Special Issue "Nanomaterials in Health Care Diagnostics"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Advanced Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 August 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Zeynep Altintas
Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Chemistry, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin 10623, Germany
Interests: diagnostics; micro-fluidics and lab-on-a-chip devices; sensor applications in medical diagnosis; chemistry; food safety and biotechnology; nanomaterials in health care diagnostics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Applications of nanomaterials in health care diagnostics have gained immense interest in recent years owing to their superior properties compared to traditional materials. Many different areas of applications have been identified spanning from monitoring a disease or treatment to identification of tissue types in the case of transplant need. Nanomaterials extensively explored for health care diagnostics are predominantly either purely organic or inorganic materials, or combination of both, i.e., hybrid nanomaterials. Organic nanomaterials including carbon nanotubes, nanocrystals, liposomes, dendrimers, micelles, hyper-branched organic polymers, molecularly imprinted nanostructures and polymeric hydrogel nanoparticles have been broadly utilized as imaging and therapeutic agents. Inorganic nanomaterials, such as quantum dots, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, metallic nanoparticles, and metal oxides, have also attracted great attention for health care diagnostics, particularly in biosensing and biosensor construction. These materials have critical applications for various molecular imaging techniques including magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, computed tomography, single-photon emission tomography, optical imaging, and ultrasound imaging techniques.

The unique and admirable characteristics of nanomaterials also allow a wide range of diagnostic approach, such as surface modification with nanomaterials to obtain more available binding sites for immobilized binding receptor molecules and signal enhancement using nanoparticle-labelled disease biomarkers to improve sensitivity and specificity of the bio-detection assays. Nanomaterials have been expanding the current situation of molecular diagnostics, point-of-care diagnosis, disease care with therapeutics, and also personalized medicine. The integration of biomarker discovery into the nanodevices with the combination and modifications of nanomaterials have improved the clinical and research-based applications for cancer, cardiovascular, infectious and neurological diseases in recent years. The further engineered nanomaterials, in combination with the current developments, will spectacularly impact health care diagnostics and result in synergetic medical solutions.

This Special Issue focuses on the use of organic/inorganic or hybrid nanomaterials for health care diagnostics applications. We invite full research papers, review articles and communications covering one or several of the topics included in (or related to) the keywords below. We would like to bring together up-to-date researches from distinguished groups and a collection of comprehensive reviews from leading experts in the scientific community.

Dr. Zeynep Altintas
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nanomaterial synthesis and characterization
  • Biosensing
  • Biomedical sensors
  • Cancer
  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Infectious diseases
  • Neurodegenerative disorders
  • Biomedical imaging
  • Drug delivery
  • Diagnostics
  • Therapy development

Published Papers (9 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
Surface Enhanced CdSe/ZnS QD/SiNP Electrochemical Immunosensor for the Detection of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis by Combination of CFP10-ESAT6 for Better Diagnostic Specificity
Materials 2020, 13(1), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13010149 - 31 Dec 2019
Abstract
In this study, an electrochemical immunosensor was introduced for the detection of tuberculosis (TB) via utilization of a modified electrode containing a quantum dot (CdSe/ZnS QD) and functionalized silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) on screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) CdSe/ZnS QD/SiNPs/SPCE, by employing indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent [...] Read more.
In this study, an electrochemical immunosensor was introduced for the detection of tuberculosis (TB) via utilization of a modified electrode containing a quantum dot (CdSe/ZnS QD) and functionalized silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) on screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) CdSe/ZnS QD/SiNPs/SPCE, by employing indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Here, the fabricated electrode was linked to the biocatalytic action of enzyme catalase through antigen–antibody binding for the detection of the antigen (CFP10–ESAT6) by means of producing a differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) current. The characterization and cyclic voltammetry (CV) of the modified electrode showed good electrochemical behavior and enhanced high electron transfer between the electrode and analyte. Moreover, the active surface area was 4.14-fold higher than the bare SPCE. The developed method showed high selectivity towards CFP10–ESAT6 compared with the other TB proteins. The detection of CFP10–ESAT6 also showed a linear response towards different concentrations of CFP10–ESAT6 with R2 = 0.9937, yielding a limit of detection (LOD) of as low as 1.5 × 10−10 g/mL for a linear range of 40 to 100 ng/mL of CFP10–ESAT6 concentration. The proposed method showed good reproducibility of target analyte with a relative standard deviation of 1.45%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Health Care Diagnostics)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Electrochemical Detection of Solution Phase Hybridization Related to Single Nucleotide Mutation by Carbon Nanofibers Enriched Electrodes
Materials 2019, 12(20), 3377; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12203377 - 16 Oct 2019
Abstract
In the present study, a sensitive and selective impedimetric detection of solution-phase nucleic acid hybridization related to Factor V Leiden (FV Leiden) mutation was performed by carbon nanofibers (CNF) modified screen printed electrodes (SPE). The microscopic and electrochemical characterization of CNF-SPEs was explored [...] Read more.
In the present study, a sensitive and selective impedimetric detection of solution-phase nucleic acid hybridization related to Factor V Leiden (FV Leiden) mutation was performed by carbon nanofibers (CNF) modified screen printed electrodes (SPE). The microscopic and electrochemical characterization of CNF-SPEs was explored in comparison to the unmodified electrodes. Since the FV Leiden mutation is a widespread inherited risk factor predisposing to venous thromboembolism, this study herein aimed to perform the impedimetric detection of FV Leiden mutation by a zip nucleic acid (ZNA) probe-based assay in combination with CNF-SPEs. The selectivity of the assay was then examined against the mutation-free DNA sequences as well as the synthetic PCR samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Health Care Diagnostics)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Silver Nanoparticle-Based Assay for the Detection of Immunoglobulin Free Light Chains
Materials 2019, 12(18), 2981; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12182981 - 15 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
There is a wide spectrum of malignant diseases that are connected with the clonal proliferation of plasma cells, which cause the production of complete immunoglobulins or their fragments (heavy or light immunoglobulin chains). These proteins may accumulate in tissues, leading to end organ [...] Read more.
There is a wide spectrum of malignant diseases that are connected with the clonal proliferation of plasma cells, which cause the production of complete immunoglobulins or their fragments (heavy or light immunoglobulin chains). These proteins may accumulate in tissues, leading to end organ damage. The quantitative determination of immunoglobulin free light chains (FLCs) is considered to be the gold standard in the detection and treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) and amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis. In this study, a silver nanoparticle-based diagnostic tool for the quantitation of FLCs is presented. The optimal test conditions were achieved when a metal nanoparticle (MNP) was covered with 10 particles of an antibody and conjugated by 5–50 protein antigen particles (FLCs). The formation of the second antigen protein corona was accompanied by noticeable changes in the surface plasmon resonance spectra of the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which coincided with an increase of the hydrodynamic diameter and increase in the zeta potential, as demonstrated by dynamic light scattering (DLS). A decrease of repulsion forces and the formation of antigen–antibody bridges resulted in the agglutination of AgNPs, as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy and the direct formation of AgNP aggregates. Antigen-conjugated AgNPs clusters were also found by direct observation using green laser light scattering. The parameters of the specific immunochemical aggregation process consistent with the sizes of AgNPs and the protein particles that coat them were confirmed by four physical methods, yielding complementary data concerning a clinically useful AgNPs aggregation test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Health Care Diagnostics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Graphene Quantum Dots as Nanozymes for Electrochemical Sensing of Yersinia enterocolitica in Milk and Human Serum
Materials 2019, 12(13), 2189; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12132189 - 08 Jul 2019
Cited by 12
Abstract
The genus Yersinia contains three well-recognized human pathogens, including Y. enterocolitica, Y. pestis, and Y. pseudotuberculosis. Various domesticated and wild animals carry Yersinia in their intestines. Spread to individuals arises from eating food or water contaminated by infected human or [...] Read more.
The genus Yersinia contains three well-recognized human pathogens, including Y. enterocolitica, Y. pestis, and Y. pseudotuberculosis. Various domesticated and wild animals carry Yersinia in their intestines. Spread to individuals arises from eating food or water contaminated by infected human or animal faeces. Interaction with infected pets and domestic stock may also lead to infection. Yersinia is able to multiply at temperatures found in normal refrigerators; hence, a large number of the bacteria may be present if meat is kept without freezing. Yersinia is also rarely transmitted by blood transfusion, because it is able to multiply in stored blood products. Infection with Yersinia can cause yersiniosis, a serious bacterial infection associated with fever, abdominal pain and cramps, diarrhea, joint pain, and symptoms similar to appendicitis in older children and adults. This paper describes a novel immunosensor approach using graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as enzyme mimics in an electrochemical sensor set up to provide an efficient diagnostic method for Y. enterecolitica. The optimum assay conditions were initially determined and the developed immunosensor was subsequently used for the detection of the bacterium in milk and human serum. The GQD-immunosensor enabled the quantification of Y. enterocolitica in a wide concentration range with a high sensitivity (LODmilk = 5 cfu mL−1 and LODserum = 30 cfu mL−1) and specificity. The developed method can be used for any pathogenic bacteria detection for clinical and food samples without pre-sample treatment. Offering a very rapid, specific and sensitive detection with a label-free system, the GQD-based immunosensor can be coupled with many electrochemical biosensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Health Care Diagnostics)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
A Copper Oxide/Zinc Oxide Composite Nano-Surface for Use in a Biosensor
Materials 2019, 12(7), 1126; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12071126 - 06 Apr 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
In this study, biosensors based on zinc oxide–copper oxide composite nano-surfaces were prepared using a simple and inexpensive distributed colloidal technique. Combinations of mixed dispersions with volume ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1 ZnO:CuO were compared. The uniform nano-crystalline sensor surfaces on polyethylene [...] Read more.
In this study, biosensors based on zinc oxide–copper oxide composite nano-surfaces were prepared using a simple and inexpensive distributed colloidal technique. Combinations of mixed dispersions with volume ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1 ZnO:CuO were compared. The uniform nano-crystalline sensor surfaces on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Raman Spectroscopy. The ZnO–CuO composite biosensor nano-surfaces showed a significantly increased impedimetric signal compared with pure ZnO nanocrystals, and the maximum output was achieved with a volume ratio of 1:2 ZnO/CuO. The antibody capture of C-reactive protein (CRP) on the nano-surfaces was used to demonstrate the enhanced signal generated with increasing amounts of CuO in the nano-surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Health Care Diagnostics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Nanoparticle Enhanced Antibody and DNA Biosensors for Sensitive Detection of Salmonella
Materials 2018, 11(9), 1541; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11091541 - 27 Aug 2018
Cited by 14
Abstract
Bacteria-related pathogenic diseases are one of the major health problems throughout the world. Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria of which more than 2600 serotypes have been identified. Infection with Salmonella can cause salmonellosis, a serious bacterial toxi-infection syndrome associated with [...] Read more.
Bacteria-related pathogenic diseases are one of the major health problems throughout the world. Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria of which more than 2600 serotypes have been identified. Infection with Salmonella can cause salmonellosis, a serious bacterial toxi-infection syndrome associated with gastroenteritis, and paralyphoid and typhoid fevers. Its rapid and sensitive detection is a key to the prevention of problems related to health. This paper describes the development of antibody and DNA sensors for Salmonella detection using a microfluidic-based electrochemical system. Commercial Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella typhimurium from human stool samples were investigated using standard and nanomaterial-amplified antibody sensors. S. typhimurium could be detected down to 1 cfu mL−1. The specificity of immunoassay was tested by studying with non-specific bacteria including E. coli and S. aureus that revealed only 2.01% and 2.66% binding when compared to the target bacterium. On the other hand, the quantification of Salmonella DNA was investigated in a concentration range of 0.002–200 µM using the developed DNA biosensor that demonstrated very high specificity and sensitivity with a detection limit of 0.94 nM. Our custom-designed microfluidic sensor offers rapid, highly sensitive, and specific diagnostic assay approaches for pathogen detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Health Care Diagnostics)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Combination of Vancomycin and Cefazolin Lipid Nanoparticles for Overcoming Antibiotic Resistance of MRSA
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1245; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071245 - 20 Jul 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Vancomycin is the treatment of choice for infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Clinically, combinations of vancomycin (VAN) and beta-lactams have been shown to improve patient outcomes compared to VAN alone for the treatment of MRSA bloodstream infections. However, VAN is known [...] Read more.
Vancomycin is the treatment of choice for infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Clinically, combinations of vancomycin (VAN) and beta-lactams have been shown to improve patient outcomes compared to VAN alone for the treatment of MRSA bloodstream infections. However, VAN is known to cause nephrotoxicity, which could be ameliorated using biocompatible lipid drug delivery systems or liposomes. Previous attempts have been made for encapsulation of VAN in liposomes; however, drug loading has been poor, mainly because of the high aqueous solubility of VAN. In this study, we report a robust method to achieve high loading of VAN and cefazolin (CFZ) in unilamellar liposomes. Liposomes of sizes between 170–198 nm were prepared by modified reverse phase evaporation method and achieved high loading of 40% and 26% (weight/weight) for VAN and CFZ, respectively. Liposomal VAN reduced minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values 2-fold in comparison to commercial VAN. The combination of liposomal VAN (LVAN) and liposomal CFZ (LCFZ) demonstrated a 7.9-fold reduction compared to LVAN alone. Rhodamine dye-loaded liposomes demonstrated superior cellular uptake in macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells. Fluorescent images of LVAN-encapsulating near-infrared (NIR) dye, S0456 (LVAN-S0456) clearly indicated that LVAN-S0456 had reduced renal excretion with very low fluorescent intensity in the kidneys. It is anticipated that the long circulation and reduced kidney clearance of LVAN-S0456 compared to VAN-S0456 injected in mice can lead to enhanced efficacy against MRSA infections with reduced nephrotoxicity. Overall, our developed formulations of VAN when administered alone or in combination with CFZ, provide a rational approach for combating MRSA infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Health Care Diagnostics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Graphene Quantum Dot-Based Electrochemical Immunosensors for Biomedical Applications
Materials 2020, 13(1), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13010096 - 23 Dec 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
In the area of biomedicine, research for designing electrochemical sensors has evolved over the past decade, since it is crucial to selectively quantify biomarkers or pathogens in clinical samples for the efficacious diagnosis and/or treatment of various diseases. To fulfil the demand of [...] Read more.
In the area of biomedicine, research for designing electrochemical sensors has evolved over the past decade, since it is crucial to selectively quantify biomarkers or pathogens in clinical samples for the efficacious diagnosis and/or treatment of various diseases. To fulfil the demand of rapid, specific, economic, and easy detection of such biomolecules in ultralow amounts, numerous nanomaterials have been explored to effectively enhance the sensitivity, selectivity, and reproducibility of immunosensors. Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have garnered tremendous attention in immunosensor development, owing to their special attributes such as large surface area, excellent biocompatibility, quantum confinement, edge effects, and abundant sites for chemical modification. Besides these distinct features, GQDs acquire peroxidase (POD)-mimicking electro-catalytic activity, and hence, they can replace horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-based systems to conduct facile, quick, and inexpensive label-free immunoassays. The chief motive of this review article is to summarize and focus on the recent advances in GQD-based electrochemical immunosensors for the early and rapid detection of cancer, cardiovascular disorders, and pathogenic diseases. Moreover, the underlying principles of electrochemical immunosensing techniques are also highlighted. These GQD immunosensors are ubiquitous in biomedical diagnosis and conducive for miniaturization, encouraging low-cost disease diagnostics in developing nations using point-of-care testing (POCT) and similar allusive techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Health Care Diagnostics)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Salivary Exosomes as Nanocarriers for Cancer Biomarker Delivery
Materials 2019, 12(4), 654; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12040654 - 21 Feb 2019
Cited by 11
Abstract
Human saliva is an ideal body fluid for developing non-invasive diagnostics. Saliva contains naturally-occurring nanoparticles with unique structural and biochemical characteristics. The salivary exosome, a nanoscale extracellular vesicle, has been identified as a highly informative nanovesicle with clinically-relevant information. Salivary exosomes have brought [...] Read more.
Human saliva is an ideal body fluid for developing non-invasive diagnostics. Saliva contains naturally-occurring nanoparticles with unique structural and biochemical characteristics. The salivary exosome, a nanoscale extracellular vesicle, has been identified as a highly informative nanovesicle with clinically-relevant information. Salivary exosomes have brought forth a pathway and mechanism by which cancer-derived biomarkers can be shuttled through the systemic circulation into the oral cavity. Despite such clinical potential, routine and reliable analyses of exosomes remain challenging due to their small sizes. Characterization of individual exosome nanostructures provides critical data for understanding their pathophysiological condition and diagnostic potential. In this review, we summarize a current array of discovered salivary biomarkers and nanostructural properties of salivary exosomes associated with specific cancers. In addition, we describe a novel electrochemical sensing technology, EFIRM (electric field-induced release and measurement), that advances saliva liquid biopsy, covering the current landscape of point-of-care saliva testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Health Care Diagnostics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop