticles, maxima are observed in the absorption part of magnetic susceptibility and they shift to higher temperatures with increasing excitation frequency. A step-like decrease of the susceptibility occurs at freezing, and from that, the Brown’s and Néel’s contributions are extracted and compared for nanoparticles differing in core sizes and types of coating. The results are analyzed and discussed with respect to the tailoring of the dynamic properties of these nanoparticle materials for requirements related to the characteristic frequency ranges of MRI and electromagnetic field hyperthermia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superparamagnetic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
One-Step Synthesis of Long Term Stable Superparamagnetic Colloid of Zinc Ferrite Nanorods in Water
Materials 2019, 12(7), 1048; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12071048 - 29 Mar 2019
Abstract
Synthesis of spinel zinc ferrite ultrafine needle-like particles that exhibit exceptional stability in aqueous dispersion (without any surfactants) and superparamagnetic response is reported. Comprehensive structural and magnetic characterization of the particles is performed using X-ray and electron diffraction, small angle X-ray scattering, transmission [...] Read more.
Synthesis of spinel zinc ferrite ultrafine needle-like particles that exhibit exceptional stability in aqueous dispersion (without any surfactants) and superparamagnetic response is reported. Comprehensive structural and magnetic characterization of the particles is performed using X-ray and electron diffraction, small angle X-ray scattering, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, vibrating sample magnetometry, Mössbauer spectroscopy and high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy. It reveals nearly stoichiometric ZnFe2O4 nanorods with mixed spinel structure and unimodal size distribution of mean length of 20 nm and diameter of 5 nm. Measurements performed in aqueous and dried form shows that particles’ properties are significantly changed as a result of drying. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superparamagnetic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparative Study on the Direct and Pulsed Current Electrodeposition of Cobalt-Substituted Hydroxyapatite for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Application
Materials 2019, 12(1), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12010116 - 31 Dec 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Hydroxyapatite has excellent biocompatibility and osteo-conductivity and, as the main inorganic component of human bones and teeth, is commonly used for bone repair. Its original characteristics can be changed by metal ion substitution. Cobalt ions can act as hypoxia-inducible factors and accelerate bone [...] Read more.
Hydroxyapatite has excellent biocompatibility and osteo-conductivity and, as the main inorganic component of human bones and teeth, is commonly used for bone repair. Its original characteristics can be changed by metal ion substitution. Cobalt ions can act as hypoxia-inducible factors and accelerate bone repair. At the same time, cobalt has paramagnetic properties and is often used in the study of medical imaging and target drugs. Through the introduction of cobalt ions, the unique hydroxyapatite has better biological activity and positioning of medical images. Herein, cobalt-substituted hydroxyapatite (CoHA) was synthesized on the surface of a titanium plate by electrochemical deposition and changes in the power output mode to explore the impact on CoHA. Electrochemical deposition with a pulse current significantly improved the productivity and uniformity of CoHA on the surface of titanium. CoHA show paramagnetic characteristics by a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). Resulting smaller particle size and circular morphology improves the magnetic strength of CoHA. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of CoHA showed significant image contrast effect at low concentrations. The calculated particle relaxation rate was higher than other common MRI contrast agents. Biocompatibility of CoHA powder was evaluated using the human osteosarcoma cell line (MG63) which confirmed that CoHA is not cytotoxic and can promote cell growth and extracellular matrix mineralization. With the release of cobalt ions, CoHA was found to be significantly good in repression E. coli indicating about than 95% reduction in bacterial growth. The as-synthesized CoHA has a low degree of crystallinity, highly sensitive image contrast effect, and good bioactivity, and may have potential applications in bone repair and MRI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superparamagnetic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
A Hybrid System for Magnetic Hyperthermia and Drug Delivery: SPION Functionalized by Curcumin Conjugate
Materials 2018, 11(12), 2388; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11122388 - 27 Nov 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Cancer is among the leading causes of death worldwide, thus there is a constant demand for new solutions, which may increase the effectiveness of anti-cancer therapies. We have designed and successfully obtained a novel, bifunctional, hybrid system composed of colloidally stabilized superparamagnetic iron [...] Read more.
Cancer is among the leading causes of death worldwide, thus there is a constant demand for new solutions, which may increase the effectiveness of anti-cancer therapies. We have designed and successfully obtained a novel, bifunctional, hybrid system composed of colloidally stabilized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) and curcumin containing water-soluble conjugate with potential application in anticancer hyperthermia and as nanocarriers of curcumin. The obtained nanoparticulate system was thoroughly studied in respect to the size, morphology, surface charge, magnetic properties as well as some biological functions. The results revealed that the obtained nanoparticles, ca. 50 nm in diameter, were the agglomerates of primary particles with the magnetic, iron oxide cores of ca. 13 nm, separated by a thin layer of the applied cationic derivative of chitosan. These agglomerates were further coated with a thin layer of the sodium alginate conjugate of curcumin and the presence of both polymers was confirmed using thermogravimetry. The system was also proven to be applicable in magnetic hyperthermia induced by the oscillating magnetic field. A high specific absorption rate (SAR) of 280 [W/g] was registered. The nanoparticles were shown to be effectively uptaken by model cells. They were found also to be nontoxic in the therapeutically relevant concentration in in vitro studies. The obtained results indicate the high application potential of the new hybrid system in combination of magnetic hyperthermia with delivery of curcumin active agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superparamagnetic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Magnetic Nanoparticles on the Focused Ultrasound Hyperthermia
Materials 2018, 11(9), 1607; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11091607 - 04 Sep 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Ultrasound hyperthermia is a medical treatment used to increase temperature of tissues. It can be used independently or as a supportive method for an anticancer treatment. The therapeutic efficacy of focused ultrasound hyperthermia can be improved using sonosensitizers, nanoparticles enhancing the attenuation and [...] Read more.
Ultrasound hyperthermia is a medical treatment used to increase temperature of tissues. It can be used independently or as a supportive method for an anticancer treatment. The therapeutic efficacy of focused ultrasound hyperthermia can be improved using sonosensitizers, nanoparticles enhancing the attenuation and dissipation of acoustic energy. As sonosensitizers, we propose magnetic nanoparticles owing to their biodegradability, biocompatibility, and simple positioning in tissues using a magnetic field. Focused ultrasound hyperthermia studies were performed using tissue-mimicking phantoms. Temperature changes were measured at various ultrasound powers and distances from the center of the ultrasound focus. Specific absorption rate (SAR) values, describing the power deposition in the tissues during the hyperthermia treatment, were evaluated for the center of the focus point and for various distances from it. The results show that the addition of nanoparticles increases the SAR almost two times compared to that for the pure phantom. The highest SAR is obtained in the ultrasound focus; it decreases with the increase of the distance from the focus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superparamagnetic Materials)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles—Current and Prospective Medical Applications
Materials 2019, 12(4), 617; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12040617 - 19 Feb 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
The recent, fast development of nanotechnology is reflected in the medical sciences. Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) are an excellent example. Thanks to their superparamagnetic properties, SPIONs have found application in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and magnetic hyperthermia. Unlike bulk iron, SPIONs do [...] Read more.
The recent, fast development of nanotechnology is reflected in the medical sciences. Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) are an excellent example. Thanks to their superparamagnetic properties, SPIONs have found application in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and magnetic hyperthermia. Unlike bulk iron, SPIONs do not have remnant magnetization in the absence of the external magnetic field; therefore, a precise remote control over their action is possible. This makes them also useful as a component of the advanced drug delivery systems. Due to their easy synthesis, biocompatibility, multifunctionality, and possibility of further surface modification with various chemical agents, SPIONs could support many fields of medicine. SPIONs have also some disadvantages, such as their high uptake by macrophages. Nevertheless, based on the ongoing studies, they seem to be very promising in oncological therapy (especially in the brain, breast, prostate, and pancreatic tumors). The main goal of our paper is, therefore, to present the basic properties of SPIONs, to discuss their current role in medicine, and to review their applications in order to inspire future developments of new, improved SPION systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superparamagnetic Materials)
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