Special Issue "Research on Fatigue Behavior of Metals and Alloys"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Sergey V. Konovalov
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Head of Department of Metals Technology and Aviation Materials, Samara National Research University, Samara, Russia
2. Institute of Laser and Optoelectronics Intelligent Manufacturing, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou, China
Interests: advanced material processing; additive manufacturing; composite materials; coatings; surface nanostructuring; high-entropy alloys
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In modern conditions of operation of machinery and constructions, the main tasks are to increase strength, resource, survivability, and durability. Extreme conditions in terms of mechanical, thermal, electromagnetic, hydro-, and aerodynamic repeated loads determine the presence of cyclic plastic deformations in the loaded zones. The most critical and unique products, machines, and structures are operated in cyclic deformation modes, which determine failure even at low loads. The durability and reliability of machines is largely determined by their fatigue resistance, since in the vast majority of cases for machine parts, the main type of loading is dynamic, repeated, and alternating loads, and the main type of failure is fatigue. The issues of fatigue and strength are the subject of the most careful consideration from the point of view of both scientific research and experimental design and technological developments. Fatigue strength and durability are important criteria for evaluating the health and resource of numerous parts and constructions. Their role is especially growing for modern highly loaded critical products exposed to cyclic loads in the field of low and high cycle fatigue. The difficulty in assessing the cyclic strength of construction materials is related to the fact that many different factors influence fatigue failure (structure, state of the surface layer, temperature and test conditions, loading frequency, stress concentration, cycle asymmetry, scale factor, and a number of others). Therefore, the study of the physical nature of changes in various parameters of metals during fatigue is of great scientific interest. The motivation for this investigation is to provide an insight into the behavior of materials under different conditions.

It is my pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript to this Special Issue. Full papers, communications, and reviews are all welcome.

Prof. Dr. Sergey V. Konovalov
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Fatigue of materials
  • Fracture
  • Microstructure
  • Cyclic deformation
  • Metals and alloys
  • External energy influences

Published Papers (14 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Other

Open AccessArticle
Dynamic Behaviour of Bridge Girders with Trapezoidal Profiled Webs Subjected to Moving Loads
Materials 2021, 14(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14010038 - 24 Dec 2020
Viewed by 409
Abstract
The aim of this study is to find out the degradation of dynamic behaviour of bridge girders with trapezoidal profiled webs when subjected to different vehicle moving loads. Finite element modelling based parametric analysis is demonstrated to be desirable in capturing the dynamic [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to find out the degradation of dynamic behaviour of bridge girders with trapezoidal profiled webs when subjected to different vehicle moving loads. Finite element modelling based parametric analysis is demonstrated to be desirable in capturing the dynamic deflection and stress state of critical structural details of girders. The model is validated in the modal analysis through a comparison with theoretical eigenfrequencies. The vibration characteristics are shown to be significantly affected by the corrugation details. The structural service life results of analysed bridge girders are in close agreement with experimental data. It is shown that the dynamic nodal velocity and deflection of analysed bridge girders are greatly affected by the magnitude of the load corresponding to the overload of the vehicle in contrast to the vehicle travel speed. Similar observations can be made for the fatigue life prediction analysis related to the crack initiation when unfavourable effects of the overload vehicle are concerned. Presented analytical results using a fracture mechanics approach could be taken as a good basis for the service life assessment of related bridges with the desired level of performance or functionality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Fatigue Behavior of Metals and Alloys)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Fatigue-Induced Evolution of AISI 310S Steel Microstructure after Electron Beam Treatment
Materials 2020, 13(20), 4567; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13204567 - 14 Oct 2020
Viewed by 428
Abstract
Research was carried out to explore the effect of pulsed electron beam irradiation on the behavior of structure and phase state in AISI 310S steel exposed to high-cycle fatigue. A 2.2 times increase in the fatigue life of samples irradiated by electron beams [...] Read more.
Research was carried out to explore the effect of pulsed electron beam irradiation on the behavior of structure and phase state in AISI 310S steel exposed to high-cycle fatigue. A 2.2 times increase in the fatigue life of samples irradiated by electron beams was revealed. The outcomes of scanning and transmission electron microscopic studies suggest the most probable reason for the fracture of steel samples irradiated by a high-intensity electron beam to be microcraters originating on a treated surface and acting as stress risers initiating the propagation of microcracks. The irradiation with a pulsed electron beam causes extremely fast melting of the surface. As a result of the subsequent rapid crystallization, a polycrystalline structure nearly twice as small as an average grain in the untreated steel is formed. Since a surface layer crystallizes rapidly, crystallization cells ranging from 120 to 170 nm develop in the volume of grains. The fatigue testing is shown to be associated with a martensite transformation γ ⇒ ε in the surface layer. One option to intensify a fatigue life increase of the steel in focus is supposed to be the neutralization of crater-forming on a surface treated by electron beams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Fatigue Behavior of Metals and Alloys)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Increasing Fatigue Life of 09Mn2Si Steel by Helical Rolling: Theoretical–Experimental Study on Governing Role of Grain Boundaries
Materials 2020, 13(20), 4531; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13204531 - 13 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 392
Abstract
The structure and mechanical properties of the 09Mn2Si high-strength low-alloyed steel after the five-stage helical rolling (HR) were studied. It was revealed that the fine-grained structure had been formed in the surface layer ≈ 1 mm deep as a result of severe plastic [...] Read more.
The structure and mechanical properties of the 09Mn2Si high-strength low-alloyed steel after the five-stage helical rolling (HR) were studied. It was revealed that the fine-grained structure had been formed in the surface layer ≈ 1 mm deep as a result of severe plastic strains. In the lower layers, the “lamellar” structure had been formed, which consisted of thin elongated ferrite grains oriented in the HR direction. It was shown that the five-stage HR resulted in the increase in the steel fatigue life by more than 3.5 times under cyclic tension. The highest values of the number of cycles before failure were obtained for the samples cut from the bar core. It was demonstrated that the degree of the elastic energy dissipation in the steel samples under loading directly depended on the area of the grain boundaries as well as on the grain shapes. The fine-grained structure possessed the maximum value of the average torsional energy among all the studied samples, which caused the local material structure transformation and the decrease in the elastic energy level. This improved the crack resistance under the cyclic mechanical loading. The effect of the accumulation of the rotational strain modes at the grain boundaries was discovered, which caused the local structure transformation at the boundary zones. In the fine-grained structure, the formation of grain conglomerates was observed, which increased the values of the specific modulus of the moment of force. This could be mutually compensated due to the small sizes of grains. At the same time, the coarse-grained structures were characterized by the presence of the small number of grains with a high level of the moments of forces at their boundaries. They could result in trans-crystalline cracking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Fatigue Behavior of Metals and Alloys)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
On the Fatigue Performance of Friction-Stir Welded Aluminum Alloys
Materials 2020, 13(19), 4246; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13194246 - 23 Sep 2020
Viewed by 517
Abstract
This work was undertaken in an attempt to ascertain the generic characteristics of fatigue behavior of friction-stir welded aluminum alloys. To this end, different alloy grades belonging to both the heat-treatable and non-heat-treatable types in both the cast and wrought conditions were studied. [...] Read more.
This work was undertaken in an attempt to ascertain the generic characteristics of fatigue behavior of friction-stir welded aluminum alloys. To this end, different alloy grades belonging to both the heat-treatable and non-heat-treatable types in both the cast and wrought conditions were studied. The analysis was based on the premise that the fatigue endurance of sound welds (in which internal flaws and surface quality are not the major issues) is governed by residual stress and microstructure. Considering the relatively low magnitude of the residual stresses but drastic grain refinement attributable to friction-stir welding, the fatigue performance at relatively low cyclic stress was deduced to be dictated by the microstructural factor. Accordingly, the fatigue crack typically nucleated in relatively coarse-grained base material zone; thus, the fatigue strength of the welded joints was comparable to that of the parent metal. At relatively high fatigue stress, the summary (i.e., the cyclic-plus residual-) stress may exceed the material yield strength; thus, the fatigue cracking should result from the preceding macro-scale plastic deformation. Accordingly, the fatigue failure should occur in the softest microstructural region; thus; the fatigue strength of the welded joint may be inferior to that of the original material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Fatigue Behavior of Metals and Alloys)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Fatigue Life Appraisal and Its Corrected Stress Intensity Factor for Repaired Off-CentrallyCracked Aluminum Plates
Materials 2020, 13(18), 4014; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13184014 - 10 Sep 2020
Viewed by 493
Abstract
This paper presents an experimental study on the fatigue life estimation of off-centrally cracked aluminum plates. Typical theoretical equations for off-central, central and edge cracks were reviewed and compared in terms of their sensitive parameters and applicability. A finite element model has been [...] Read more.
This paper presents an experimental study on the fatigue life estimation of off-centrally cracked aluminum plates. Typical theoretical equations for off-central, central and edge cracks were reviewed and compared in terms of their sensitive parameters and applicability. A finite element model has been validated in its capacity in modelling the influences of eccentricity and crack size on the boundary correction coefficients. The Forman equation has been employed along with numerical results for the prediction of fatigue lives. Based on the test data, the fatigue life results of aluminum plates with and without patched laminate repair have been compared with codified fatigue classes. It is demonstrated that the repair at the crack tip close to the plate edge is effective in the fatigue life improvement for off-centrally crackedaluminum plates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Fatigue Behavior of Metals and Alloys)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Fatigue Prediction of Aluminum Alloys Considering Critical Plane Orientation under Complex Stress States
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3877; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173877 - 02 Sep 2020
Viewed by 454
Abstract
This publication is intended to present a new way of estimating the fatigue life of various construction materials. Carpinteri’s proposal was modified by replacing the fatigue limits ratio with the value of the normal to shear stress ratio for a given number of [...] Read more.
This publication is intended to present a new way of estimating the fatigue life of various construction materials. Carpinteri’s proposal was modified by replacing the fatigue limits ratio with the value of the normal to shear stress ratio for a given number of cycles. In this study, the proposed criterion and calculation model was verified for the selected group of aluminium alloys. The purpose of the analysis of the experimental studies was to check the effectiveness of the proposed method of estimating fatigue life under the applied bending and torsional load conditions. The results of the fatigue calculations are presented in graphical form by means of diagrams showing the comparison of design and experimental strength. Before fatigue life was calculated, the critical plane orientation according to Carpinteri’s model and the proposed model were determined. After analyzing the results of the comparison of design and experimental durability, it can be stated that the proposed fatigue life estimation algorithm gives satisfactory results for multiaxial cyclic loads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Fatigue Behavior of Metals and Alloys)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Oxygen Variation on High Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Titanium Alloy
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3858; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173858 - 01 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 498 | Correction
Abstract
The element oxygen is expected to be a low-cost, strengthening element of titanium alloys due to its strong solid solution strengthening effect. High cycle fatigue behaviors of Ti-6Al-4V alloys with different oxygen contents (0.17%, 0.20%, 0.23% wt.%) were investigated in this paper. The [...] Read more.
The element oxygen is expected to be a low-cost, strengthening element of titanium alloys due to its strong solid solution strengthening effect. High cycle fatigue behaviors of Ti-6Al-4V alloys with different oxygen contents (0.17%, 0.20%, 0.23% wt.%) were investigated in this paper. The results illustrated that Ti-6Al-4V-0.20O alloy possesses the highest fatigue strength and the lowest fatigue crack propagation rate. The fatigue fracture morphology verified that the fatigue cracks propagated transgranularly in both Ti-6Al-4V-0.17O and Ti-6Al-4V-0.20O alloys, and the fatigue cracks tended to extend intergranularly in the Ti-6Al-4V-0.23O alloy. The maximum nano-hardness varied from the <0001> direction to the <1¯21¯0> and <011¯0> directions with the increasing oxygen content, which suggested that the dominant slip system varied from prismatic slip to pyramidal slip. The number of the <c+a> type dislocations increased with the oxygen content, which indicated that the number of the first-order pyramidal and the second-order pyramidal <c+a> slip systems increased. The oxygen can significantly change the fatigue fracture mechanism of Ti-6Al-4V alloy: From transgranular fracture to intergranular fracture. These results are expected to provide valuable reference for the optimization of the composition and mechanical properties of titanium alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Fatigue Behavior of Metals and Alloys)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Application of the S-N Curve Mean Stress Correction Model in Terms of Fatigue Life Estimation for Random Torsional Loading for Selected Aluminum Alloys
Materials 2020, 13(13), 2985; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13132985 - 04 Jul 2020
Viewed by 533
Abstract
The paper presents the experimental fatigue test results for cyclic constant amplitude loading conditions for the case of the torsion of the PA4 (AW-6082-T6), PA6 (AW-2017A-T4) and PA7 (AW-2024-T3) aluminum alloy for a drilled diabolo type test specimen. The tests have been performed [...] Read more.
The paper presents the experimental fatigue test results for cyclic constant amplitude loading conditions for the case of the torsion of the PA4 (AW-6082-T6), PA6 (AW-2017A-T4) and PA7 (AW-2024-T3) aluminum alloy for a drilled diabolo type test specimen. The tests have been performed for the stress asymmetry ratios R = −1, R = −0.7, R = −0.5 and R = −0.3. The experimental results have been used in the process of a fatigue life estimation performed for a random generated narrowband stress signal with a zero and a non-zero global mean stress value. The calculations have been performed within the time domain with the use of the rainflow cycle counting method and the Palmgren−Miner damage hypothesis. The mean stress compensation has been performed with the S-N curve mean stress model proposed by Niesłony and Böhm. The model has been modified in terms of torsional loading conditions. In order to obtain an appropriate R = 0 ratio S-N curve fatigue strength amplitude, the Smith−Watson−Topper model was used and compared with literature fatigue strength amplitudes. The presented solution extends the use of the correction model in terms of the torsional loading condition in order to obtain new S-N curves for other R values on the basis of the R = −1 results. The work includes the computational results for new fatigue curves with and without the mean stress effect correction. The results of the computations show that the mean stress effect plays a major role in the fatigue life assessment of the tested aluminum alloys and that the method can be used to assess the fatigue life under random conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Fatigue Behavior of Metals and Alloys)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Comparative Analysis of Fatigue Energy Characteristics of S355J2 Steel Subjected to Multi-Axis Loads
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2470; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112470 - 28 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 611
Abstract
In this study, a novel test system for estimating bending and torsion fatigue under selectable kinematic and dynamic loading modes was constructed. Using S355J2 steel specimens, a series of tests were conducted to determine material sensitivity to different load paths and loading modes. [...] Read more.
In this study, a novel test system for estimating bending and torsion fatigue under selectable kinematic and dynamic loading modes was constructed. Using S355J2 steel specimens, a series of tests were conducted to determine material sensitivity to different load paths and loading modes. The experimental results were supplemented with the results of numerical analyses, on the basis of which the components of strain and stress tensors for subsequent analyses were determined in the entire working part of the specimen. An original method for determining specific strain energy components was used. The experimental results showed the grouping of data according to the mode of loading chosen. This could signify that the selected fatigue models are sensitive to certain loading scenarios. We performed in-depth data analysis and complex numerical simulations, formulating likely explanations for the observed effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Fatigue Behavior of Metals and Alloys)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Application of Life-Dependent Material Parameters to Fatigue Life Prediction under Multiaxial and Non-Zero Mean Loading
Materials 2020, 13(7), 1587; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13071587 - 30 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 584
Abstract
This study presents the life-dependent material parameters concept as applied to several well-known fatigue models for the purpose of life prediction under multiaxial and non-zero mean loading. The necessity of replacing the fixed material parameters with life-dependent parameters is demonstrated. The aim of [...] Read more.
This study presents the life-dependent material parameters concept as applied to several well-known fatigue models for the purpose of life prediction under multiaxial and non-zero mean loading. The necessity of replacing the fixed material parameters with life-dependent parameters is demonstrated. The aim of the research here is verification of the life-dependent material parameters concept when applied to multiaxial fatigue loading with non-zero mean stress. The verification is performed with new experimental fatigue test results on a 7075-T651 aluminium alloy and S355 steel subjected to multiaxial cyclic bending and torsion loading under stress ratios equal to R = −0.5 and 0.0, respectively. The received results exhibit the significant effect of the non-zero mean value of shear stress on the fatigue life of S355 steel. The prediction of fatigue life was improved when using the life-dependent material parameters compared to the fixed material parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Fatigue Behavior of Metals and Alloys)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Corrosion-Fatigue Failure of Gas-Turbine Blades in an Oil and Gas Production Plant
Materials 2020, 13(4), 900; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13040900 - 18 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 969
Abstract
This paper investigates the root cause of a failure in gas-turbine blades, made of Nimonic-105 nickel-based superalloy. The failure was reported in two blades in the second stage of a turbine-compressor of a gas turbine in the hot section. Two failed blades were [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the root cause of a failure in gas-turbine blades, made of Nimonic-105 nickel-based superalloy. The failure was reported in two blades in the second stage of a turbine-compressor of a gas turbine in the hot section. Two failed blades were broken from the root and from the airfoil. The failure took place after 20 k h of service exposure in the temperature range 700–850 °C, with the rotating speed being in the range 15,000–16,000 rpm. The microstructures of the failed blades were studied using optical/electron microscopes. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was employed for phase identification. Results showed that failure first initiated from the root. The dominant failure mechanism in the root was concluded to be corrosion-fatigue. The failure scenario was suggested based on the results obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Fatigue Behavior of Metals and Alloys)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Influence of the Strain and Stress Gradient in Determining Strain Fatigue Characteristics for Oscillatory Bending
Materials 2020, 13(1), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13010173 - 01 Jan 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 636
Abstract
In this study, we created a new model to determine strain fatigue characteristics obtained from a bending test. The developed model consists of comparing the stress and strain gradient surface ratio for bending and tensile elements. For model verification, seven different materials were [...] Read more.
In this study, we created a new model to determine strain fatigue characteristics obtained from a bending test. The developed model consists of comparing the stress and strain gradient surface ratio for bending and tensile elements. For model verification, seven different materials were examined based on fatigue tests we conducted, or data available in the literature: 30CrNiMo8, 10HNAP, SM45C, 16Mo3 steel, MO58 brass, and 2017A-T4 and 6082-T6 aluminum alloys. As a result, we confirmed that the proposed method can be used to determine strain fatigue characteristics that agree with the values determined on the basis of a tensile compression test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Fatigue Behavior of Metals and Alloys)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Microstructure and Axial Tension on Three-Point Bending Fatigue Behavior of TC4 in High Cycle and Very High Cycle Regimes
Materials 2020, 13(1), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13010068 - 21 Dec 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 661
Abstract
The effects of microstructure and axial tension on the fatigue behavior of TC4 titanium alloy in high cycle (HCF) and very high cycle (VHCF) regimes are discussed in this paper. Ultrasonic three-point bending fatigue tests at 20 kHz were done on a fatigue [...] Read more.
The effects of microstructure and axial tension on the fatigue behavior of TC4 titanium alloy in high cycle (HCF) and very high cycle (VHCF) regimes are discussed in this paper. Ultrasonic three-point bending fatigue tests at 20 kHz were done on a fatigue life range among 105–109 cycles of the alloys with equiaxed, bimodal and Widmanstatten microstructures. Experimental results without axial tension show that three typical shapes of S-N curves clearly present themselves for the three different microstructures. Moreover, the crack initiation sites abruptly shifted from surface to subsurface of the specimen in the very high cycle fatigue regime for equiaxed and bimodal microstructures. But for the Widmanstatten microstructure, both surface and subsurface crack initiation appeared in the high cycle fatigue regime, and the multi-points crack initiation was found in the bimodal microstructure. The subsurface fatigue crack originated from the αp grains in equiaxed and bimodal microstructures. However, it originated from the coarse grain boundary α in the Widmanstatten microstructure. Additionally, the S-N curve shape, fatigue life and fatigue crack initiation mechanism with axial tension are similar to that without axial tension. However, the crack origin point shifts inward with axial tension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Fatigue Behavior of Metals and Alloys)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research

Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Tang, L. et al., Effect of Oxygen Variation on High Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Titanium Alloy. Materials 2020, 13, 3858
Materials 2020, 13(23), 5364; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13235364 - 26 Nov 2020
Viewed by 296
Abstract
The author wishes to make the following correction to this paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Fatigue Behavior of Metals and Alloys)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop