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Special Issue "Advanced Design for Manufacturing Processes"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Manufacturing Processes and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (17 December 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dongkyoung Lee
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Kongju National University, Engineering Building 4 #223, 1223-24 Cheonandaero, Seobuk-gu, Cheonan 31080, Korea
Interests: advanced mechanical design and manufacturing processes; laser aided manufacturing; laser-aided manufacturing; laser cutting; laser welding; laser drilling; laser surface treatement; concrete composite materials; lithium-ion batteries; cell culture plate
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Sukhoon Pyo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 44919, Korea
Interests: ultra high performance concrete; sound-absorbable high performance concrete; railway; composites; sustainable construction materials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Manufacturing plays a significant role in the development of modern science and technology. More importantly, engineering products in the field of semiconductors, consumer electronics, mobile, display, automotive, ship-building, aviation, and building construction industries can be produced with the aid of advanced manufacturing technology. Advanced manufacturing industries increasingly integrate new innovative technologies in both products and processes. As advanced manufacturing processes are being adapted in wide engineering fields, the design of manufacturing is becoming important. Since material science and manufacturing include various engineering research areas, it is key to integrate a wide spectrum of knowledge in these research fields to accelerate government and industrial development. Therefore, this Special Issue on “Advanced Design for Manufacturing Processes” will aim to provide an opportunity to integrate a wide spectrum of knowledge in the field of material design and manufacturing processes.

This Special Issue of Materials focuses on all aspects of current scientific and technological progress related to the advanced design for manufacturing processes. Topics of interest include mechanical and material properties of materials for manufacturing design; advanced design of composite materials such as concrete composites; advanced manufacturing processes including laser aided manufacturing, additive manufacturing, and nano- and micromanufacturing; and material design and manufacturing of lithium–ion batteries.

It is my pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript for this Special Issue. Full papers, communications, and reviews that address advances in mechanical and materials design and manufacturing processes are welcome.

Prof. Dongkyoung Lee
Prof. Sukhoon Pyo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Manufacturing processes
  • Advanced design and manufacturing
  • Mechanical properties
  • Material properties
  • Mechanical engineering
  • Materials science and engineering
  • Composite materials
  • Ultra-high-performance concrete
  • Laser-aided manufacturing
  • Laser material processing
  • Nano- and micromanufacturing
  • Concrete composites
  • Material design and manufacturing of lithium–ion batteries
  • 3D printing
  • Additive manufacturing

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Application of 3D Scanning as an Indirect Method to Analyze and Eliminate Errors on the Manufactured Yoke-Type Forgings Forged in SMED Device on Modernized Crank Press
Materials 2021, 14(1), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14010137 - 30 Dec 2020
Viewed by 591
Abstract
This article proposes an indirect measurement method based on a dimensional and shape analysis of forgings for the evaluation of the manufacture and the proper operation of the key elements of the crank press, in which after modernization, a quick tool assembly based [...] Read more.
This article proposes an indirect measurement method based on a dimensional and shape analysis of forgings for the evaluation of the manufacture and the proper operation of the key elements of the crank press, in which after modernization, a quick tool assembly based on SMED (Single Minute Exchange of Die) was implemented. As a result of the introduced changes aiming at improving the forging aggregate and increasing the production efficiency, errors were observed on the manufactured products-forgings in the form of twists and joggles. In order to solve the problem, a lot of advanced methods was used, including: dynamic system of deformation analysis, numerical modeling and as well as dimensional and shape analysis by 3d scanning. Despite the above, this approach (classic way) did not solve the problem. A proprietary method with the use of 3D reverse scanning was proposed, which allows to solve the problem of forgings errors. Based on the measurement results and analyses for a few variants of production cycles, the necessary changes were obtained, making it possible to minimize the errors and obtain proper products in respect of geometry and quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Design for Manufacturing Processes)
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Article
Assessment of AlN/Mg–8Al Composites Reinforced with In Situ and/or Ex Situ AlN Particles
Materials 2021, 14(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14010052 - 24 Dec 2020
Viewed by 502
Abstract
In this paper, 8.2AlN/Mg–8Al composites reinforced with in situ and/or ex situ AlN particles have been synthesized. The in situ-formed AlN particles are nano-sized, performing as particle chains. It has been clarified that the in situ AlN particles are more efficient than ex [...] Read more.
In this paper, 8.2AlN/Mg–8Al composites reinforced with in situ and/or ex situ AlN particles have been synthesized. The in situ-formed AlN particles are nano-sized, performing as particle chains. It has been clarified that the in situ AlN particles are more efficient than ex situ particles for the enhancement of mechanical properties. The in situ-prepared composite exhibits improved density, hardness and compressive strength compared to the ex situ ones. This work may be referred to for designing particle-reinforced Mg composites by various methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Design for Manufacturing Processes)
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Article
Analysis and Modeling of the Micro-Cutting Process of Ti-6Al-4V Titanium Alloy with Single Abrasive Grain
Materials 2020, 13(24), 5835; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13245835 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 652
Abstract
Modeling of material displacements in the microcutting zone is complex due to the number and interdependence of factors affecting the results of the process. An important problem in the modeling process is the selection of the constitutive model and its parameters, which will [...] Read more.
Modeling of material displacements in the microcutting zone is complex due to the number and interdependence of factors affecting the results of the process. An important problem in the modeling process is the selection of the constitutive model and its parameters, which will correctly describe the properties of the material under the conditions of triaxial compression, which is characteristic for the areas of the contact zone of the blade and the processed material in abrasive machining processes. The aim of the work was to develop computer models (with the use of the finite element method) of the microcutting process with a single abrasive grain, which were verified with the results of experimental tests. The paper presents the methodology of modeling the processes of microcutting with abrasive grains, whose geometrical models were created based on optical scanning methods. Observations of the microcutting process were carried out with the use of a high-speed camera and an optical profilometer. This enabled a detailed observation of the chip formation process, as well as the analysis of the surface topography of microcutting traces. The results presented in the paper indicate the convergence of the results of the numerical and experimental simulations with regard to the geometric parameters describing the scratches formed in the microcutting process and the compliance of the chip-forming process. Thus, the correctness of the selection of the constitutive model (Johnson Cook equation) and its parameters was demonstrated, as well as the correctness of the applied methodology for creating a geometric model that allowed for a reflection of the geometrical parameters of the abrasive grains that coincided with the real objects, thanks to which it was possible to reflect in detail the phenomena occurring in the vicinity of the abrasive grain tip. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Design for Manufacturing Processes)
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Article
On the Elemental Impact Factor, a Method to Determine an Alloy’s Compositional Influences upon Phase Stability and Metallurgical Material Properties
Materials 2020, 13(24), 5747; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13245747 - 16 Dec 2020
Viewed by 669
Abstract
Design-driven materials engineering is gaining wider acceptance with the advancement and refinement of commercially available thermodynamic software as well as enhanced computing power. Computationally designed materials are a significant improvement over the more common and resource-intensive experimental approach to materials design by way [...] Read more.
Design-driven materials engineering is gaining wider acceptance with the advancement and refinement of commercially available thermodynamic software as well as enhanced computing power. Computationally designed materials are a significant improvement over the more common and resource-intensive experimental approach to materials design by way of trial and error. While not entirely eliminating experimental methods for alloy design, thermodynamic and kinetic models provide accurate predictions of phases within a given alloy, which enables material properties to be calculated. Accordingly, the present paper introduces a new technique that offers a systematic method of material design by way of utilizing commercial computational software, which has been termed the elemental impact factor. In turn, the present manuscript considers Al 6061 as a proof-of-concept metallic alloy system for elemental impact factor substantiation. Effects of chemical composition on resultant equilibrium and metastable material phases as well as properties can be efficiently assessed with the elemental impact factor framework for metallurgical materials design. Desired phases or properties may be produced by adding elements with a positive elemental impact factor, while deleterious phases or undesired properties may be reduced by adding elements with a negative elemental impact factor. Therefore, the elemental impact factor methodology was presented and then demonstrated herein with examples that showcase the technique’s potential applications and utility for integrated structure-processing-property-performance analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Design for Manufacturing Processes)
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Article
An Improved Approach to Direct Simulation of an Actual Almen Shot Peening Intensity Test with a Large Number of Shots
Materials 2020, 13(22), 5088; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13225088 - 11 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 516
Abstract
In existing simulations of the Almen intensity test, arc height is indirectly obtained by an equivalent method including a representative cell, a few shots and equivalent loading. Most of these equivalent methods cannot consider the transverse deformation of the strip, the complex stress [...] Read more.
In existing simulations of the Almen intensity test, arc height is indirectly obtained by an equivalent method including a representative cell, a few shots and equivalent loading. Most of these equivalent methods cannot consider the transverse deformation of the strip, the complex stress state of the plastic hardening layer and process parameters, resulting in deviation from the actual test. This paper introduces an improved and experimentally validated discrete element model (DEM)-finite element model (FEM) to predict the actual Almen intensity. The improvement of this model is mainly reflected in the large and real number of shots involved in the actual Almen intensity test, shot–shot interactions, and real-size solid finite element model of the Almen strip. A new method for calculating the shot stream is proposed based on the test and considering test process parameters such as the mass flowrate, nozzle movement speed and nozzle–workpiece distance. The shot stream impacting the strip with a fully restrained underside was first simulated in improved DEM-FEM to bring the forming energy. As a second step, an implicit solver of the Almen strip FEM calculates the spring-back to simulate strip removal from the holder. The results achieved by the present approach are compared with the results obtained by the experimental results and those in the literature. The results show that the arc height and Almen intensity obtained by the present approach match much better with the literature than the traditional method. Some new results obtained by the improved coupling DEM-FEM method are presented. The influences of the transverse deformation and surface plastic layer on the deformation of the Almen strip are discussed. This improved method provides an alternative characterization method for precision peen forming simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Design for Manufacturing Processes)
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Article
Numerical Modeling Design for the Hybrid Additive Manufacturing of Laser Directed Energy Deposition and Shot Peening Forming Fe–Cr–Ni–B–Si Alloy
Materials 2020, 13(21), 4877; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13214877 - 30 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 561
Abstract
Hybrid additive manufacturing is of great significance to make up for the deficiency of the metal forming process; it has been one of the main trends of additive manufacturing in recent years. The hybrid process of laser directed energy deposition (laser DED) and [...] Read more.
Hybrid additive manufacturing is of great significance to make up for the deficiency of the metal forming process; it has been one of the main trends of additive manufacturing in recent years. The hybrid process of laser directed energy deposition (laser DED) and shot peening is a new technology combining the principles of surface strengthening and additive manufacturing, whose difficulty is to reduce the interaction between the two processes. In this paper, a new model with a discrete phase and fluid–solid interaction method is established, and the location of the shot peening point in the hybrid process is optimized. The distributions of the temperature field and powder trajectory were researched and experiments were carried out with the optimized parameters to verify simulation results. It was found that the temperature field and the powder trajectory partly change, and the optimized injection point is located in the stress relaxation zone of the material. The densities and surface residual stresses of samples were improved, and the density increased by 8.83%. The surface stress changed from tensile stress to compressive stress, and the introduced compressive stress by shot peening was 2.26 times the tensile stress produced by laser directed energy deposition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Design for Manufacturing Processes)
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Article
The Effect of Laser Parameters on Cutting Metallic Materials
Materials 2020, 13(20), 4596; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13204596 - 15 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 830
Abstract
This experimental study investigated the effect of laser parameters on the machining of SS41 and SUS304. The metallic materials play an important role in engineering applications. They are widely used in high-tech industries such as aerospace, automotive, and architecture. Due to the development [...] Read more.
This experimental study investigated the effect of laser parameters on the machining of SS41 and SUS304. The metallic materials play an important role in engineering applications. They are widely used in high-tech industries such as aerospace, automotive, and architecture. Due to the development of technology and high-tech industrialization, the various processing technologies are being developed with the requirement of high precision. However, the conventional cutting process is difficult to meet high precision processing. Therefore, to achieve high precision processing of the SS41 and SUS304, laser manufacturing has been applied. The current study investigated the process quality of laser cutting for SS41 and SUS304, with the usage of a continuous wave CO2 laser cutting system. The experimental variables are set to the laser cutting speed, laser power, and different engineering materials. The results are significantly affected by the laser parameters. As the result, the process quality of the laser cutting has been observed by measuring the top and bottom kerf widths, as well as the size of the melting zone and Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) according to volume energy. In addition, the evaluation of the laser processing parameters is significantly important to achieve optimal cutting quality. Therefore, we observed the correlation between the laser parameters and cutting quality. These were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple regression analysis. The experimental results of kerf top, kerf bottom, melting width, and HAZ on the laser parameters are properly predicted by multiple regression. In addition, the effect of laser parameters on the materials is determinant by the percentage of contribution of ANOVA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Design for Manufacturing Processes)
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Article
The Effect of Using a Metal Tube on Laser Welding of the Battery Case and the Tab for Lithium-Ion Battery
Materials 2020, 13(19), 4460; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13194460 - 08 Oct 2020
Viewed by 1112
Abstract
Given the drawbacks of the conventional welding methods in joining the battery case and tab in the lithium-ion battery, the laser welding technique using the metal tube has been introduced for the weld. The metal tube is supposed to contribute a positive effect [...] Read more.
Given the drawbacks of the conventional welding methods in joining the battery case and tab in the lithium-ion battery, the laser welding technique using the metal tube has been introduced for the weld. The metal tube is supposed to contribute a positive effect including protection to the outside structure by blocking the injection of the spatters, and minimization of the contact gap between the battery case and table. However, the use of the metal tube is believed to cause the plume trapped inside and affect the intensity distribution of the laser gaussian beam. Through the observation and analysis in this study, both advantages and disadvantages of the application of the metal tube on the weld have been analyzed. The use of the metal tube prevents the ejection of the spatter to the outside of the welding zone, as well as minimize the air gap between the battery case and tab in the lap joint weld is also minimized. On the other hand, the trapped plume inside the metal tube and the reduction of the energy of the laser beam have been considered to cause significant changes in the morphology, mechanical, and electrical properties of the weld. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Design for Manufacturing Processes)
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Article
Synthesis of an Al-Based Composite Reinforced by Multi-Phase ZrB2, Al3BC and Al2O3 with Good Mechanical and Thermal Properties at Elevated Temperature
Materials 2020, 13(18), 4048; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13184048 - 12 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 565
Abstract
To synthesize Al composite with high strength at elevated temperature, high modulus and thermal stability, ZrB2, Al3BC and Al2O3 particles have been chosen as reinforcements simultaneously. A (9.2 wt.% ZrB2 + 5.6 wt.% Al3 [...] Read more.
To synthesize Al composite with high strength at elevated temperature, high modulus and thermal stability, ZrB2, Al3BC and Al2O3 particles have been chosen as reinforcements simultaneously. A (9.2 wt.% ZrB2 + 5.6 wt.% Al3BC + 5.5 wt.% Al2O3)/Al composite has been prepared, and the in-situ synthesized particles are nano-sized. Mechanical property tests reveal that the nanoparticles exhibit a remarkable synergistic enhancement effect. The elasticity modulus of the composite is 89 GPa, and the ultimate tensile strengths at 25 °C and 350 °C can be as high as 371 MPa and 154 MPa, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Design for Manufacturing Processes)
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Article
An Investigation of the Work Hardening Behavior in Interrupted Cutting Inconel 718 under Cryogenic Conditions
Materials 2020, 13(9), 2202; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13092202 - 11 May 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 765
Abstract
The severe work hardening phenomenon generated in the machining of Inconel 718 is harmful to continue cutting processes, while being good for the component’s service performance. This paper investigates the performance of cryogenic assisted machining used in the cutting processes, which can reduce [...] Read more.
The severe work hardening phenomenon generated in the machining of Inconel 718 is harmful to continue cutting processes, while being good for the component’s service performance. This paper investigates the performance of cryogenic assisted machining used in the cutting processes, which can reduce the waste of fluids. The influence of dry and cryogenic machining conditions with different cutting speeds on the work hardening layer is investigated based on the interrupted cutting of Inconel 718. Cutting temperature distribution obtained from simulations under different conditions is used to discuss the potential mechanism of work hardening. Then, the depth of work hardening and degree of work hardening (DWH) are investigated to analyze the surface deformation behavior, which strengthens the machined surface during metal cutting processes. From the cutting experiments, the depth of the work hardening layer can reach more than 60 μm under the given cutting conditions. In addition, a deeper zone can be obtained by the cooling of liquid nitrogen, which may potentially enhance the wear performance of the component. The results obtained from this work can be utilized to effectively control the work hardening layer beneath the surface, which can be applied to improve the service performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Design for Manufacturing Processes)
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Article
Oriented to Multi-Branched Structure Unsupported 3D Printing Method Research
Materials 2020, 13(9), 2023; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13092023 - 26 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 869
Abstract
For the traditional three-axis (3D) configuration of the additive manufacturing (AM) platform, when printing the target model with a multi-branched structure, it is imperative to construct adequate support structures. To eliminate the use of support during the printing process, a non-directional unsupported 3D [...] Read more.
For the traditional three-axis (3D) configuration of the additive manufacturing (AM) platform, when printing the target model with a multi-branched structure, it is imperative to construct adequate support structures. To eliminate the use of support during the printing process, a non-directional unsupported 3D printing method for five-axis AM is proposed in this paper. By carrying out the K-means clustering algorithm, the coarse partition of the model is obtained, and then the fine decomposition represented by a sequence of separating planes is determined by a local dynamic search adjustment algorithm according to manufacturing constraints. The multi-branched structure of the model is divided into simple subparts so that the general model can be built in different directions and be printed with its own parts as the support. Two case studies were carried out for verification. The experimental results showed that the branch-model can be printed without support using the non-directional unsupported 3D printing method, and the non-directional unsupported 3D printing can save 18.72–20.60% of materials and 20.60–23.33% of time compared to conventional 3D printing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Design for Manufacturing Processes)
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Article
High-Power Fiber Laser Cutting for 50-mm-Thick Cement-Based Materials
Materials 2020, 13(5), 1113; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13051113 - 02 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1571
Abstract
This experimental research highlights the applicability of laser cutting to cement-based materials using multimode fiber lasers. A 9 kW multimode fiber laser is used, and the experimental variables are the water-to-cement ratio, laser speed, and material compositions such as cement paste, cement mortar [...] Read more.
This experimental research highlights the applicability of laser cutting to cement-based materials using multimode fiber lasers. A 9 kW multimode fiber laser is used, and the experimental variables are the water-to-cement ratio, laser speed, and material compositions such as cement paste, cement mortar and ultra high performance concrete (UHPC). The laser cutting performance on the cement-based materials is investigated in the downward laser direction. The kerf width and penetration depth of the cement-based materials are quantitatively evaluated with the parameters in the surface and cross section of the specimens after the laser cutting. Moreover, the material removal zone of each specimen is compared in terms of the penetration shapes in the cross-sectional view. Based on experimental observations, the interaction mechanism between the laser and cement-based materials is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Design for Manufacturing Processes)
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Article
Microstructural Characteristics of Cement-Based Materials Fabricated Using Multi-Mode Fiber Laser
Materials 2020, 13(3), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13030546 - 23 Jan 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1239
Abstract
Cement-based materials are the most prevalent construction materials, and the conventional cutting techniques are still mostly used for fabricating the materials. However, these conventional cutting methods could generate undesirable micro-cracks and remove unintentional structural sections. This experimental study aims to evaluate the effects [...] Read more.
Cement-based materials are the most prevalent construction materials, and the conventional cutting techniques are still mostly used for fabricating the materials. However, these conventional cutting methods could generate undesirable micro-cracks and remove unintentional structural sections. This experimental study aims to evaluate the effects of the new fabricating method using laser on the microstructural characteristics of the cement-based materials. The experimental variables are laser cutting speed, water to cement ratio and material compositions. In order to compare the microstructure before and after the laser interaction, the microstructure of the cut surface is observed through scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-Ray (SEM/EDX). After the laser interaction, the Material Removed Zone (MRZ) and Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) are observed on the cut surface. In MRZ, it is found that the glassy layer is thickened by an increasing amount of silicate-based materials in cement-based materials. In addition, it concluded that the amount of silicate-based material mixed in the cement-based materials affects the laser cutting quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Design for Manufacturing Processes)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Laser Fabrication of Anti-Icing Surfaces: A Review
Materials 2020, 13(24), 5692; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13245692 - 13 Dec 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1078
Abstract
In numerous fields such as aerospace, the environment, and energy supply, ice generation and accretion represent a severe issue. For this reason, numerous methods have been developed for ice formation to be delayed and/or to inhibit ice adhesion to the substrates. Among them, [...] Read more.
In numerous fields such as aerospace, the environment, and energy supply, ice generation and accretion represent a severe issue. For this reason, numerous methods have been developed for ice formation to be delayed and/or to inhibit ice adhesion to the substrates. Among them, laser micro/nanostructuring of surfaces aiming to obtain superhydrophobic behavior has been taken as a starting point for engineering substrates with anti-icing properties. In this review article, the key concept of surface wettability and its relationship with anti-icing is discussed. Furthermore, a comprehensive overview of the laser strategies to obtain superhydrophobic surfaces with anti-icing behavior is provided, from direct laser writing (DLW) to laser-induced periodic surface structuring (LIPSS), and direct laser interference patterning (DLIP). Micro-/nano-texturing of several materials is reviewed, from aluminum alloys to polymeric substrates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Design for Manufacturing Processes)
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