Special Issue "Advanced Materials for Clothing and Textile Engineering"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Smart Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 March 2022.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Dubravko Rogale
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Clothing Technology, Faculty of Textile Technology, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: intelligent clothing; joining technique of garment; development of measuring devices and systems; thermal properties of materials and clothing; process parameters in clothing engineering

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recently, there has been a significant increase in the research of textile materials, conventional, protective, smart, and intelligent clothing. This applies in particular to aspects of health protection and protection against the negative impact of the environment on human health. Research in the field of textile and clothing engineering, in addition to increasing the level of health protection, contributes to increasing the value of clothing. The price of clothing also includes the price of scientific research and expensive sophisticated materials. Therefore, more than ever, multidisciplinary research applied to the field of application of new textile materials and new techniques of processing and joining materials are needed. The main objective of this Special Issue includes but is not limited to advanced materials for clothing and their properties, design and computer construction of clothing, process parameters of textile and garment production, textile and garment production, principles and applications of joining techniques of garment using thermal connecting by conduction and convection, ultrasonic and high frequency techniques, wearable computers, conventional and protective clothing, smart textile and clothing, intelligent clothing, textile and clothing engineering, and test and measurement techniques in textile and clothing engineering.

I expect great interest in these new, modern topics and contributions from your research and knowledge, because of the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to the topics.

Prof. Dr. Dubravko Rogale
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Textile and garment production
  • Advanced materials for clothing
  • Design and construction of clothing
  • Joining technique of clothing
  • Properties of textile and clothing
  • Wearable computer
  • Smart and intelligent clothing

Published Papers (12 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Article
Study of the Filtration Performance of Multilayer and Multiscale Fibrous Structures
Materials 2021, 14(23), 7147; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14237147 - 24 Nov 2021
Viewed by 162
Abstract
As the incidence of small-diameter particles in the air has increased in recent decades, the development of efficient filtration systems is both urgent and necessary. Nanotechnology, more precisely, electrospun nanofibres, has been identified as a potential solution for this issue, since it allows [...] Read more.
As the incidence of small-diameter particles in the air has increased in recent decades, the development of efficient filtration systems is both urgent and necessary. Nanotechnology, more precisely, electrospun nanofibres, has been identified as a potential solution for this issue, since it allows for the production of membranes with high rates of fibres per unit area, increasing the probability of nanoparticle collision and consequent retention. In the present study, the electrospinning technique of polyamide nanofibre production was optimized with the variation of parameters such as polymer concentration, flow rate and needle diameter. The optimized polyamide nanofibres were combined with polypropylene and polyester microfibres to construct a multilayer and multiscale system with an increased filtration efficiency. We observed that the penetration value of the multilayer system with a PA membrane in the composition, produced for 20 min in the electrospinning, is 2.7 times smaller than the penetration value of the system with the absence of micro and nano fibers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Clothing and Textile Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Influence of Finishing on the Pilling Resistance of Linen/Silk Woven Fabrics
Materials 2021, 14(22), 6787; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14226787 - 10 Nov 2021
Viewed by 251
Abstract
The pilling resistance of fashion fabrics is a fundamentally important and frequently occurring problem during cloth wearing. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the pilling performance of linen/silk woven fabrics with different mechanical and chemical finishing, establishing the influence of the [...] Read more.
The pilling resistance of fashion fabrics is a fundamentally important and frequently occurring problem during cloth wearing. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the pilling performance of linen/silk woven fabrics with different mechanical and chemical finishing, establishing the influence of the raw material and the peculiarities of dyeing and digital printing with different dyestuff. The pilling results of the dyed fabrics were better than those of the grey fabrics and even a small amount of synthetic fiber worsened the pilling performance of the fabric. Singeing influenced the change in the pilling resistance of the linen/silk fabrics without changing the final pilling resistance result. Singeing had a stronger influence on the fabrics with a small amount of synthetic fibers. The pilling resistance of printed fabrics was better than that of grey and dyed fabrics without and with singeing. The pilling resistance of pigment-printed fabrics was better than that of the reactive-printed fabrics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Clothing and Textile Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Analysis of Polygonal Computer Model Parameters and Influence on Fabric Drape Simulation
Materials 2021, 14(21), 6259; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216259 - 21 Oct 2021
Viewed by 312
Abstract
Contemporary CAD systems enable 3D clothing simulation for the purpose of predicting the appearance and behavior of conventional and intelligent clothing in real conditions. The physical and mechanical properties of the fabric and the simulation parameters play an important role in this issue. [...] Read more.
Contemporary CAD systems enable 3D clothing simulation for the purpose of predicting the appearance and behavior of conventional and intelligent clothing in real conditions. The physical and mechanical properties of the fabric and the simulation parameters play an important role in this issue. The paper presents an analysis of the parameters of the polygonal computer model that affect fabric drape simulation. Experimental research on physical and mechanical properties were performed for nine fabrics. For this purpose, the values of the parameters for the tensile, bending, shear, and compression properties were determined at low loads, while the complex deformations were analyzed using Cusick drape meter devices. The fabric drape simulations were performed using the 2D/3D CAD system for a computer clothing design on a disk model, corresponding to real testing on the drape tester in order to allow a correlation analysis between the values of drape parameters of the simulated fabrics and the realistically measured values for each fabric. Each fabric was simulated as a polygonal model with a variable related to the side length of the polygon to analyze the influence of the polygon size, i.e., mesh density, on the model behavior in the simulation. Based on the simulated fabric drape shape, the values of the areas within the curves necessary to calculate the drape coefficients of the simulated fabrics were determined in the program for 3D modelling. The results were statistically processed and correlations between the values of the drape coefficients and the optimal parameters for simulating certain physical and mechanical properties of the fabric were determined. The results showed that the mesh density of the polygonal model is an important parameter for the simulation results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Clothing and Textile Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Moisture Vapor Permeability and Thermal Wear Comfort of Ecofriendly Fiber-Embedded Woven Fabrics for High-Performance Clothing
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6205; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14206205 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 345
Abstract
This study examined the moisture vapor permeability and thermal wear comfort of ecofriendly fiber-embedded woven fabrics in terms of the yarn structure and the constituent fiber characteristics according to two measuring methods. The moisture vapor permeability measured using the upright cup (CaCl2 [...] Read more.
This study examined the moisture vapor permeability and thermal wear comfort of ecofriendly fiber-embedded woven fabrics in terms of the yarn structure and the constituent fiber characteristics according to two measuring methods. The moisture vapor permeability measured using the upright cup (CaCl2) method (JIS L 1099A-1) was primarily dependent on the hygroscopicity of the ecofriendly constituent fibers in the yarns and partly influenced by the pore size in the fabric because of the yarn structure. On the other hand, the moisture vapor resistance measured using the sweating guarded hot plate method (ISO 11092) was governed mainly by the fabric pore size and partly by the hygroscopicity of the constituent ecofriendly fibers. The difference between the two measuring methods was attributed to the different mechanisms in the measuring method. The thermal conductivity as a measure of the thermal wear comfort of the composite yarn fabrics was governed primarily by the pore size in the fabric and partly by the thermal characteristics of the constituent fibers in the yarns. Lastly, considering market applications, the Coolmax®/Tencel sheath/core fabric appears useful for winter warm feeling clothing because of its the good breathability with low thermal conductivity. The bamboo and Coolmax®/bamboo fabrics are suitable for summer clothing with a cool feel because of their high thermal conductivity with good breathability. Overall, ecofriendly fibers (bamboo and Tencel) are of practical use for marketing environmentallyfriendly high-performance clothing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Clothing and Textile Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Method of Predicting the Crimp of Jacquard-Woven Fabrics
Materials 2021, 14(18), 5157; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14185157 - 08 Sep 2021
Viewed by 639
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of crimp in new jacquard fabric structures (in which one-layer and two-layer weaves are combined) in the fabric width and to create a method of crimp prediction. It was established that crimp was [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of crimp in new jacquard fabric structures (in which one-layer and two-layer weaves are combined) in the fabric width and to create a method of crimp prediction. It was established that crimp was around 18.80% and changed within the limits of errors, i.e., a range of only ~4%, in the fabric width. It can therefore be said that the warp crimp was constant in the fabric width. Because the warp crimp of jacquard fabric changed insignificantly (within the limits of errors), it can be stated that the fabric-setting parameters and structural solutions were chosen and matched correctly, and such fabric can be woven on any jacquard weaving loom. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Clothing and Textile Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Study Regarding the Kinematic 3D Human-Body Model Intended for Simulation of Personalized Clothes for a Sitting Posture
Materials 2021, 14(18), 5124; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14185124 - 07 Sep 2021
Viewed by 406
Abstract
This study deals with the development of a kinematic 3D human-body model with an improved armature in the pelvic region, intended for a sitting posture (SIT), using Blender software. It is based on the scanned female body in a standing posture (STA) and [...] Read more.
This study deals with the development of a kinematic 3D human-body model with an improved armature in the pelvic region, intended for a sitting posture (SIT), using Blender software. It is based on the scanned female body in a standing posture (STA) and SIT. Real and virtual measures of females’ lower-body circumferences for both postures were examined. Virtual prototyping of trousers was performed to investigate their fit and comfort on the scanned and kinematic 3D body models and to make comparison with real trousers. With the switch from STA to SIT, real and virtual lower-body circumferences increase and are reflected in the fit and comfort of virtual and real trousers. In SIT, the increased circumferences are attributed to the redistribution of body muscles and adipose tissue around the joints, as well as changes in joints’ shapes in body flexion regions, which are not uniformly represented on the kinematic sitting 3D body model, despite improved armature in the pelvic region. The study shows that average increases in waist, hip, thigh, and knee circumferences should be included in the process of basic clothing-pattern designs for SIT as minimal ease allowances, as should, in the future, armature designs that consider muscle and adipose tissues, to achieve realistic volumes for kinematic 3D body models in SIT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Clothing and Textile Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Study on Effect of Leather Rigidity and Thickness on Drapability of Sheep Garment Leather
Materials 2021, 14(16), 4553; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14164553 - 13 Aug 2021
Viewed by 426
Abstract
Understanding the performance and behavior of garment leathers provides valuable inputs for the design and production of leather garments. The drape is one of the important properties associated with garment fitness quality and appeal. This study aims to show how the independent variables [...] Read more.
Understanding the performance and behavior of garment leathers provides valuable inputs for the design and production of leather garments. The drape is one of the important properties associated with garment fitness quality and appeal. This study aims to show how the independent variables flexural rigidity and thickness affect the dependent variable drapability. Nowadays, studies on the drape of garment leathers are scarce. In this work, the drape coefficient (DC) was measured for sheep garment leather, which influences the garment drapability, such as flexural rigidity in the range of 9.2 to 22 and thickness in the range of 0.64 to 0.96. The average DC was calculated in the range of 47.35 to 69.9% for the selected sheep leathers from four samples. The drapability of the garment leather was determined using the DC. Flexural rigidity and thickness have been shown to have a considerable influence on the DC, while they do bear a significant relationship to the DC. The results of this study can be used as an elementary tool for leather selection of appropriate materials for garments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Clothing and Textile Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Textile Pattern Design in Thermal Vision—A Study on Human Body Camouflage
Materials 2021, 14(16), 4364; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14164364 - 04 Aug 2021
Viewed by 565
Abstract
This paper reports on a new approach to the creation process in fashion design as a result of the exploitation of thermal camouflage in the conceptualization of clothing. The thermal images’ main variation factors were obtained through the analysis of their color behavior [...] Read more.
This paper reports on a new approach to the creation process in fashion design as a result of the exploitation of thermal camouflage in the conceptualization of clothing. The thermal images’ main variation factors were obtained through the analysis of their color behavior in a (diurnal and nocturnal) outdoor beach environment, with the presence and absence of a dressed human body (through the use of a thermal imaging camera), such as the analysis of textile materials in a laboratory (simulating the captured outdoor atmospheric temperatures and those of the model’s skin using the climatic chamber and the thermal manikin). The combination of different patternmaking, sewing and printing techniques in textile materials, along with the study of the camouflage environment and the human body’s variation factors, as well as the introduction of biomimetic-inspired elements (chameleon’s skin), enabled the creation of a clothing design process with innovative de-sign elements which allow us to thermally camouflage the human body and take clothing beyond the visible spectrum in a functional and artistic way. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Clothing and Textile Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Development of 3D Models of Knits from Multi-Filament Ultra-Strong Yarns for Theoretical Modelling of Air Permeability
Materials 2021, 14(13), 3489; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14133489 - 23 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 473
Abstract
The work is devoted to the study of the geometric parameters of a knitted loop. It has been found that the optimal model is a loop model detailed at the yarn level, which considers the change in the cross-sectional shape and sets the [...] Read more.
The work is devoted to the study of the geometric parameters of a knitted loop. It has been found that the optimal model is a loop model detailed at the yarn level, which considers the change in the cross-sectional shape and sets the properties of the porous material in accordance with the internal porosity of the yarn. A mathematical description of the coordinates of the characteristic points of the loop and an algorithm for calculating the coordinates of the control vertices of the second order spline, which determine the configuration of the yarn axes in the loop, are presented in this work. To create 3D models, Autodesk AutoCAD software and Structura 3D software, developed in the AutoLisp programming language, were used. The simulation of the air flow process was carried out in the Autodesk CFD Simulation environment. For the experimental investigation, plane knits from 44 tex × 3 linear density ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene yarns were produced, and their air permeability was tested according to Standard DSTU ISO 9237:2003. The results obtained during the laboratory experiment and simulation differed by less than 5%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Clothing and Textile Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Impact of Elongation on Change in Electrical Resistance of Electrically Conductive Yarns Woven into Fabric
Materials 2021, 14(12), 3390; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14123390 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 533
Abstract
Electrically conductive yarns (ECYs) are gaining increasing applications in woven textile materials, especially in woven sensors suitable for incorporation into clothing. In this paper, the effect of the yarn count of ECYs woven into fabric on values of electrical resistance is analyzed. We [...] Read more.
Electrically conductive yarns (ECYs) are gaining increasing applications in woven textile materials, especially in woven sensors suitable for incorporation into clothing. In this paper, the effect of the yarn count of ECYs woven into fabric on values of electrical resistance is analyzed. We also observe how the direction of action of elongation force, considering the position of the woven ECY, effects the change in the electrical resistance of the electrically conductive fabric. The measurements were performed on nine different samples of fabric in a plain weave, into which were woven ECYs with three different yarn counts and three different directions. Relationship curves between values of elongation forces and elongation to break, as well as relationship curves between values of electrical resistance of fabrics with ECYs and elongation, were experimentally obtained. An analytical mathematical model was also established, and analysis was conducted, which determined the models of function of connection between force and elongation, and between electrical resistance and elongation. The connection between the measurement results and the mathematical model was confirmed. The connection between the mathematical model and the experimental results enables the design of ECY properties in woven materials, especially textile force and elongation sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Clothing and Textile Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Polyurethane Materials and Inflated Insulation Chambers
Materials 2021, 14(6), 1541; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14061541 - 21 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 595
Abstract
Evaluating mechanical and thermal characteristics of garment systems or their segments is important in an attempt to provide optimal or at least satisfying levels of comfort and safety, especially in the cold environment. The target groups of users may be athletes engaged in [...] Read more.
Evaluating mechanical and thermal characteristics of garment systems or their segments is important in an attempt to provide optimal or at least satisfying levels of comfort and safety, especially in the cold environment. The target groups of users may be athletes engaged in typical sports that are trained in the cold, as well as football players that play matches and train outdoors during the winter season. Previous studies indicated an option to substitute the inner layers of an intelligent garment with polyurethane inflated chambers (PIC) to increase and regulate thermal insulation. In this paper, the authors investigate the mechanical properties of polyurethane material with and without ultrasonic joints. Furthermore, they investigate the potential of designed PICs in terms of efficiency and interdependence of air pressure and heat resistance. The results indicated that an inflated PIC with four diagonal ultrasonic joints has the highest ability to maintain the optimal thermal properties of an intelligent clothing system. The influence of direction and number of ultrasonic joints on the mechanical properties of polyurethane material is confirmed, especially in terms of compression resilience and tensile energy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Clothing and Textile Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Electromagnetic Shielding Properties of Knitted Fabric Made from Polyamide Threads Coated with Silver
Materials 2021, 14(5), 1281; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14051281 - 08 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 618
Abstract
This paper investigates a textile material of low surface mass for its protection against electromagnetic radiation (EMR), which is suitable for composite structures of garments, and for technical and interior applications. The shielding effectiveness against EMR of fabric knitted from polyamide threads coated [...] Read more.
This paper investigates a textile material of low surface mass for its protection against electromagnetic radiation (EMR), which is suitable for composite structures of garments, and for technical and interior applications. The shielding effectiveness against EMR of fabric knitted from polyamide threads coated with silver, measured in the frequency range of 0.9 GHz to 2.4 GHz, indicated a high degree of protection. The key contribution of the paper is the evaluation of the stability of the shielding properties against EM radiation after applying apolar and polar solvents, in synergy with the cyclic process parameters of wet and dry cleaning. The results of the study confirmed the decline in the shielding effectiveness after successive cycles of material treatment with dry and wet cleaning. The effect of wet cleaning in relation to dry cleaning is more apparent, which is due to the damage of the silver coating on the polyamide threads in the knitted fabric. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Clothing and Textile Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Textile pattern design in thermal vision – study on human body camouflage

Authors: Catarina Pimenta1, Carla Morais2 and Raul Fangueiro3 

1,2 Centre for Textile Science and Technology, University of Minho, Guimarães, Portugal 

Faculty of Architecture, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal 

Abstract: This paper reports on a new approach to the creation process in fashion design as a result of the exploitation of thermal camouflage in the conceptualization of clothing. The thermal images' main variation factors were obtained through the analysis of their colour behaviour in a (diurnal and nocturnal) outdoor beach environment, with the presence and absence of a dressed human body (through the use of a thermal imaging camera), such as the analysis of textile materials in a laboratory (simulating the captured outdoor atmospheric temperatures and those of the model’s skin using the climatic chamber and the thermal manikin). The combination of different patternmaking, sewing and printing techniques in textile materials, along with the study of the camouflage environment and the human body's variation factors, as well as the introduction of biomimetic-inspired elements (chameleon's skin), enabled the creation of a clothing design process with innovative design elements which allow us to thermally camouflage the human body and take clothing beyond the visible spectrum in a functional and artistic way. 

Back to TopTop