Special Issue "High Temperature Ceramic Materials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2019.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Shaowei Zhang Website E-Mail
College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom
Interests: structural ceramics; functional materials; refractory composites; ceramic coatings; novel catalysts; armour materials; biomaterials; materials simulation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

High temperature ceramic materials, including mainly high melting metal oxides, nitrides, carbides and their composites, are extensively used in many important industrial sectors, such as metallurgy, glass, cement, aerospace, nuclear, and energy. They are used primarily for their thermal and thermo-mechanical properties. To improve their properties and extend their service lives, and to address the relevant cost and sustainbility issues and environmental concerns, considerable research efforts have been made and are still being made worldwide, which is leading to the development of so-called next generation high temperature ceramic materials. In recent years, in particular, significant amounts of work have been carried out in several existing and emerging areas: 1) exploration of new system refractory ceramics, 2) low temperature synthesis of novel ceramic particles, 3) graphene and/or carbon nanotube reinforced ceramic composites, 4) “green” low-carbon refractory composites, 5) energy-saving lightweight ceramics, 6) catalytic synthesis of ceramic materials, 7) high thermal conductivity ceramics; 8) self-healing ceramic composites, 9) additive manufacturing of ceramics, 10) directionally solidified eutectic ceramics, 11) functional ceramic coatings, 12) SPS sintering, cold sintering and flash sintering, and 13) materials calculations/simulations, from which many interesting and promising results have been obtained.

This Special Issue is aimed to cover the recent research work on high temperature ceramic materials, so as to provide an insight into the current status and future prospects in this field. Topics can include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Novel synthesis of high melting ceramic particles/nanofibres
  • New binders/bonding systems
  • Novel shape forming techniques (e.g., Casting, additive manufacturing, directional solidification, coating preparation techniques, composite preparation techniques)
  • Sintering/densification techniques and mechanisms (e.g., hot-pressing, laser processing, SPS sintering, cold sintering and flash sintering)
  • Properties: mechanical, thermal and chemical properties
  • Physical/chemical/microstructural characterizations
  • Simulations: thermodynamic simulations, molecular dynamic simulation, Monte Carlo simulation and first-principles density functional calculation
  • Applications of high temperature ceramics
  • Preparation and characterization of new system high temperature ceramics

It is my great pleasure to invite colleagues to submit a manuscript for this Special Issue. Full papers, communications, and reviews on any aspect of high temperature ceramics are all welcome.

Prof. Dr. Shaowei Zhang
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • high temperature ceramics
  • ceramic composite
  • ceramic coating
  • refractories
  • low temperature synthesis
  • 3-D printing
  • novel sintering
  • microstructure
  • high temperature properties
  • materials simulation

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Low-Temperature High-Efficiency Preparation of TiB2 Micro-Platelets via Boro/Carbothermal Reduction in Microwave Heated Molten Salt
Materials 2019, 12(16), 2555; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12162555 - 11 Aug 2019
Abstract
A molten-salt and microwave co-facilitated boro/carbothermal reduction methodology was developed for low temperature high-efficiency synthesis of TiB2 powders. By using relatively inexpensive titanium oxide (TiO2), boron carbide (B4C) and amorphous carbon (C) as raw materials, single-phase TiB2 [...] Read more.
A molten-salt and microwave co-facilitated boro/carbothermal reduction methodology was developed for low temperature high-efficiency synthesis of TiB2 powders. By using relatively inexpensive titanium oxide (TiO2), boron carbide (B4C) and amorphous carbon (C) as raw materials, single-phase TiB2 powders were prepared after 60 min at as low as 1150 °C or after only 20 min at 1200 °C. Such synthesis conditions were remarkably milder than those required by the conventional reduction routes using the identical reducing agent. As-synthesized TiB2 powders exhibited single-crystalline nature and well-grown hexagonal-platelet-like morphology. The achievement of low temperature high-efficiency preparation of high-quality TiB2 microplatelets in the present work was mainly attributable to the synergistic effects of molten-salt medium and microwave heating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Temperature Ceramic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Computational Simulation and Prediction on Electrical Conductivity of Oxide-Based Melts by Big Data Mining
Materials 2019, 12(7), 1059; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12071059 - 31 Mar 2019
Abstract
Electrical conductivity is one of the most basic physical–chemical properties of oxide-based melts and plays an important role in the materials and metallurgical industries. Especially with the metallurgical melt, molten slag, existing research studies related to slag conductivity mainly used traditional experimental measurement [...] Read more.
Electrical conductivity is one of the most basic physical–chemical properties of oxide-based melts and plays an important role in the materials and metallurgical industries. Especially with the metallurgical melt, molten slag, existing research studies related to slag conductivity mainly used traditional experimental measurement approaches. Meanwhile, the idea of data-driven decision making has been widely used in many fields instead of expert experience. Therefore, this study proposed an innovative approach based on big data mining methods to investigate the computational simulation and prediction of electrical conductivity. Specific mechanisms are discussed to explain the findings of our proposed approach. Experimental results show slag conductivity can be predicted through constructing predictive models, and the Gradient Boosting Decision Tree (GBDT) model is the best prediction model with 90% accuracy and more than 88% sensitivity. The robustness result of the GBDT model demonstrates the reliability of prediction outcomes. It is concluded that the conductivity of slag systems is mainly affected by TiO2, FeO, SiO2, and CaO. TiO2 and FeO are positively correlated with conductivity, while SiO2 and CaO have negative correlations with conductivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Temperature Ceramic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Pore Architectures and Mechanical Properties of Porous α-SiAlON Ceramics Fabricated via Unidirectional Freeze Casting Based on Camphene-Templating
Materials 2019, 12(5), 687; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12050687 - 26 Feb 2019
Abstract
Porous α-SiAlON ceramics were fabricated using the camphene-based unidirectional freeze casting method, in which a gradient porous structure was formed as a result of the decreased solidification velocity in the freezing direction. Microstructure, porosity and pore size distribution of different parts of as-prepared [...] Read more.
Porous α-SiAlON ceramics were fabricated using the camphene-based unidirectional freeze casting method, in which a gradient porous structure was formed as a result of the decreased solidification velocity in the freezing direction. Microstructure, porosity and pore size distribution of different parts of as-prepared samples were examined and compared, and correlated with their mechanical properties. For a given solid loading, the overall pore size and porosity of the top part were greater than those of the bottom part. Interestingly, despite its higher porosity, the flexural strength and fracture toughness of the top part were both higher than those of the bottom part, suggesting that apart from porosity, pore morphology and size affected mechanical properties of as-prepared porous α-SiAlON ceramics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Temperature Ceramic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of the Molding Method and Blank Size of Green Body on the Sintering Densification of Magnesia
Materials 2019, 12(4), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12040647 - 21 Feb 2019
Abstract
The bulk density of sintered magnesia is significantly influenced by molding methodology and blank size of the green body during dry pressing. The entrapped air in the green body plays a critical role in determining the bulk density of magnesia samples. Herein, high-density [...] Read more.
The bulk density of sintered magnesia is significantly influenced by molding methodology and blank size of the green body during dry pressing. The entrapped air in the green body plays a critical role in determining the bulk density of magnesia samples. Herein, high-density magnesia samples, with different sizes, are prepared by using vacuum compaction molding and conventional compaction molding. The physical properties, such as bulk density and pore size distribution, and morphology or as-sintered magnesia samples were characterized by using Archimedes method, mercury porosimetry, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicate that the bulk density of conventional compaction magnesia samples decreased below 3.40 g·cm−3 with the increase of thickness due to the presence of entrapped-air induced large pores and intergranular cracks. In addition, the large pores and intergranular cracks in conventionally-compacted samples are observed by SEM images. However, vacuum compaction of magnesia samples resulted in a bulk density of higher than 3.40 g·cm−3 for all thicknesses. Moreover, the defects in vacuum-compacted magnesia samples are mainly in the form of small circular pores. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Temperature Ceramic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Microstructures and Properties of Porous Liquid-Phase-Sintered SiC Ceramic by Hot Press Sintering
Materials 2019, 12(4), 639; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12040639 - 20 Feb 2019
Abstract
Porous liquid-phase-sintered SiC (L-SiC) ceramics were successfully fabricated by hot press sintering (HP) at 1800 °C in argon, using Al2O3 and Y2O3 as oxide additions. By varying the starting coarse SiC particle size, the relationships between pore [...] Read more.
Porous liquid-phase-sintered SiC (L-SiC) ceramics were successfully fabricated by hot press sintering (HP) at 1800 °C in argon, using Al2O3 and Y2O3 as oxide additions. By varying the starting coarse SiC particle size, the relationships between pore microstructures and flexural strength as well as gas permeability of porous L-SiC were examined. All the as-sintered samples possessed homogeneous interconnected pores. The porosity of porous L-SiC decreased from 34.0% to 25.9%, and the peak pore size increased from 1.1 to 3.8 μm as the coarse SiC particle sizes increased. The flexural strengths of porous L-SiC ceramics at room temperature and 1000 °C were as high as 104.3 ± 7.3 MPa and 78.8 ± 5.1 MPa, respectively, though there was a decrease in accordance with their increasing pore sizes and particle sizes. Moreover, their gas permeability increased from 1.4 × 10−14 m2 to 4.6 × 10−14 m2 with the increase of pore size in spite of their decreased porosity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Temperature Ceramic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Behavior and Mechanism of High-Temperature Stability between Tial-Based Alloy and Y2O3-Al2O3 Composite Crucibles
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1107; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071107 - 28 Jun 2018
Abstract
In this work, Y2O3 based composite crucibles with different Al2O3 contents were designed and characterized. The stability behaviors and interaction mechanisms between molten Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb alloy and Y2O3-Al2O3 composite crucibles were [...] Read more.
In this work, Y2O3 based composite crucibles with different Al2O3 contents were designed and characterized. The stability behaviors and interaction mechanisms between molten Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb alloy and Y2O3-Al2O3 composite crucibles were investigated at high temperature. Results showed that the surface morphology of crucibles and the degree of interfacial reactions between the composite crucibles and the metal melts varied with the change of Al2O3 content in the crucible matrix. The pure Y2O3 crucible was the densest and its chemical stability was the highest. With the increase in Al2O3 content, the number of pores on the crucibles surface gradually increased and the interfacial reactions between the composite crucibles and the molten alloys became weaker. When the content of Al2O3 in composite crucibles increased from 3.5 wt % to 10.5 wt %, the thickness of the interface layer of melt-crucible decreased from 150 µm to 50 µm, and the equilibrium contact angles between metal and crucibles gradually decreased from 69.3° to 64.2° at 1873 K. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Temperature Ceramic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Oxidation Resistance and Wetting Behavior of MgO-C Refractories: Effect of Carbon Content
Materials 2018, 11(6), 883; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11060883 - 24 May 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Various carbon contents in the MgO-C refractory were studied with respect to the oxidation resistance and the wetting behavior with slag. The bulk density, apparent porosity, cold crushing strength, oxidation rate, and mass loss rate of the fired MgO-C refractories with various carbon [...] Read more.
Various carbon contents in the MgO-C refractory were studied with respect to the oxidation resistance and the wetting behavior with slag. The bulk density, apparent porosity, cold crushing strength, oxidation rate, and mass loss rate of the fired MgO-C refractories with various carbon contents were measured and compared. The wetting and penetration behavior of the cured MgO-C refractory with the molten slag were observed in-situ. The contact angle and the shape parameters of molten slag, including the apparent radius, height, and volume were compared. The results showed that the regenerated MgO effectively restrained the carbon oxidation in the MgO-C refractory, which was more evident at the low carbon content refractory. The contact angle between the MgO-C refractory and the molten slag increased as the carbon content increased. The increased contact angle decreased the penetration of the molten slag. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Temperature Ceramic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Tunable Synthesis of SiC/SiO2 Heterojunctions via Temperature Modulation
Materials 2018, 11(5), 766; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050766 - 10 May 2018
Abstract
A large-scale production of necklace-like SiC/SiO2 heterojunctions was obtained by a molten salt-mediated chemical vapor reaction technique without a metallic catalyst or flowing gas. The effect of the firing temperature on the evolution of the phase composition, microstructure, and morphology of the [...] Read more.
A large-scale production of necklace-like SiC/SiO2 heterojunctions was obtained by a molten salt-mediated chemical vapor reaction technique without a metallic catalyst or flowing gas. The effect of the firing temperature on the evolution of the phase composition, microstructure, and morphology of the SiC/SiO2 heterojunctions was studied. The necklace-like SiC/SiO2 nanochains, several centimeters in length, were composed of SiC/SiO2 core-shell chains and amorphous SiO2 beans. The morphologies of the as-prepared products could be tuned by adjusting the firing temperature. In fact, the diameter of the SiO2 beans decreased, whereas the diameter of the SiC fibers and the thickness of the SiO2 shell increased as the temperature increased. The growth mechanism of the necklace-like structure was controlled by the vapor-solid growth procedure and the modulation procedure via a molten salt-mediated chemical vapor reaction process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Temperature Ceramic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
High-Temperature Wettability and Interactions between Y-Containing Ni-Based Alloys and Various Oxide Ceramics
Materials 2018, 11(5), 749; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050749 - 07 May 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
To obtain appropriate crucible materials for vacuum induction melting of MCrAlY alloys, four different oxide ceramics, including MgO, Y2O3, Al2O3, and ZrO2, with various microstructures were designed and characterized. The high-temperature wettability and [...] Read more.
To obtain appropriate crucible materials for vacuum induction melting of MCrAlY alloys, four different oxide ceramics, including MgO, Y2O3, Al2O3, and ZrO2, with various microstructures were designed and characterized. The high-temperature wettability and interactions between Ni-20Co-20Cr-10Al-1.5Y alloys and oxide ceramics were studied by sessile drop experiments under vacuum. The results showed that all the systems exhibited non-wetting behavior. The contact angles were stable during the melting process of alloys and the equilibrium contact angles were 140° (MgO), 148° (Y2O3), 154° (Al2O3), and 157° (ZrO2), respectively. The interfacial reaction between the ceramic substrates and alloys occurred at high temperature. Though the ceramics had different microstructures, similar continuous Y2O3 reaction layer with thicknesses of about 25 μm at the alloy-ceramic interface in MgO, Al2O3, and ZrO2 systems formed. The average area percentage of oxides in the alloy matrices were 0.59% (MgO), 0.11% (Al2O3), 0.09% (ZrO2), and 0.02% (Y2O3), respectively. The alloys, after reacting with MgO ceramic, had the highest inclusion content, while those with the lowest content were in the Y2O3 system. Y2O3 ceramic was the most beneficial for vacuum induction melting of high-purity Y-containing Ni-based alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Temperature Ceramic Materials)
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