Special Issue "Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Construction and Building Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Sandra Erkens
Website
Guest Editor
1. Professor, Pavement Engineering Section, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology (TUDelft), the Netherlands
2. Principal specialist, Rijkswaterstaat, Ministry of Infrastructure and Water Management, the Netherlands
Interests: testing & modeling of pavement materials; pavement materials and structures; asphalt concrete; road engineering materials
Prof. Dr. Yue Xiao
Website
Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology (WUT), China
Interests: solid waste recycling in road engineering; road and pavement materials; asphalt pavement maintenance
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mingliang Li

Guest Editor
Research Institute of Highway Ministry of Transport (RIOH), China
Interests: porous asphalt pavement; pavements design for sponge city; recycling of pavement materials; pavement maintenance; noise reduction pavement
Prof. Dr. Tao Ma
Website
Guest Editor
School of Transportation, Southeast University (SEU), China
Interests: crumb rubber modified asphalt; recycling of pavement materials; pavement structure design; cold mix asphalt
Dr. Xueyan Liu
Website
Guest Editor
Pavement Engineering Section, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology (TUDelft), the Netherlands
Interests: constitutive modeling; numerical modeling; material experimental characterization of pavement materials; static and dynamic response of reinforcing systems
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleague, 

Pavement materials comprise a substantial proportion of natural resources used for building construction. However, there are many environmental concerns related to their applications and service life. Firstly, a huge amount of energy is consumed during their manufacture, transportation, and application. Secondly, the application of pavement materials will generate PM, VOC, and CO2. Thirdly, the aging characteristics of pavement materials will result in a reduction of service life, followed by energy and resource consumption, and finally aggravate the damage to the environment. These drawbacks of traditional pavement materials require sustainable and renewable paving materials and technologies, for instance, modified pavement materials with longer service life. Recycling technologies can save natural resources. Warm mix and cold mix can decrease the application temperature of asphalt mixture, resulting in less VOC emissions. All these innovative developments are becoming more and more important and attractive for researchers and practitioners in the road industry.

The aim of this Special Issue of Materials is to attract articles on new materials and innovative technologies for achieving sustainable and renewable pavement materials. We welcome original research or review articles with a clear application focus in these areas.

Prof. Dr. Sandra Erkens
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yue Xiao
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mingliang Li
Prof. Dr. Tao Ma
Dr. Xueyan Liu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Recycling of pavement materials
  • Warm & cold mix asphalt materials
  • Green & environmental-friendly pavement materials
  • Functional pavement materials
  • Self-healing pavement materials
  • Pavement maintenance technologies
  • Eco-efficiency pavement materials

Published Papers (41 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials
Materials 2020, 13(7), 1575; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13071575 - 29 Mar 2020
Abstract
This Special Issue “Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials” has been proposed and organized as a means to present recent developments in the field of environmentally-friendly designed pavement materials. For this reason, articles included in this special issue relate to different aspects of pavement materials, [...] Read more.
This Special Issue “Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials” has been proposed and organized as a means to present recent developments in the field of environmentally-friendly designed pavement materials. For this reason, articles included in this special issue relate to different aspects of pavement materials, from industry solid waste recycling to pavement materials recycling, from pavement materials modification to asphalt performance characterization, from pavement defect detection to pavement maintenance, and from asphalt pavement to cement concrete pavement, as highlighted in this editorial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Study on the Phase Transition Characteristics of Asphalt Mixture for Stress Absorbing Membrane Interlayer
Materials 2020, 13(2), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13020474 - 19 Jan 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Asphalt mixtures used in stress absorbing membrane interlayers (SAMIs) play a significant role in improving the performance of asphalt pavement. To investigate the rheological properties and phase transition characteristics of asphalt mixtures used in SAMI with temperature changes, twenty-seven candidate mixtures with different [...] Read more.
Asphalt mixtures used in stress absorbing membrane interlayers (SAMIs) play a significant role in improving the performance of asphalt pavement. To investigate the rheological properties and phase transition characteristics of asphalt mixtures used in SAMI with temperature changes, twenty-seven candidate mixtures with different binders, gradation types and binder contents were selected in this research. During the study, dynamic mechanical analysis method was employed to evaluate their temperature-dependent properties and a series of wide-range temperature sweep tests were conducted under a sinusoidal loading. Some critical points and key indexes from the testing curves such as glass transition temperature (Tg) can be obtained. Test results show that phase transition characteristics can better reflect the rheological properties of asphalt mixtures at different temperatures. Crumb rubber modified asphalt mixtures (AR) provide a better performance at both high and low temperatures. Additionally, the range of AR asphalt mixtures’ effective functioning temperature ΔT is wider, and the slope K value is greater than the others, which indicates that AR asphalt mixtures are less sensitive to temperature changes. Additionally, gradation type and asphalt content also influence the properties: finer gradation and more asphalt content have a good effect on the low-temperature performance of the asphalt mixtures; while mixtures with a coarser gradation and less asphalt content perform better at high temperature and they are less sensitive to temperature changes. Finally, AR asphalt mixture is more suitable to be applied in the SAMI due to its phase transition characteristics from this method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
The Improvement of Moisture Resistance and Organic Compatibility of SrAl2O4: Eu2+, Dy3+ Persistent Phosphors Coated with Silica–Polymer Hybrid Shell
Materials 2020, 13(2), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13020426 - 16 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The existing road surface marking with poor visibility at night results in traffic safety hazards in insufficient lighting roads. This study aims to prepare the dedicated aluminate-based persistent phosphors considering the integrated pavement environment, as the first step to achieve the durable luminescent [...] Read more.
The existing road surface marking with poor visibility at night results in traffic safety hazards in insufficient lighting roads. This study aims to prepare the dedicated aluminate-based persistent phosphors considering the integrated pavement environment, as the first step to achieve the durable luminescent road surface marking. SrAl2O4: Eu2+, Dy3+ persistent phosphors coated with silica–polymer hybrid shell were prepared by chemical precipitation and sol-gel method to improve moisture resistance and organic compatibility. The optimum silane coupling agent type and dosage, the surfactant dosage, the optimum sodium silicate dosage, and the coating reaction time in silica shell and polymer shell coating were studied based on the moisture resistance test. The silica–polymer hybrid shell coating balances the organic compatibility and thermal stability as compared to the silica or polymer shell coating in the oil absorption test and thermogravimetric analysis. Ex-Em Spectra, XRD, and SEM method were used to characterize the persistent phosphors, indicating the preparation does not destroy the persistent phosphors. The outstanding durable properties of SrAl2O4: Eu2+, Dy3+ persistent phosphors coated with silica–polymer hybrid shell as shown in this research is crucial for its potential application in waterborne luminescent coatings of road surface marking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Performance Characterization of Semi-Flexible Composite Mixture
Materials 2020, 13(2), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13020342 - 11 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Semi-flexible composite mixture (SFCM) is developed based on a unique material design concept of pouring cement mortar into the voids formed by open graded asphalt mixture. It combines the flexibility of asphalt concrete and the stiffness of Portland cement concrete and has many [...] Read more.
Semi-flexible composite mixture (SFCM) is developed based on a unique material design concept of pouring cement mortar into the voids formed by open graded asphalt mixture. It combines the flexibility of asphalt concrete and the stiffness of Portland cement concrete and has many advantages comparing to conventional roadway paving materials. The main objective of this paper was to evaluate the engineering properties of SFCM and assess the constructability of the SFCM. A slab SFCM sample was fabricated in the laboratory to simulate the filling of cement mortar in the field. Performance testing was carried out by indirect tensile (IDT) test because it was found to be able to correlate with the field performance of asphalt mixtures at low, intermediate, and high temperatures. They were used in this study to evaluate the thermal cracking, fatigue, rutting, as well as moisture resistance of SFCM. A control hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixture was used to compare with the results of SFCM. Based on the testing results, it was found that the designed SFCM showed good filling capability of cement mortar. SFCM had higher dynamic modulus than the control HMA. It had good resistance to rutting and moisture damage. Based on fracture work, SFCM showed better resistance to thermal cracking while lower resistance to fatigue cracking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimizing Gradation Design for Ultra-Thin Wearing Course Asphalt
Materials 2020, 13(1), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13010189 - 02 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
In recent years, ultra-thin wearing course asphalt mixture has been widely used in the reconstruction of old road surfaces and the functional layer of new road surfaces due to its good road performance. To improve the rutting resistance of ultra-thin wearing course asphalt [...] Read more.
In recent years, ultra-thin wearing course asphalt mixture has been widely used in the reconstruction of old road surfaces and the functional layer of new road surfaces due to its good road performance. To improve the rutting resistance of ultra-thin wearing course asphalt mixture, this research presents an Ultra-thin Wearing Course-10 (UTWC-10) asphalt mixture with good high-temperature stability and skid resistance based on the Taylor system standard mesh specifications. The Course Aggregate Void Filling (CAVF) method is used to design the UTWC-10 asphalt mixture, which is compared with two other traditional ultra-thin wearing course asphalt mixtures on the basis of different laboratory performance tests. The high-temperature rutting test data shows that the rutting dynamic stability (DS) index of the UTWC-10 asphalt mixture is much higher than that of traditional wearing course asphalt mixtures, as it has better high-temperature stability. Moreover, anti-sliding performance attenuation tests are conducted by a coarse aggregate polishing machine. The wear test results show that the skid resistance of the UTWC-10 asphalt mixture is promising. The anti-sliding performance attenuation test can effectively reflect the skid resistance attenuation trend of asphalt pavement at the long-term vehicle load. It is verified that the designed UTWC-10 asphalt mixture shows excellent high-temperature rutting resistance and skid resistance, as well as better low temperature crack resistance and water stability than the traditional wearing course asphalt mixtures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Chemical and Rheological Evaluation of Aged Lignin-Modified Bitumen
Materials 2019, 12(24), 4176; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12244176 - 12 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
As bitumen oxidizes, material stiffening and embrittlement occur, and bitumen eventually cracks. The use of anti-oxidants, such as lignin, could be used to delay oxidative aging and to extend the lifetime of asphalt pavements. In this study, the chemical and rheological effect of [...] Read more.
As bitumen oxidizes, material stiffening and embrittlement occur, and bitumen eventually cracks. The use of anti-oxidants, such as lignin, could be used to delay oxidative aging and to extend the lifetime of asphalt pavements. In this study, the chemical and rheological effect of lignin on bitumen was evaluated by using a single dosage organsolv lignin (10 wt.% dosage). A pressure aging vessel (PAV) was used to simulate the long-term aging process after performing the standard short-term aging procedure, and the lignin-modified bituminous binders were characterized by an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and a dynamic shear rheometer (DSR). From the ESEM results, the uniform microstructure was observed, indicating that the addition of lignin did not affect the worm structure of bitumen. Based on the FTIR test results, lignin-modified bitumen showed that a lower number of carbonyl and sulfoxide compounds were generated after aging than for neat bitumen. Based on the linear amplitude sweep (LAS) results, the addition of lignin slightly reduced the fatigue life of bitumen. From the frequency sweep results, it showed that lignin in bitumen acts as a modifier since the physical interaction between lignin and bitumen predominantly affects the material rheology. Overall, lignin could be a promising anti-oxidant due to its economic and environmental benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Characteristics of Different Types of Basic Oxygen Furnace Slag Filler and its Influence on Properties of Asphalt Mastic
Materials 2019, 12(24), 4034; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12244034 - 04 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The fillers of ordinary and pyrolytic basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slag were selected to investigate the properties of their asphalt mastic. XRF (X-Ray Fluorescence) was used to analyze chemical composition of fillers. Meanwhile, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) and AIMS (Aggregate Image Measurement System) [...] Read more.
The fillers of ordinary and pyrolytic basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slag were selected to investigate the properties of their asphalt mastic. XRF (X-Ray Fluorescence) was used to analyze chemical composition of fillers. Meanwhile, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) and AIMS (Aggregate Image Measurement System) were utilized to explore meso-morphology, angularity and sphericity. Penetration, softening point and viscosity of asphalt mastic were discussed, while the rheological properties of asphalt mastic were studied by means of DSR (dynamic shear rheometer) and BBR (bending beam rheometer) tests. The experimental results show that chemical composition of different types of BOF slag is similar. The grinding energy consumption of pyrolytic BOF slag is higher than that of limestone and ordinary BOF slag. It is not recommended that pyrolytic BOF slag filler is produced by grinding process. The micro-texture structure of ordinary BOF slag filler is more abundant and their angularity index is about 15% higher than that of limestone filler. The stiffness modulus and rutting factor of asphalt mastic with ordinary BOF slag filler is higher than that of limestone filler. Meanwhile the incorporation of BOF slag filler will further reduce the low-temperature flow performance of asphalt mastic. The effect of pyrolytic BOF slag filler on the performance of asphalt mastic is less than that of ordinary BOF slag. Ordinary BOF slag filler can effectively improve high temperature anti-rutting stability of asphalt mixture. Ordinary BOF slag has a useful application prospect as filler in asphalt mixture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Determination of Construction Temperatures of Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen Mixture Based on CRMB Mastic
Materials 2019, 12(23), 3851; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12233851 - 22 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Crumb rubber modified bitumen (CRMB) has been widely used in pavement construction and provides an effective way to recycle waste tires and helps alleviate the “black pollution” problem. There are no current specifications regarding the appropriate mixing and compaction temperatures of the CRMB [...] Read more.
Crumb rubber modified bitumen (CRMB) has been widely used in pavement construction and provides an effective way to recycle waste tires and helps alleviate the “black pollution” problem. There are no current specifications regarding the appropriate mixing and compaction temperatures of the CRMB mixture. There is a direct relationship between the mixing and the compaction temperatures of the CRMB mixture and the viscosity of the CRMB mastic. In this study, we first prepared CRMB using crumb rubber powder and penetration grade 70 neat bitumen, then prepared the CRMB mastic using CRMB and fillers (limestone mineral powder and cement). Finally, we used the CRMB mastic and aggregate to make mixture specimens. The best air void of the specimens was subsequently used to demarcate the viscosity of the CRMB mastic, and the construction temperatures (including the mixing temperature and the compaction temperature) were calculated based on the viscosity of the CRMB mastic from the viscosity–temperature curves. Test results indicated that the best viscosity of the CRMB mastic was 2.7 ± 0.2 Pa·s and 3.9 ± 0.3 Pa·s that corresponded to the mixing and compaction temperatures, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Study on Compatibility and Rheological Properties of High-Viscosity Modified Asphalt Prepared from Low-Grade Asphalt
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3776; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223776 - 17 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
High-viscosity modified asphalt is mainly used as a binder for porous asphalt in China and Japan. In order to meet the demand for using porous asphalt under high temperature condition in Africa, high-viscosity asphalt made from low-grade matrix asphalt, which is commonly used [...] Read more.
High-viscosity modified asphalt is mainly used as a binder for porous asphalt in China and Japan. In order to meet the demand for using porous asphalt under high temperature condition in Africa, high-viscosity asphalt made from low-grade matrix asphalt, which is commonly used in Africa is investigated. Based on simulation of local climate in Africa, the suitable range of high viscosity additive content for different matrix asphalt was obtained by analyzing dynamic viscosity of the asphalt. Through PG high temperature grading, multi-stress repeated creep, accelerated fatigue, temperature sweep and other tests, changes of high temperature, anti-fatigue and anti-shear indicators before and after modification were compared and analyzed and effects of different matrix asphalt were also studied. Finally, considering engineering requirements, mixing and compaction temperatures of various high-viscosity modified asphalt were determined through study of viscosity-temperature characteristics. This research provides a support for preparation of high-viscosity modified asphalt and porous asphalt mixture by using low grade asphalt. The research achievements can help to guide the material design and application of porous asphalt in Africa and other high temperature areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Rheological Properties, Compatibility, and Storage Stability of SBS Latex-Modified Asphalt
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3683; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223683 - 08 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
A styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) latex modifier can be used for asphalt modification due to the fact of its energy-saving, construction convenience, and economic advantages. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of asphalt type and SBS latex dosage on the rheological [...] Read more.
A styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) latex modifier can be used for asphalt modification due to the fact of its energy-saving, construction convenience, and economic advantages. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of asphalt type and SBS latex dosage on the rheological properties, compatibility, and storage stability of asphalt through temperature and frequency sweep, steady-state flow, multiple stress creep and recovery (MSCR) tests, Cole-Cole plots and thermal storage tests. The results indicated that high SBS latex content is beneficial for improving anti-rutting, anti-fatigue, viscous flow resistance, and elastic recovery abilities of modified asphalt. The chemical composition of asphalt had a significant effect on the properties of the SBS latex-modified asphalt. High asphaltenes and low resins were favorable to enhancing anti-rutting and recovery properties but weakened the anti-fatigue, compatibility, and storage stability of modified asphalt. Furthermore, compared to SBS particle-modified asphalt, SBS latex-modified asphalt had greater rutting and fatigue resistance. However, SBS latex-modified asphalt had some disadvantages in compatibility and storage stability. Comprehensively considering the balance of viscoelastic properties, compatibility, and storage stability of SBS latex-modified asphalt, the mixing dosage of SBS latex modifier is recommended at 4.0 wt% which could feasibly replace SBS particle in asphalt modification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Aggregate Mesostructure on Permanent Deformation of Asphalt Mixture Using Three-Dimensional Discrete Element Modeling
Materials 2019, 12(21), 3601; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12213601 - 02 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
This paper investigated the effects of aggregate mesostructures on permanent deformation behavior of an asphalt mixture using the three-dimensional (3D) discrete element method (DEM). A 3D discrete element (DE) model of an asphalt mixture composed of coarse aggregates, asphalt mastic, and air voids [...] Read more.
This paper investigated the effects of aggregate mesostructures on permanent deformation behavior of an asphalt mixture using the three-dimensional (3D) discrete element method (DEM). A 3D discrete element (DE) model of an asphalt mixture composed of coarse aggregates, asphalt mastic, and air voids was developed. Mesomechanical models representing the interactions among the components of asphalt mixture were assigned. Based on the mesomechanical modeling, the uniaxial static load creep tests were simulated using the prepared models, and effects of aggregate angularity, orientation, surface texture, and distribution on the permanent deformation behavior of the asphalt mixtures were analyzed. It was proven that good aggregate angularity had a positive effect on the permanent deformation performance of the asphalt mixtures, especially when approximate cubic aggregates were used. Aggregate packing was more stable when the aggregate orientations tended to be horizontal, which improved the permanent deformation performance of the asphalt mixture. The influence of orientations of 4.75 mm size aggregates on the permanent deformation behavior of the asphalt mixture was significant. Use of aggregates with good surface texture benefitted the permanent deformation performance of the asphalt mixture. Additionally, the non-uniform distribution of aggregates had a negative impact on the permanent deformation performance of the asphalt mixtures, especially when aggregates were distributed non-uniformly in the vertical direction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Study of the Self-Healing Performance of Semi-Flexible Pavement Materials Grouted with Engineered Cementitious Composites Mortar based on a Non-Standard Test
Materials 2019, 12(21), 3488; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12213488 - 24 Oct 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Semi-flexible pavement (SFP) materials, with their characteristics of good high temperature stability, strong durability, and lower cost, are suitable for heavy-duty roads, but their cracking problem has hindered the development and popularization of this kind of pavement to a certain extent. In this [...] Read more.
Semi-flexible pavement (SFP) materials, with their characteristics of good high temperature stability, strong durability, and lower cost, are suitable for heavy-duty roads, but their cracking problem has hindered the development and popularization of this kind of pavement to a certain extent. In this study, engineered cementitious composites (ECC) were used to form ECC-SFP materials. The self-healing properties of ECC-SFP materials with three kinds of voids of matrix asphalt mixtures were studied. The test results showed that the fluidity and strength of the ECC mortars met the specification requirements when the water–cement ratio was 0.23 and the ECC fiber dosage was 1–2%. The flexural strength of ECC mortar is better than that of ordinary mortar. The higher the ECC fiber dosage, the higher the flexural strength. Increasing the void of the matrix asphalt mixture and the amount of ECC mortar increased the toughness of the ECC-SFP material, which was seen as an increase of the flow value. Curing conditions are key factor affecting the self-healing properties of ECC mortar and ECC-SFP materials. The self-healing effect of materials in 60 °C water is the best. When an ECC fiber dosage of 1% was used, the HImor of ECC mortar and HImix of ECC-SFP material were 27.5% and 24.8%, respectively. With the addition of ECC material, ECC-SFP material achieved a certain degree of self-healing, but this still needs to be further optimized. Studies of grouting process optimization and increasing the ECC fiber dosage are feasible directions to explore in order to improve the self-healing properties of ECC-SFP materials in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Field Investigation of Clay Balls in Full-Depth Asphalt Pavement
Materials 2019, 12(18), 2879; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12182879 - 06 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Clay ball is a pavement surface defect which refers to a clump in which clay or dirt is mixed with hot asphalt mixture. Clay ball is typically caused by a combination of aggregate contamination of clay or soil, high aggregate moisture, and low [...] Read more.
Clay ball is a pavement surface defect which refers to a clump in which clay or dirt is mixed with hot asphalt mixture. Clay ball is typically caused by a combination of aggregate contamination of clay or soil, high aggregate moisture, and low production temperature at the asphalt plant. It usually appears a few weeks or months after paving under traffic load, after being liquefied and knocked from the pavement surface. Clay balls can be the source of potholing, raveling, and other issues such as moisture infiltration and reduced ride quality. This paper presents an investigation of the clay balls on US-31 one winter after construction in Hamilton County, Indiana. In order to understand the pavement condition, their severity was measured using both visual observation and infrared image collection system. In addition, a clay ball amount, its distribution pattern, and cores condition were evaluated. A precipitation effect on clay ball formation was investigated for finding a cause of the clay balls. The investigation found that infrared image collection system was appropriate in detecting the clay balls. The clay balls were elliptic in shape with 2.5 cm to 10 cm in diameter, and the maximum clay ball depth was almost penetrating the entire surface course. It was also found that the asphalt paving on the raining days or right after raining could increase the potential of clay balls. Monitoring of aggregate moisture during construction on or after raining days should be able to reduce the risk of clay balls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment for Sustainable Use of Quarry Fines as Pavement Construction Materials: Part II-Stabilization and Characterization of Quarry Fine Materials
Materials 2019, 12(15), 2450; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12152450 - 01 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
A secondary by-product, quarry fines, has previously been investigated for applications in high volume as pavement construction materials. Results from a series of laboratory tests suggest qualified basic properties except for the possibility of frost susceptibility for the virgin quarry fines. In Part [...] Read more.
A secondary by-product, quarry fines, has previously been investigated for applications in high volume as pavement construction materials. Results from a series of laboratory tests suggest qualified basic properties except for the possibility of frost susceptibility for the virgin quarry fines. In Part II of the research, stabilized quarry fine specimens were prepared and investigated in view of the mechanical behavior, and the durability represented by susceptibility to freezing and thawing cycles. The unconfined compressive strength, which is also the commonly used strength indicator, was adopted to evaluate the validity of the stabilized quarry fines as pavement construction materials. The laboratory-determined parameters were then compared among specimens treated with different stabilizers and with the typical requirements for pavement base/subbase layers. The stabilized quarry fines can be qualified for applications in pavement base, subbase and filter layer depending on the types of stabilizers used and degrees of compaction achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of UV Irradiation on the Chemical Structure, Mechanical and Self-Healing Properties of Asphalt Mixture
Materials 2019, 12(15), 2424; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12152424 - 30 Jul 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Although huge numbers of investigations have been conducted for the ultraviolet (UV) aging of asphalt binder, research rarely focuses on the asphalt mixture. In order to evaluate the aging effect of UV radiation on the asphalt mixture, a dense grade of asphalt mixture [...] Read more.
Although huge numbers of investigations have been conducted for the ultraviolet (UV) aging of asphalt binder, research rarely focuses on the asphalt mixture. In order to evaluate the aging effect of UV radiation on the asphalt mixture, a dense grade of asphalt mixture was designated and aged by UV radiation for 7, 14 and 28 days respectively. After that, the chemical functional groups of asphalt binder were tested by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The semi-circular bending strength and fatigue resistance of asphalt concrete were tested to characterize the mechanical properties of the asphalt concrete. To evaluate the self-healing effect of the macro-structure continuity of asphalt concrete intuitively, the computed tomography (CT) scanning machine was used to characterize the crack size of asphalt concrete samples both before and after self-healing. The results show that, with the increase of UV irradiation time, the relative ratios of the C=O and S=O bands’ areas of recovered asphalt binder increase significantly. UV radiation can significantly weaken the mechanical and self-healing properties of asphalt mixture, making the asphalt mixture to have worse macro-structure continuity, lower failure strength and worse fatigue resistance. Moreover, the longer the UV irradiation time is, the degradation effect of UV radiation on asphalt mixture becomes more obvious. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Improvement of Low-Temperature Performance of Buton Rock Asphalt Composite Modified Asphalt by Adding Styrene-Butadiene Rubber
Materials 2019, 12(15), 2358; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12152358 - 24 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
To improve the low-temperature performance of the Buton rock asphalt (BRA)-modified asphalt, styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) was added to it. The BRA-modified asphalt and SBR-BRA composite modified asphalt were prepared by high-speed shearing method. The penetration, softening point, ductility, and Brookfield viscosity of the [...] Read more.
To improve the low-temperature performance of the Buton rock asphalt (BRA)-modified asphalt, styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) was added to it. The BRA-modified asphalt and SBR-BRA composite modified asphalt were prepared by high-speed shearing method. The penetration, softening point, ductility, and Brookfield viscosity of the two kinds of asphalt were measured. The dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) and the beam bending rheometer (BBR) were employed to research the performance of BRA-modified asphalt by adding SBR. The results showed that the pure asphalt in BRA was the main reason to reduce the low-temperature performance of neat asphalt when the content of BRA was 19%. However, the ash in BRA was the main factor to reduce the low-temperature performance when its content was more than 39.8%. When the BRA content was 59.8%, the SBR-BRA composite modified asphalt with SBR contents of 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8%, and it shows that the penetration and ductility of the BRA-modified asphalt are increased by the addition of SBR. The equivalent brittle point was reduced, the stiffness modulus was decreased, and the creep rate was increased. At the same time, the Brookfield viscosity was reduced and the rutting factor was increased. The stiffness modulus of the SBR-BRA composite modified asphalt mixture was increased. That is to say, when SBR was mixed into the BRA-modified asphalt, the low-temperature performance could be remarkably improved based on ensuring high-temperature performance. The low-temperature index of composite modified asphalt was analyzed. It was recommended to apply the equivalent brittle point to evaluate the low-temperature performance of SBR-BRA composite modified asphalt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Morphological Discrepancy of Various Basic Oxygen Furnace Steel Slags and Road Performance of Corresponding Asphalt Mixtures
Materials 2019, 12(14), 2322; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12142322 - 21 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Due to the difference of cooling and treatment processes (rolling method, hot braised method, layer pouring method), basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel slag can be mainly classified as roller steel slag (RSS), hot braised steel slag (HBSS) and layer pouring steel slag (LPSS). [...] Read more.
Due to the difference of cooling and treatment processes (rolling method, hot braised method, layer pouring method), basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel slag can be mainly classified as roller steel slag (RSS), hot braised steel slag (HBSS) and layer pouring steel slag (LPSS). Treatment difference directly results in the performance variations of different BOF steel slag and corresponding asphalt mixtures. The primary purpose of this research was to examine the effects of different cooling and treatment processes on the morphological discrepancy of different BOF steel slag. Also, the road performances of corresponding asphalt mixtures, and mechanism between steel slag performance and road performance were studied. The results show that LPSS owns the largest variability of angular index and texture index, and RSS has the most balanced morphological parameters. The structure of RSS asphalt mixture is advantageous for improving the ability of the asphalt mixture to resist the deformation and enhancing the stability of structure. Higher content of CaO and lower content of SiO2 make the acid-base reaction of RSS asphalt mixture most intense, which contribute to the best road performance of it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Preparation and Evaluation of Exhaust-Purifying Cement Concrete Employing Titanium Dioxide
Materials 2019, 12(13), 2182; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12132182 - 07 Jul 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
To address the increasing air pollution caused by vehicle exhaust, environment-friendly pavement materials that possesses exhaust-purifying properties were prepared using common cement concrete and porous cement concrete as the base of photocatalyst nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2), respectively. Firstly, Fe3+-doped TiO [...] Read more.
To address the increasing air pollution caused by vehicle exhaust, environment-friendly pavement materials that possesses exhaust-purifying properties were prepared using common cement concrete and porous cement concrete as the base of photocatalyst nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2), respectively. Firstly, Fe3+-doped TiO2 powder was prepared by applying planetary high-energy ball milling in order to improve the efficiency of the semiconductor photocatalyst for degrading vehicle exhausts. Two nano-TiO2, namely the original and modified nanomaterials, were adopted to produce the photocatalytic cement concretes subsequently. The physicochemical properties of the modified powder, as well as the mechanical and photocatalytic properties of TiO2-modified concrete, were characterized using a suite of complementary techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), compressive strength and degradation efficiency tests. The results show that the ball milling method not only successfully doped Fe3+ into catalysts but also caused significant changes in: (1) decreased particle sizes, (2) more amorphous morphology, (3) decreased percentage of the most thermodynamically stable crystal facet, and (4) increased percentage of other high gas sensing crystal facets. Both the original and modified nano-TiO2 can improve the concrete strength while the strengthening effect of modified nanomaterials is superior. It is pronounced that the photocatalytic property of the modified nano-TiO2 is much better than that of the original nano particles, and the degradation rate of porous concrete is also better than common concrete when exposed to the same photocatalyst content. In a comprehensive consideration of both mechanical performance and degradation efficiency, the recommended optimum dosage of TiO2 is 3% to 4% for exhaust-purifying concrete. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Anti-Corrosion Property of Glass Flake Reinforced Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramic Coatings
Materials 2019, 12(13), 2082; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12132082 - 28 Jun 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Glass flake (GF) was used as the reinforcement in chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) coatings to promote anti-corrosion property. The crystalline phase, curing behavior, micromorphology and electrochemical performance of the coatings were studied. The results indicate that with the addition of magnesia (MgO), [...] Read more.
Glass flake (GF) was used as the reinforcement in chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) coatings to promote anti-corrosion property. The crystalline phase, curing behavior, micromorphology and electrochemical performance of the coatings were studied. The results indicate that with the addition of magnesia (MgO), a new bonding phase (Mg3(PO4)2) can be formed, which can help the CBPCs achieve a more compact and denser structure. The effect of the magnesia and the GF additives on curing behavior is obvious: the heat of reaction of the phosphate ceramic materials increases with the addition of the magnesia and the GF, which emphasizes the higher crosslinking density in the phosphate ceramic materials. The phosphate ceramic coatings with the magnesia have a higher impedance value compared with the neat phosphate ceramic coating, while the highest impedance value is obtained with increased content of GF. The corrosion mechanism is mainly contributed by the new bonding phase and GF particles, which can hinder the permeation pathway and make the permeation more circuitous. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Sustainable Green Pavement Using Bio-Based Polyurethane Binder in Tunnel
Materials 2019, 12(12), 1990; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12121990 - 21 Jun 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
As a closed space, the functional requirements of the tunnel pavement are very different from ordinary pavements. In recent years, with the increase of requirements for tunnel pavement safety, comfort and environmental friendliness, asphalt pavement has become more and more widely used in [...] Read more.
As a closed space, the functional requirements of the tunnel pavement are very different from ordinary pavements. In recent years, with the increase of requirements for tunnel pavement safety, comfort and environmental friendliness, asphalt pavement has become more and more widely used in long tunnels, due to its low noise, low dust, easy maintenance, and good comfort. However, conventional tunnel asphalt pavements cause significant safety and environmental concerns. The innovative polyurethane thin overlay (PTO) has been developed for the maintenance of existing roads and constructing new roads. Based on the previous study, the concept of PTO may be a feasible and effective way to enrich the innovative functions of tunnel pavement. In this paper, the research aims to evaluate the functional properties of PTO, such as noise reduction, solar reflection and especially combustion properties. Conventional asphalt (Open-graded Friction Course (OGFC) and Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA)) and concrete pavement materials were used as control materials. Compared with conventional tunnel pavement materials, significant improvements were observed in functional properties and environmental performance. Therefore, this innovative wearing layer can potentially provide pavements with new eco-friendly functions. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of these environmentally friendly materials, paving the way for the possible application in tunnels, as well as some other fields, such as race tracks in stadiums. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Thermal Performance of Novel Multilayer Cool Coatings for Asphalt Pavements
Materials 2019, 12(12), 1903; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12121903 - 13 Jun 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Cool coatings are typically used to address high-temperature problems with asphalt pavements, such as rutting. However, research on the effect of the coating structure on the cooling performance remains a major challenge. In this paper, we used a three-layer cool coating (TLCC) to [...] Read more.
Cool coatings are typically used to address high-temperature problems with asphalt pavements, such as rutting. However, research on the effect of the coating structure on the cooling performance remains a major challenge. In this paper, we used a three-layer cool coating (TLCC) to experimentally investigate the effects of the reflective layer, the emissive layer, and the thermal insulation layer on the cooling effect using a self-developed cooling effect evaluation device (CEED). Based on the test results, we further established temperature fields inside uncoated and coated samples, which were used to study how the TLCC affects the inner temperature field. Our results showed that the reflective layer was the main parameter influencing the cooling effect (8.18 °C), while the other two layers were secondary factors that further improved the cooling effect to 13.25 °C. A comparison of the temperature fields showed that the TLCC could effectively change the internal temperature field compared with the uncoated sample, for example, by reducing the maximum temperature inside, whose corresponding position was also deeper. As the depth increased, the cooling effect of the TLCC first increased and then decreased slowly. The results emphasize the importance of considering the effect of the coating structure on the cooling performance. This study provides a reference for effectively alleviating high-temperature distresses on asphalt pavement, which is conducive to the sustainable development of pavements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Inhibitor on Adsorption Behavior and Mechanism of Micro-Zone Corrosion on Carbon Steel
Materials 2019, 12(12), 1901; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12121901 - 13 Jun 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
A new type of inhibitor is studied in this paper. Inhibition efficiency and adsorption behavior of an inhibitor film on the steel surface is tested via the electrochemical method and theoretical calculation to establish the adsorption model. Test results confirm that inhibition efficiency [...] Read more.
A new type of inhibitor is studied in this paper. Inhibition efficiency and adsorption behavior of an inhibitor film on the steel surface is tested via the electrochemical method and theoretical calculation to establish the adsorption model. Test results confirm that inhibition efficiency is improved with the addition of an inhibitor, and the inhibitor film is formed firmly by comparing the characteristic peaks of S and N. Moreover, the micro-zone corrosion progress of Fe in 3.5% invasive NaCl-simulated seawater environment is studied. The results further show that corrosion is initiated under the zone without the inhibitor film, while it is prevented under the protection of the film. By the experiments, it is shown that inhibitor can be adsorbed on the surface of steel stably and has excellent protection performance for reinforced rebar, which can be widely used in concrete structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Polypropylene Fibre and Strain Rate on Dynamic Compressive Behaviour of Concrete
Materials 2019, 12(11), 1797; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12111797 - 03 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper presents an experimental study on the dynamic compressive behaviour of polypropylene (PP) fibre reinforced concrete under various strain rates using split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) equipment. The effects of PP fibre content and strain rate on the dynamic compressive stress-strain relationship [...] Read more.
This paper presents an experimental study on the dynamic compressive behaviour of polypropylene (PP) fibre reinforced concrete under various strain rates using split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) equipment. The effects of PP fibre content and strain rate on the dynamic compressive stress-strain relationship and failure patterns were estimated. The results indicated that the addition of PP fibre enhanced the dynamic compressive properties of concrete mixtures although it resulted in a significant reduction in workability and a slight decrease in static compressive strength. Considering the workability, static compressive strength and dynamic compressive behaviour, the optimal PP fibre content was found to be 0.9 kg/m3 as the mixture exhibited the highest increase in dynamic compressive strength of 5.6%, 40.3% in fracture energy absorption and 11.1% in total energy absorption; further, it showed the least reduction (only 5.8%) in static compressive strength among all mixtures compared to the reference mixture without fibre. For all mixtures, the dynamic compressive properties, energy absorption capacity, strain at peak stress, ultimate strain and dynamic increase factor (DIF) were significantly influenced by strain rate, i.e., strain rate effect. When the strain rate was relatively low, PP fibres were effective in controlling the cracking, and the dynamic compressive properties of PP fibre reinforced mixtures were improved accordingly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Mesostructural Modeling of Dynamic Modulus and Phase Angle Master Curves of Rubber Modified Asphalt Mixture
Materials 2019, 12(10), 1667; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12101667 - 22 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The main objective of this paper was to develop a mesostructure-based finite element model of rubber modified asphalt mixture to predict both the dynamic modulus master curve and phase angle master curve under a large frequency range. The asphalt mixture is considered as [...] Read more.
The main objective of this paper was to develop a mesostructure-based finite element model of rubber modified asphalt mixture to predict both the dynamic modulus master curve and phase angle master curve under a large frequency range. The asphalt mixture is considered as a three-phase material consisting of aggregate, asphalt mortar, and air void. The mesostructure of the asphalt mixture was digitized by a computed tomography (CT) scan and implemented into finite element software. The 2S2P1D model was used to obtain the viscoelastic information of an asphalt mortar under a large range of frequencies and temperatures. The continuous spectrum of the 2S2P1D model was converted to a discrete spectrum and characterized by the generalized Maxwell model for numerical simulation. The Prony series parameters of the generalized Maxwell model and the elastic modulus of the aggregates were inputted into the finite element analysis as material properties. The dynamic modulus tests of a rubber modified asphalt mortar and asphalt mixture were conducted under different temperatures and loading frequencies. The dynamic modulus master curve and phase angle master curve of both asphalt mortar and asphalt mixture were constructed. The frequency of the finite element simulations of the dynamic modulus tests ranged from 10−6 to 104. The dynamic modulus and phase angle of the asphalt mixture was calculated and the master curves were compared with the master curves obtained from the experimental data. Furthermore, the effect of the elastic modulus of aggregates on the master curves was analyzed. Acceptable agreement between dynamic modulus master curves obtained from experimental data and simulation results was achieved. However, large errors between phase angle master curves appeared at low frequencies. A method was proposed to improve the prediction of the phase angle master curve by adjusting the equilibrium modulus of the asphalt mortar. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Performances of Cement Mortar Incorporating Superabsorbent Polymer (SAP) Using Different Dosing Methods
Materials 2019, 12(10), 1619; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12101619 - 17 May 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Modified cement mortar was prepared by incorporating a superabsorbent polymer (SAP) with two kinds of dosing state, dry powdery SAP and swelled SAP (where the SAP has been pre-wetted in tap water), respectively. The mechanical properties, drying shrinkage and freeze–thaw resistance of the [...] Read more.
Modified cement mortar was prepared by incorporating a superabsorbent polymer (SAP) with two kinds of dosing state, dry powdery SAP and swelled SAP (where the SAP has been pre-wetted in tap water), respectively. The mechanical properties, drying shrinkage and freeze–thaw resistance of the mortars were compared and analyzed with the variation of SAP content and entrained water-to-cement ratios. Additionally, the effect of SAP on the microstructure of mortar was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicate that agglomerative accumulation is formed in the voids of mortar after water desorption from SAP and there are abundant hydration products, most of which are C-S-H gels, around the SAP voids. The incorporation of the powdery SAP increases the 28 d compressive strength of the mortars by about 10% to 50%, while for the incorporation of swelled SAP, the 28 d compressive strength of the mortar can be increased by about −26% to 6%. At a dosage of 0.1% SAP and an entrained water–cement ratio of 0.06, the powdery SAP and the swelled SAP can reduce the mortar shrinkage rate by about 32.2% and 14.5%, respectively. Both the incorporation of powdery and swelled SAP has a positive effect on the freeze–thaw resistance of cement mortar. In particular, for powdery SAP with an entrained water-to-cement ratio of 0.06, the mass loss rate after 300 cycles is still lower than 5%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluating the Effects of High RAP Content and Rejuvenating Agents on Fatigue Performance of Fine Aggregate Matrix through DMA Flexural Bending Test
Materials 2019, 12(9), 1508; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12091508 - 09 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
High percentage reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) is prevailing in pavement engineering for its advantages in sustainability and environmental friendliness, however, its fatigue resistance remains a major concern. Fine aggregate matrix (FAM) is a crucial part in the fatigue resistance of asphalt mixtures with [...] Read more.
High percentage reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) is prevailing in pavement engineering for its advantages in sustainability and environmental friendliness, however, its fatigue resistance remains a major concern. Fine aggregate matrix (FAM) is a crucial part in the fatigue resistance of asphalt mixtures with high RAP content. Hence, the linear amplitude sweep (LAS) test of FAM has been developed to study the fatigue resistance of asphalt mixtures. However, the torsional loading mode of the LAS test with a dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) is a limitation to simulate traffic load. In this paper, an alternative LAS test for FAM with high RAP content was proposed. Beam FAM specimens were tested using a dual-cantilever flexural loading fixture in a dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA). To investigate the influence of RAP content and the rejuvenating agent (RA), four kinds of FAM mixes were tested with this method to study their fatigue resistance. The test results suggested that the repeatability of this alternative approach was reliable. A fatigue failure criterion based on maximum C × N was defined. Then, fatigue life prediction models based on viscoelastic continuum damage (VECD) analysis were established according to the LAS test results and validated by a strain-controlled time sweep (TS) test. It turned out that as RAP content increased, the modulus of FAM would be significantly raised, accompanied with a drop in the phase angle. The fatigue life of FAM would be greatly shortened when the RAP binder replacement rate reached 50%. Adding RA could considerably improve the dynamic properties of FAM mixes with high RAP content, resulting in a decrease in modulus, increase in phase angle and elongating fatigue life, but could not recover to the level of virgin binder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Interlaminar Bonding Properties on Cement Concrete Deck and Phosphorous Slag Asphalt Pavement
Materials 2019, 12(9), 1427; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12091427 - 01 May 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
The slippage damage caused by weak interlaminar bonding between cement concrete deck and asphalt surface is a serious issue for bridge pavement. In order to evaluate the interlaminar bonding of cement concrete bridge deck and phosphorous slag (PS) asphalt pavement, the shear resistance [...] Read more.
The slippage damage caused by weak interlaminar bonding between cement concrete deck and asphalt surface is a serious issue for bridge pavement. In order to evaluate the interlaminar bonding of cement concrete bridge deck and phosphorous slag (PS) asphalt pavement, the shear resistance properties of the bonding layer structure were studied through direct shear tests. The impact of PS as a substitute of asphalt mixture aggregate, interface characteristics, normal pressure, waterproof and cohesive layer types, temperature and shear rate on the interlaminar bonding properties were analyzed. The test results indicated that the interlaminar bonding of bridge deck pavement is improved after asphalt mixture fine aggregate was substituted with PS and PS powder, and the result indicated that the shear strength of grooved and aggregate-exposed interfaces is significantly higher than untreated interface, the PS micro-powder or anti-stripping agent can also improve the adhesion between layers when mixed into SBS asphalt. This study provided important theoretical and practical guidance for improving the shear stability of bridge deck pavement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Asphalt with Different Combinations of Fire Retardants
Materials 2019, 12(8), 1283; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12081283 - 18 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
When a fire takes place in a tunnel, the surface of the asphalt pavement will burn and release a large amount of smoke, which is toxic to human health. Thus, in order to prevent the combustion of the asphalt pavement under fire, it [...] Read more.
When a fire takes place in a tunnel, the surface of the asphalt pavement will burn and release a large amount of smoke, which is toxic to human health. Thus, in order to prevent the combustion of the asphalt pavement under fire, it is necessary to propose some methods to retard its physical and chemical reaction under the high temperature. In this study, ten different combinations of fire retardants and a control case where no fire retardant was applied were prepared for evaluation. The thermogravimetric (TG)–mass spectrometry (MS) tests were used to evaluate their effect on the fire retardance from mass and energy perspectives and the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) software was used to evaluate the fire retardance from temperature and smoke distribution perspectives. In experimental analysis, the TG (thermogravimetric) and DTG (differential thermogravimetric) curves were used to analyze the mass loss rate and residual mass of the asphalt and the activation energy was calculated and analyzed as well. In addition, decay rate of mass loss rate and increasing rate of activation energy were proposed to evaluate the ease of combustion of the asphalt with and without fire retardants. The results show that in laboratory experiments, the fire retardant combination which includes 48% aluminum hydroxide, 32% magnesium hydroxide, 5% expanded graphite, and 15% encapsulated red phosphorous would lead to an improved effect of fire retardance. In numerical modeling, the temperature and smoke height distribution over time were adopted to evaluate the fire retardance effect. The temperature distribution was found to be symmetrical on both sides of the combustion point and the same combination as proposed in experimental analysis was found to have the best effect on fire retardance due to the largest decrease in temperature. Additionally, because of the highest smoke height distribution, an improved effect on smoke suppression was also found when this combination was applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Effect of Encapsulating Rejuvenator Fiber on the Performance of Asphalt Mixture
Materials 2019, 12(8), 1266; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12081266 - 17 Apr 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The idea of prolonging the service life of asphalt mixture by improving the self-healing ability of asphalt has received extensive attention in recent years. In view of this, this work synthesized three kinds of encapsulating rejuvenator fibers to improve self-healing properties of asphalt [...] Read more.
The idea of prolonging the service life of asphalt mixture by improving the self-healing ability of asphalt has received extensive attention in recent years. In view of this, this work synthesized three kinds of encapsulating rejuvenator fibers to improve self-healing properties of asphalt mixtures. A series of characterizations were performed to study the morphology, chemical structure and thermal stability of the three kinds of fibers. Subsequently, the road performance of asphalt mixture containing the fiber were investigated, which included high and low temperature, water sensitivity and fatigue performances. Finally, the self-healing performance of asphalt mixture containing the fiber was investigated by 3PB test. The results revealed that the three kinds of encapsulating rejuvenator fibers were successfully synthesized. The fibers had excellent thermal stability, which met temperature requirements in the mixing and compaction process of asphalt mixtures. Road performance of asphalt mixture containing the fiber met the requirements. Self-healing ability of asphalt mixture containing the fiber was improved. Synergistic action of temperature and rejuvenator could further significantly improve the self-healing ability of the asphalt mixture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment for Sustainable Use of Quarry Fines as Pavement Construction Materials: Part I—Description of Basic Quarry Fine Properties
Materials 2019, 12(8), 1209; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12081209 - 12 Apr 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
As a secondary material, quarry fines are a valuable material to be reused for many purposes in civil engineering projects. The aggregate source depletion, especially the lack of high quality aggregates as expected in the future, as well as the demand for a [...] Read more.
As a secondary material, quarry fines are a valuable material to be reused for many purposes in civil engineering projects. The aggregate source depletion, especially the lack of high quality aggregates as expected in the future, as well as the demand for a carbon-neutral society and circular economy, also promotes the high-volume utilization of secondary materials such as quarry fines. The aim of this study is to do a feasibility assessment including a series of laboratory tests and analyses to evaluate the properties of quarry fine materials to determine if this type of material could be qualified as pavement construction material in high volume. The gradation information obtained from both sieving and hydrometer tests indicates the frost susceptibility of unstabilized quarry fines, therefore frost heave tests were performed and which further suggest the necessity of stabilization to improve its properties for pavement applications, especially in structural layers such as base, subbase, or filter layers. Some other general information and properties of unbound quarry fines, especially regarding their validity for application in pavement engineering are also investigated and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Study on Wet Skid Resistance of Asphalt Pavements in Icy Conditions
Materials 2019, 12(8), 1201; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12081201 - 12 Apr 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
In this research, the durability of skid resistance during the ice melting process with temperature increasing from −5 °C to 10 °C was characterized by means of a British Pendulum Skid Tester. Four types of pavement surfaces were prepared and tested. The difference [...] Read more.
In this research, the durability of skid resistance during the ice melting process with temperature increasing from −5 °C to 10 °C was characterized by means of a British Pendulum Skid Tester. Four types of pavement surfaces were prepared and tested. The difference between two antiskid layers prepared with bitumen emulsion was the aggregate. The detailed angularity and form 2D index of fine aggregates used for antiskid surfaces, characterized by means of the Aggregate Image Measure System (AIMS) with micro image analysis methods, were then correlated with British Pendulum Number (BPN) values. Results indicate that skid resistance has the lowest value during the ice-melting process. The investigated antiskid layers can increase the surface friction during icy seasons. In icy conditions, the skid resistance behavior first worsens until reaches the lowest value, and then increases gradually with increasing temperature. Results from ice-melting conditions on four investigated pavement surfaces give the same temperature range where there will be lowest skid resistance. That temperature range is from 3 °C to 5 °C. A thicker ice layer will result in a lower skid resistance property and smaller “lowest BPN”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of the Effect of Induction Heating on Asphalt Binder Aging in Steel Fibers Modified Asphalt Concrete
Materials 2019, 12(7), 1067; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12071067 - 01 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Induction heating is a valuable technology to repair asphalt concrete damage inside. However, in the process of induction heating, induced particles will release a large amount of heat to act on asphalt binder in a short time. The purpose of this paper was [...] Read more.
Induction heating is a valuable technology to repair asphalt concrete damage inside. However, in the process of induction heating, induced particles will release a large amount of heat to act on asphalt binder in a short time. The purpose of this paper was to study the effect of induction heating on asphalt binder aging in steel fibers modified asphalt concrete. The experiments were divided into two parts: induction heating of Dramix steel fibers coated with asphalt binder (DA) and steel wool fibers modified asphalt concrete. After induction heating, the asphalt binders in the samples were extracted for testing aging indices with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR), and Four-Components Analysis (FCA) tests. The aging of asphalt binder was analyzed identifying the change of chemical structure, the diversification of rheological properties, and the difference of component. The experiments showed that the binder inside asphalt concrete began aging during induction heating due to thermal oxygen reaction and volatilization of light components. However, there was no peak value of the carbonyl index after induction heating of ten cycles, and the carbonyl index of DA was equivalent to that of binder in asphalt concrete after three induction heating cycles, which indicated the relatively closed environment inside asphalt concrete can inhibit the occurrence of the aging reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Short-Term Aging on Asphalt Modified Using Microwave Activation Crumb Rubber
Materials 2019, 12(7), 1039; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12071039 - 29 Mar 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Effective approaches are required to be developed to solve the poor compatibility and thermal stability problems of crumb rubber-modified asphalt (CRMA). This study focuses on a method called microwave activation. However, seldom researches pay attention to the properties of MACRMA after aging. The [...] Read more.
Effective approaches are required to be developed to solve the poor compatibility and thermal stability problems of crumb rubber-modified asphalt (CRMA). This study focuses on a method called microwave activation. However, seldom researches pay attention to the properties of MACRMA after aging. The objective of this study was to prepare microwave-activated CRMA (MACRMA) and investigate the performance of asphalt after aging. The samples were subjected to thin-film oven test (TFOT) at different times and temperatures. The effect of heat aging on the properties of MACRMA was evaluated by three indicator tests: viscosity, dynamic shear rheology test (DSR), and repeat creep recovery test (RCRT). The test results indicated that the MACRMA after two aging conditions had noticeably lower performance values (e.g., penetration, ductility) compared to unaged samples, and thus, the need to control temperature and time for mixing and construction was verified to be important. In addition, the G*/sin δ and phase angle values were largely influenced by the TFOT aging temperature and time. The MACRMA’s ability to recover was improved after aging. Compared with the aging temperature, the aging time had a more significant effect on the deformation and recovery ability of MACRMA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Unified Strength Model of Asphalt Mixture under Various Loading Modes
Materials 2019, 12(6), 889; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12060889 - 17 Mar 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Although the rutting resistance, fatigue cracking, and the resistance to water and frost are important for the asphalt pavement, the strength of asphalt mixture is also an important factor for the asphalt mixture design. The strength of asphalt mixture is directly associated with [...] Read more.
Although the rutting resistance, fatigue cracking, and the resistance to water and frost are important for the asphalt pavement, the strength of asphalt mixture is also an important factor for the asphalt mixture design. The strength of asphalt mixture is directly associated with the overall performance of asphalt mixture. As a top layer material of asphalt pavement, the strength of asphalt mixture plays an indispensable role in the top structural bearing layer. In the present design system, the strength of asphalt pavement is usually achieved via the laboratory tests. The stress states are usually different for the different laboratory approaches. Even at the same stress level, the laboratory strengths of asphalt mixture obtained are significantly different, which leads to misunderstanding of the asphalt mixtures used in asphalt pavement structure design. The arbitrariness of strength determinations affects the effectiveness of the asphalt pavement structure design in civil engineering. Therefore, in order to overcome the design deviation caused by the randomness of the laboratory strength of asphalt mixtures, in this study, the direct tension, indirect tension, and unconfined compression tests were implemented on the specimens under different loading rates. The strength model of asphalt mixture under different loading modes was established. The relationship between the strength ratio and loading rate of direct tension, indirect tension, and unconfined compression tests was adopted separately. Then, one unified strength model of asphalt mixture with different loading modes was established. The preliminary results show that the proposed unified strength model could be applied to improve the accurate degree of laboratory strength. The effectiveness of laboratory-based asphalt pavement structure design can therefore be promoted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Preparation and Characteristics of Ethylene Bis(Stearamide)-Based Graphene-Modified Asphalt
Materials 2019, 12(5), 757; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12050757 - 05 Mar 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
In this study, graphene-modified asphalt (GMA) was prepared from SK-70# matrix asphalt and ethylene bis(stearamide) (EBS). Based on the uniform design method, a model was created using Data Processing System (DPS) software and First Optimization (1stOpt) software using the graphene mixing amount, EBS [...] Read more.
In this study, graphene-modified asphalt (GMA) was prepared from SK-70# matrix asphalt and ethylene bis(stearamide) (EBS). Based on the uniform design method, a model was created using Data Processing System (DPS) software and First Optimization (1stOpt) software using the graphene mixing amount, EBS mixing amount, shear rate, shear time, and shear temperature as factors and using the asphalt penetration, softening point, force ductility, SHRP-PG test, and multistress creep recovery data as indices. Calculations and analysis showed that the optimal composition and preparation parameters of GMA are as follows: the graphene proportion is 20‰, the EBS proportion is 1%, the shear rate is 6000 r.p.m., the shear time is 180 min, and the shear temperature is 140 °C. The prepared GMA had a significantly improved softening point, low-temperature fracture energy, antirutting factor, and creep recovery rate, indicating that adding graphene can improve the high- and low-temperature performance of asphalt. The prepared GMA was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The dispersibility of graphene in asphalt was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and Image-Pro Plus imaging software. The results show that graphene can exist in asphalt in a stable form, which increases the loose-layered structure of stacked asphalt or gum. The intense adsorption effect of graphene strengthens the ordered structure of asphalt. However, due to its dispersibility characteristics, some graphene exists in asphalt in clustered form. When the graphene-to-dispersant ratio approaches the optimal value, the dispersant changes the form of graphene in asphalt from irregular clusters to regular clusters and from large, distinct clusters to small, indistinct clusters. When dispersant cannot uniformly disperse graphene in asphalt, graphene clusters primarily form medium-sized grains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Geometric Characteristics of BOF Slag Coarse Aggregate and its Influence on Asphalt Concrete
Materials 2019, 12(5), 741; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12050741 - 04 Mar 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
In order to examine the geometric characteristics of BOF (blast oxygen furnace) slag coarse aggregate, the aggregate image measurement system (AIMS) was used to analyze the sphericity, gradient angularity and micro texture. Both volumetric and mechanical properties were studied to evaluate the influence [...] Read more.
In order to examine the geometric characteristics of BOF (blast oxygen furnace) slag coarse aggregate, the aggregate image measurement system (AIMS) was used to analyze the sphericity, gradient angularity and micro texture. Both volumetric and mechanical properties were studied to evaluate the influence of geometric characteristics of BOF slag coarse aggregate on asphalt concrete. The experimental results show that the BOF slag coarse aggregate has the characteristics of high sphericity, good angular performance and rough surface texture. The geometric characteristics of BOF slag has obvious influence on the volume performance of asphalt concrete. the higher sphericity of BOF slag causes an increase of the air voids of asphalt mixture. BOF slag coarse aggregate can effectively improve the road performances of asphalt concrete. BOF slag’s higher sphericity and angularity improve the moisture damage resistance and rutting resistance of asphalt concrete. Results indicate that better angularity can slightly enhance the moisture resistance property of asphalt concrete, but excessively high angularity of BOF slag coarse aggregates reduces the anti-rutting properties of asphalt mixture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Aging Characteristics of Bitumen from Different Bituminous Pavement Structures in Service
Materials 2019, 12(3), 530; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12030530 - 10 Feb 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The aging of bitumen seriously affects the service life of bituminous pavements. At present, there are many related researches on bitumen aging, but most of them focus on aging endured in indoor surroundings and conditions. Therefore, the conclusions obtained cannot reflect the actual [...] Read more.
The aging of bitumen seriously affects the service life of bituminous pavements. At present, there are many related researches on bitumen aging, but most of them focus on aging endured in indoor surroundings and conditions. Therefore, the conclusions obtained cannot reflect the actual aging changes of bitumen in bituminous pavements in service. In order to study the comprehensive aging process and mechanism of bitumen under the influence of service, we studied bridge deck, traffic lane, and ramp with bituminous pavement structures in service. The bitumen samples obtained from the core samples in different bituminous pavement structures were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic shear rheometer (DSR), and fluorescence microscope (FM). The aging degree of different bitumen was analyzed, and conclusions were drawn on changes to bitumen aging from different pavement structures. The results showed that the aging degree of bitumen from the upper layer was the most serious, the aging degree of bitumen at the middle layer was weaker than that of bitumen from the upper layer, and the aging degree of bitumen from the bottom layer was the weakest for the different bituminous pavement structures. The aging of bitumen mainly occurred due to oxygen absorption. After aging, viscoelastic components of bitumen changed, and bitumen became harder. The macromolecule of bitumen could be divided into small molecules, and the small molecular weight of bitumen became large. The styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) modifier in the modified bitumen became granular after aging, and it appeared as a single phase in bitumen. The aging changes characterized by different analytical methods showed that the aging degree of bitumen from different layers of bituminous pavement structures in service was different. Effective measures should therefore be taken in time to decrease further aging of bitumen from the upper layer of bituminous pavements due to its inevitable early aging in service. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Damage Detection of Asphalt Concrete Using Piezo-Ultrasonic Wave Technology
Materials 2019, 12(3), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12030443 - 31 Jan 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Asphalt concrete has been widely used in road engineering as a surface material. Meanwhile, ultrasonic testing technology has also been developed rapidly. Aiming to evaluate the feasibility of the ultrasonic wave method, the present work reports a laboratory investigation on damage detection of [...] Read more.
Asphalt concrete has been widely used in road engineering as a surface material. Meanwhile, ultrasonic testing technology has also been developed rapidly. Aiming to evaluate the feasibility of the ultrasonic wave method, the present work reports a laboratory investigation on damage detection of asphalt concrete using piezo-ultrasonic wave technology. The gradation of AC-13 was selected and prepared based on the Marshall’s design. The ultrasonic wave velocities of samples were tested with different environmental conditions firstly. After that, the samples were destroyed into two types, one was drilled and the other was grooved. And the ultrasonic wave velocities of pretreated samples were tested again. Furthermore, the relationship between velocity and damaged process was evaluated based on three point bending test. The test results indicated that piezoelectric ultrasonic wave is a promising technology for damage detection of asphalt concrete with considerable benefits. The ultrasonic velocity decreases with the voidage increases. In a saturated water environment, the measured velocity of ultrasonic wave increased. In a dry environment (50 °C), the velocity the ultrasonic waves increased too. After two freeze-thaw cycles, the voidage increased and the ultrasonic velocity decreased gradually. After factitious damage, the wave must travel through or most likely around the damage, the ultrasonic velocity decreased. During the process of three point bending test, the ultrasonic velocity increased firstly and then decreased slowly until it entered into a steady phase. At last the velocity of ultrasonic wave decreased rapidly. In addition, the errors of the results under different test conditions need to be further studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Asphalt Mixture Moduli under Different Stress States
Materials 2019, 12(3), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12030397 - 27 Jan 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Modulus testing methods under various test conditions have a large influence on modulus test results, which hinders the accurate evaluation of the stiffness of asphalt mixtures. In order to decrease the uncertainty in the stiffness characteristics of asphalt mixtures under various stress states, [...] Read more.
Modulus testing methods under various test conditions have a large influence on modulus test results, which hinders the accurate evaluation of the stiffness of asphalt mixtures. In order to decrease the uncertainty in the stiffness characteristics of asphalt mixtures under various stress states, the traditional unconfined compression test, direct tensile test, and the synchronous test method, based on the indirect tension and four-point bending tests, were carried out for different loading frequencies. Results showed that modulus test results were highly sensitive to the shape, size, and stress state of the specimen. Additionally, existing modulus characteristics did not reduce these differences. There is a certain correlation between the elastic modulus ratio and the frequency ratio for asphalt under multiple stress states. The modulus, under multiple stress states, was processed using min–max normalization. Then, the standardization model for tensile and compressive characteristics of asphalt under diverse stress states was established based on the sample preparation, modulus ratio variations, and loading frequency ratio. A method for deriving other moduli from one modulus was realized. It is difficult to evaluate the stiffness performance in diverse stress states for asphalt by only using conventional compressive and tensile tests. However, taking into account the effects of stress states and loading frequencies, standardized models can be used to reduce or even eliminate these effects. The model realizes the unification of different modulus test results, and provides a theoretical, methodological, and technical basis for objectively evaluating moduli. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Laboratory and Numerical Investigation of Microwave Heating Properties of Asphalt Mixture
Materials 2019, 12(1), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12010146 - 04 Jan 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Microwave heating is an encouraging heating technology for the maintenance, recycling, and deicing of asphalt pavement. To investigate the microwave heating properties of asphalt mixture, laboratory tests and numerical simulations were done and compared. Two types of Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA) mixture samples [...] Read more.
Microwave heating is an encouraging heating technology for the maintenance, recycling, and deicing of asphalt pavement. To investigate the microwave heating properties of asphalt mixture, laboratory tests and numerical simulations were done and compared. Two types of Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA) mixture samples (with basalt aggregates and steel slag aggregates) were heated using a microwave oven for different times. Numerical simulation models of microwave heating of asphalt mixture were developed with finite element software COMSOL Multiphysics. The main thermal and electromagnetic properties of asphalt mixture, served as the model input parameters, were measured through a series of laboratory tests. Both laboratory-measured and numerical simulated surface temperatures were recorded and analyzed. Results show that the replacement of basalt aggregates with steel slag aggregates can significantly increase the microwave heating efficiency of asphalt mixture. Numerical simulation results have a good correlation with laboratory test results. It is feasible to use the developed model coupling electromagnetic waves with heat transfer to simulate the microwave heating process of asphalt mixture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Rheological and Interaction Analysis of Asphalt Binder, Mastic and Mortar
Materials 2019, 12(1), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12010128 - 02 Jan 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
This paper investigated the rheological properties of asphalt binder, asphalt mastic and asphalt mortar and the interaction between asphalt binder, mineral filler and fine aggregates. Asphalt binder, mastic and mortar can be regarded as the binding phase at different scales in asphalt concrete. [...] Read more.
This paper investigated the rheological properties of asphalt binder, asphalt mastic and asphalt mortar and the interaction between asphalt binder, mineral filler and fine aggregates. Asphalt binder, mastic and mortar can be regarded as the binding phase at different scales in asphalt concrete. Asphalt mastic is a blend of asphalt binder and mineral filler smaller than 0.075 mm while asphalt mortar consists of asphalt binder, mineral filler and fine aggregate smaller than 2.36 mm. The material compositions of mastic and mortar were determined from the commonly used asphalt mixtures. Dynamic shear rheometer was used to conduct rheological analysis on asphalt binder, mastic and mortar. The obtained test data on complex modulus and phase angle were used for the construction of rheological master curves and the investigation of asphalt-filler/aggregate interaction. Test results indicated a modulus increase of three- to five-fold with the addition of filler and a further increase of one to two orders of magnitude with cumulative addition of fine aggregates into asphalt binder. Fine aggregates resulted in a phase change for mortar at high temperatures and low frequencies. The filler had stronger physical interaction than fine aggregate with an interaction parameter of 1.8–2.8 and 1.15–1.35 respectively. Specific area could enhance asphalt-filler interaction. The mastic and mortar modulus can be well predicted based on asphalt binder modulus by using particle filling effect. Asphalt mortar had a significant modulus reinforcement and phase change and thus could be the closest subscale in terms of performance to that of asphalt mixtures. It could be a vital scale that bridges the gap between asphalt binder and asphalt mixtures in multiscale performance analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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