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Special Issue "Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Sandra Erkens

1. Professor, Pavement Engineering Section, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology (TUDelft), the Netherlands
2. Principal specialist, Rijkswaterstaat, Ministry of Infrastructure and Water Management, the Netherlands
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Interests: testing & modeling of pavement materials; pavement materials and structures; asphalt concrete; road engineering materials
Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yue Xiao

State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology (WUT), China
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Interests: road and pavement materials; pavement design; asphalt pavement surfacing; asphalt pavement maintenance
Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mingliang Li

Research Institute of Highway Ministry of Transport (RIOH), China
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Interests: porous asphalt pavement; pavements design for sponge city; recycling of pavement materials; pavement maintenance; noise reduction pavement
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Tao Ma

School of Transportation, Southeast University (SEU), China
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Interests: crumb rubber modified asphalt; recycling of pavement materials; pavement structure design; cold mix asphalt
Guest Editor
Dr. Xueyan Liu

Pavement Engineering Section, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology (TUDelft), the Netherlands
Website | E-Mail
Interests: constitutive modeling; numerical modeling; material experimental characterization of pavement materials; static and dynamic response of reinforcing systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleague, 

Pavement materials comprise a substantial proportion of natural resources used for building construction. However, there are many environmental concerns related to their applications and service life. Firstly, a huge amount of energy is consumed during their manufacture, transportation, and application. Secondly, the application of pavement materials will generate PM, VOC, and CO2. Thirdly, the aging characteristics of pavement materials will result in a reduction of service life, followed by energy and resource consumption, and finally aggravate the damage to the environment. These drawbacks of traditional pavement materials require sustainable and renewable paving materials and technologies, for instance, modified pavement materials with longer service life. Recycling technologies can save natural resources. Warm mix and cold mix can decrease the application temperature of asphalt mixture, resulting in less VOC emissions. All these innovative developments are becoming more and more important and attractive for researchers and practitioners in the road industry.

The aim of this Special Issue of Materials is to attract articles on new materials and innovative technologies for achieving sustainable and renewable pavement materials. We welcome original research or review articles with a clear application focus in these areas.

Prof. Dr. Sandra Erkens
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yue Xiao
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mingliang Li
Prof. Dr. Tao Ma
Dr. Xueyan Liu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Recycling of pavement materials
  • Warm & cold mix asphalt materials
  • Green & environmental-friendly pavement materials
  • Functional pavement materials
  • Self-healing pavement materials
  • Pavement maintenance technologies
  • Eco-efficiency pavement materials

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Unified Strength Model of Asphalt Mixture under Various Loading Modes
Materials 2019, 12(6), 889; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12060889
Received: 21 February 2019 / Revised: 14 March 2019 / Accepted: 14 March 2019 / Published: 17 March 2019
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Abstract
Although the rutting resistance, fatigue cracking, and the resistance to water and frost are important for the asphalt pavement, the strength of asphalt mixture is also an important factor for the asphalt mixture design. The strength of asphalt mixture is directly associated with [...] Read more.
Although the rutting resistance, fatigue cracking, and the resistance to water and frost are important for the asphalt pavement, the strength of asphalt mixture is also an important factor for the asphalt mixture design. The strength of asphalt mixture is directly associated with the overall performance of asphalt mixture. As a top layer material of asphalt pavement, the strength of asphalt mixture plays an indispensable role in the top structural bearing layer. In the present design system, the strength of asphalt pavement is usually achieved via the laboratory tests. The stress states are usually different for the different laboratory approaches. Even at the same stress level, the laboratory strengths of asphalt mixture obtained are significantly different, which leads to misunderstanding of the asphalt mixtures used in asphalt pavement structure design. The arbitrariness of strength determinations affects the effectiveness of the asphalt pavement structure design in civil engineering. Therefore, in order to overcome the design deviation caused by the randomness of the laboratory strength of asphalt mixtures, in this study, the direct tension, indirect tension, and unconfined compression tests were implemented on the specimens under different loading rates. The strength model of asphalt mixture under different loading modes was established. The relationship between the strength ratio and loading rate of direct tension, indirect tension, and unconfined compression tests was adopted separately. Then, one unified strength model of asphalt mixture with different loading modes was established. The preliminary results show that the proposed unified strength model could be applied to improve the accurate degree of laboratory strength. The effectiveness of laboratory-based asphalt pavement structure design can therefore be promoted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Preparation and Characteristics of Ethylene Bis(Stearamide)-Based Graphene-Modified Asphalt
Materials 2019, 12(5), 757; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12050757
Received: 7 February 2019 / Revised: 25 February 2019 / Accepted: 1 March 2019 / Published: 5 March 2019
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Abstract
In this study, graphene-modified asphalt (GMA) was prepared from SK-70# matrix asphalt and ethylene bis(stearamide) (EBS). Based on the uniform design method, a model was created using Data Processing System (DPS) software and First Optimization (1stOpt) software using the graphene mixing amount, EBS [...] Read more.
In this study, graphene-modified asphalt (GMA) was prepared from SK-70# matrix asphalt and ethylene bis(stearamide) (EBS). Based on the uniform design method, a model was created using Data Processing System (DPS) software and First Optimization (1stOpt) software using the graphene mixing amount, EBS mixing amount, shear rate, shear time, and shear temperature as factors and using the asphalt penetration, softening point, force ductility, SHRP-PG test, and multistress creep recovery data as indices. Calculations and analysis showed that the optimal composition and preparation parameters of GMA are as follows: the graphene proportion is 20‰, the EBS proportion is 1%, the shear rate is 6000 r.p.m., the shear time is 180 min, and the shear temperature is 140 °C. The prepared GMA had a significantly improved softening point, low-temperature fracture energy, antirutting factor, and creep recovery rate, indicating that adding graphene can improve the high- and low-temperature performance of asphalt. The prepared GMA was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The dispersibility of graphene in asphalt was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and Image-Pro Plus imaging software. The results show that graphene can exist in asphalt in a stable form, which increases the loose-layered structure of stacked asphalt or gum. The intense adsorption effect of graphene strengthens the ordered structure of asphalt. However, due to its dispersibility characteristics, some graphene exists in asphalt in clustered form. When the graphene-to-dispersant ratio approaches the optimal value, the dispersant changes the form of graphene in asphalt from irregular clusters to regular clusters and from large, distinct clusters to small, indistinct clusters. When dispersant cannot uniformly disperse graphene in asphalt, graphene clusters primarily form medium-sized grains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Geometric Characteristics of BOF Slag Coarse Aggregate and its Influence on Asphalt Concrete
Materials 2019, 12(5), 741; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12050741
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 23 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 4 March 2019
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Abstract
In order to examine the geometric characteristics of BOF (blast oxygen furnace) slag coarse aggregate, the aggregate image measurement system (AIMS) was used to analyze the sphericity, gradient angularity and micro texture. Both volumetric and mechanical properties were studied to evaluate the influence [...] Read more.
In order to examine the geometric characteristics of BOF (blast oxygen furnace) slag coarse aggregate, the aggregate image measurement system (AIMS) was used to analyze the sphericity, gradient angularity and micro texture. Both volumetric and mechanical properties were studied to evaluate the influence of geometric characteristics of BOF slag coarse aggregate on asphalt concrete. The experimental results show that the BOF slag coarse aggregate has the characteristics of high sphericity, good angular performance and rough surface texture. The geometric characteristics of BOF slag has obvious influence on the volume performance of asphalt concrete. the higher sphericity of BOF slag causes an increase of the air voids of asphalt mixture. BOF slag coarse aggregate can effectively improve the road performances of asphalt concrete. BOF slag’s higher sphericity and angularity improve the moisture damage resistance and rutting resistance of asphalt concrete. Results indicate that better angularity can slightly enhance the moisture resistance property of asphalt concrete, but excessively high angularity of BOF slag coarse aggregates reduces the anti-rutting properties of asphalt mixture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Aging Characteristics of Bitumen from Different Bituminous Pavement Structures in Service
Materials 2019, 12(3), 530; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12030530
Received: 20 January 2019 / Revised: 30 January 2019 / Accepted: 31 January 2019 / Published: 10 February 2019
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Abstract
The aging of bitumen seriously affects the service life of bituminous pavements. At present, there are many related researches on bitumen aging, but most of them focus on aging endured in indoor surroundings and conditions. Therefore, the conclusions obtained cannot reflect the actual [...] Read more.
The aging of bitumen seriously affects the service life of bituminous pavements. At present, there are many related researches on bitumen aging, but most of them focus on aging endured in indoor surroundings and conditions. Therefore, the conclusions obtained cannot reflect the actual aging changes of bitumen in bituminous pavements in service. In order to study the comprehensive aging process and mechanism of bitumen under the influence of service, we studied bridge deck, traffic lane, and ramp with bituminous pavement structures in service. The bitumen samples obtained from the core samples in different bituminous pavement structures were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic shear rheometer (DSR), and fluorescence microscope (FM). The aging degree of different bitumen was analyzed, and conclusions were drawn on changes to bitumen aging from different pavement structures. The results showed that the aging degree of bitumen from the upper layer was the most serious, the aging degree of bitumen at the middle layer was weaker than that of bitumen from the upper layer, and the aging degree of bitumen from the bottom layer was the weakest for the different bituminous pavement structures. The aging of bitumen mainly occurred due to oxygen absorption. After aging, viscoelastic components of bitumen changed, and bitumen became harder. The macromolecule of bitumen could be divided into small molecules, and the small molecular weight of bitumen became large. The styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) modifier in the modified bitumen became granular after aging, and it appeared as a single phase in bitumen. The aging changes characterized by different analytical methods showed that the aging degree of bitumen from different layers of bituminous pavement structures in service was different. Effective measures should therefore be taken in time to decrease further aging of bitumen from the upper layer of bituminous pavements due to its inevitable early aging in service. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Damage Detection of Asphalt Concrete Using Piezo-Ultrasonic Wave Technology
Materials 2019, 12(3), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12030443
Received: 24 December 2018 / Revised: 20 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 31 January 2019
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Abstract
Asphalt concrete has been widely used in road engineering as a surface material. Meanwhile, ultrasonic testing technology has also been developed rapidly. Aiming to evaluate the feasibility of the ultrasonic wave method, the present work reports a laboratory investigation on damage detection of [...] Read more.
Asphalt concrete has been widely used in road engineering as a surface material. Meanwhile, ultrasonic testing technology has also been developed rapidly. Aiming to evaluate the feasibility of the ultrasonic wave method, the present work reports a laboratory investigation on damage detection of asphalt concrete using piezo-ultrasonic wave technology. The gradation of AC-13 was selected and prepared based on the Marshall’s design. The ultrasonic wave velocities of samples were tested with different environmental conditions firstly. After that, the samples were destroyed into two types, one was drilled and the other was grooved. And the ultrasonic wave velocities of pretreated samples were tested again. Furthermore, the relationship between velocity and damaged process was evaluated based on three point bending test. The test results indicated that piezoelectric ultrasonic wave is a promising technology for damage detection of asphalt concrete with considerable benefits. The ultrasonic velocity decreases with the voidage increases. In a saturated water environment, the measured velocity of ultrasonic wave increased. In a dry environment (50 °C), the velocity the ultrasonic waves increased too. After two freeze-thaw cycles, the voidage increased and the ultrasonic velocity decreased gradually. After factitious damage, the wave must travel through or most likely around the damage, the ultrasonic velocity decreased. During the process of three point bending test, the ultrasonic velocity increased firstly and then decreased slowly until it entered into a steady phase. At last the velocity of ultrasonic wave decreased rapidly. In addition, the errors of the results under different test conditions need to be further studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of Asphalt Mixture Moduli under Different Stress States
Materials 2019, 12(3), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12030397
Received: 3 January 2019 / Revised: 20 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 27 January 2019
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Abstract
Modulus testing methods under various test conditions have a large influence on modulus test results, which hinders the accurate evaluation of the stiffness of asphalt mixtures. In order to decrease the uncertainty in the stiffness characteristics of asphalt mixtures under various stress states, [...] Read more.
Modulus testing methods under various test conditions have a large influence on modulus test results, which hinders the accurate evaluation of the stiffness of asphalt mixtures. In order to decrease the uncertainty in the stiffness characteristics of asphalt mixtures under various stress states, the traditional unconfined compression test, direct tensile test, and the synchronous test method, based on the indirect tension and four-point bending tests, were carried out for different loading frequencies. Results showed that modulus test results were highly sensitive to the shape, size, and stress state of the specimen. Additionally, existing modulus characteristics did not reduce these differences. There is a certain correlation between the elastic modulus ratio and the frequency ratio for asphalt under multiple stress states. The modulus, under multiple stress states, was processed using min–max normalization. Then, the standardization model for tensile and compressive characteristics of asphalt under diverse stress states was established based on the sample preparation, modulus ratio variations, and loading frequency ratio. A method for deriving other moduli from one modulus was realized. It is difficult to evaluate the stiffness performance in diverse stress states for asphalt by only using conventional compressive and tensile tests. However, taking into account the effects of stress states and loading frequencies, standardized models can be used to reduce or even eliminate these effects. The model realizes the unification of different modulus test results, and provides a theoretical, methodological, and technical basis for objectively evaluating moduli. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Laboratory and Numerical Investigation of Microwave Heating Properties of Asphalt Mixture
Materials 2019, 12(1), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12010146
Received: 12 December 2018 / Revised: 25 December 2018 / Accepted: 28 December 2018 / Published: 4 January 2019
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Abstract
Microwave heating is an encouraging heating technology for the maintenance, recycling, and deicing of asphalt pavement. To investigate the microwave heating properties of asphalt mixture, laboratory tests and numerical simulations were done and compared. Two types of Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA) mixture samples [...] Read more.
Microwave heating is an encouraging heating technology for the maintenance, recycling, and deicing of asphalt pavement. To investigate the microwave heating properties of asphalt mixture, laboratory tests and numerical simulations were done and compared. Two types of Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA) mixture samples (with basalt aggregates and steel slag aggregates) were heated using a microwave oven for different times. Numerical simulation models of microwave heating of asphalt mixture were developed with finite element software COMSOL Multiphysics. The main thermal and electromagnetic properties of asphalt mixture, served as the model input parameters, were measured through a series of laboratory tests. Both laboratory-measured and numerical simulated surface temperatures were recorded and analyzed. Results show that the replacement of basalt aggregates with steel slag aggregates can significantly increase the microwave heating efficiency of asphalt mixture. Numerical simulation results have a good correlation with laboratory test results. It is feasible to use the developed model coupling electromagnetic waves with heat transfer to simulate the microwave heating process of asphalt mixture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Rheological and Interaction Analysis of Asphalt Binder, Mastic and Mortar
Materials 2019, 12(1), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12010128
Received: 6 December 2018 / Revised: 21 December 2018 / Accepted: 27 December 2018 / Published: 2 January 2019
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Abstract
This paper investigated the rheological properties of asphalt binder, asphalt mastic and asphalt mortar and the interaction between asphalt binder, mineral filler and fine aggregates. Asphalt binder, mastic and mortar can be regarded as the binding phase at different scales in asphalt concrete. [...] Read more.
This paper investigated the rheological properties of asphalt binder, asphalt mastic and asphalt mortar and the interaction between asphalt binder, mineral filler and fine aggregates. Asphalt binder, mastic and mortar can be regarded as the binding phase at different scales in asphalt concrete. Asphalt mastic is a blend of asphalt binder and mineral filler smaller than 0.075 mm while asphalt mortar consists of asphalt binder, mineral filler and fine aggregate smaller than 2.36 mm. The material compositions of mastic and mortar were determined from the commonly used asphalt mixtures. Dynamic shear rheometer was used to conduct rheological analysis on asphalt binder, mastic and mortar. The obtained test data on complex modulus and phase angle were used for the construction of rheological master curves and the investigation of asphalt-filler/aggregate interaction. Test results indicated a modulus increase of three- to five-fold with the addition of filler and a further increase of one to two orders of magnitude with cumulative addition of fine aggregates into asphalt binder. Fine aggregates resulted in a phase change for mortar at high temperatures and low frequencies. The filler had stronger physical interaction than fine aggregate with an interaction parameter of 1.8–2.8 and 1.15–1.35 respectively. Specific area could enhance asphalt-filler interaction. The mastic and mortar modulus can be well predicted based on asphalt binder modulus by using particle filling effect. Asphalt mortar had a significant modulus reinforcement and phase change and thus could be the closest subscale in terms of performance to that of asphalt mixtures. It could be a vital scale that bridges the gap between asphalt binder and asphalt mixtures in multiscale performance analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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