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Topical Collection "Dental Biomaterials"

Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Nikolaos Silikas

Professor of Oral Biomaterials Sciences, Division of Dentistry, The University of Manchester, Oxford Rd., Manchester M13 9PL, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: development of novel biomaterial formulations; adhesive interactions; surface studies of biomaterials; photo-polymerization kinetics

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last decade or so, there has been a phenomenal boost in research for dental biomaterials. The topic now covers a broad range of activities and materials and encompasses traditional material areas like mechanical properties of materials with more biological areas like bioactivity and tissue engineering. A plethora of techniques are now routinely used in dental biomaterials including spectroscopic techniques, such as FTIR, AFM, XPS, DSC and coupled with imaging techniques like micro-CT, SEM, TEM and various analytical techniques like HPLC and Gas Chromatography. All of these are always supported by a range of mechanical properties emphasizing the fatigue of materials and adopting a more forensic approach with techniques like fractography.

In this Special Issue, we aim to have a selection of papers covering all aspects of dental materials. Some of the key areas will be resin composites, particularly looking at the biological aspect and use of nanoparticles or novel matrix formulations. This also includes bulk fill type and fiber-reinforced composites that generate a lot of interest. Another area would be implant research, highlighting differences in surface modification and again including biological aspects that can be explored by the interaction of a bioactive implant surface with bacteria and biofilm in the oral environment.

More speculative areas that have attracted a lot of attention recently like nanodentistry and regeneration by using stem cells and polymeric scaffolds in tissue engineering are also welcome. Materials used in endodontics like mineral trioxide aggregates or similar types, and novel ceramics used in prosthodontics, are also of great interest. Particularly in ceramics, some of the latest types like ‘hybrid-ceramics’ should be explored further.

Dr. Nikolaos Silikas
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Resin-composites
  • Implants
  • Stem cells
  • Tissue engineering
  • Bulk-fill composites
  • Fiber-reinforced composites
  • Spectroscopic techniques
  • Polymerization
  • Analytical techniques
  • MTA
  • Imaging techniques
  • Regeneration
  • Bioactive
  • Biofilm
  • Fatigue
  • Fractography
  • Ceramics
  • Hybrid-ceramics
  • Biocompatibility

Published Papers (8 papers)

2019

Jump to: 2018

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle In Vitro Evaluation of Experimental Self-Adhesive Orthodontic Composites Used to Bond Ceramic Brackets
Materials 2019, 12(3), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12030419
Received: 22 December 2018 / Revised: 26 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 30 January 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of conversion (DC), flexural strength (FS), and shear bond strength (SBS) of ceramic brackets bonded to enamel with experimental self-adhesive orthodontic composites. Functional monomers 10-methacryloyloxy-decyl-dihydrogen-phosphate (MDP) and glycerol-dimethacrylate-phosphate (GDMA-P) were used in experimental [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of conversion (DC), flexural strength (FS), and shear bond strength (SBS) of ceramic brackets bonded to enamel with experimental self-adhesive orthodontic composites. Functional monomers 10-methacryloyloxy-decyl-dihydrogen-phosphate (MDP) and glycerol-dimethacrylate-phosphate (GDMA-P) were used in experimental composites. They were compared to the same composite without an acidic monomer (negative control) and with enamel acid-etching prior to adhesive application (positive control). DC was evaluated by Raman micro-spectroscopy. Flexural three-point bending testing was performed in a universal testing machine. Ceramic brackets were bonded to bovine enamel and SBS was evaluated before and after 2000 thermal-cycles. Fracture patterns were surveyed with manual removal with specific pliers and analyzed by SEM. Statistics was performed using ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p < 0.05). DC of the control composite was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than that of GDMA-P and MDP. FS showed no significant difference between composites (p = 0.451). Regarding adhesion, the positive control (8.47 ± 0.88 MPa) and MDP (7.07 ± 2.69 MPa) obtained higher overall results. The predominant fracture pattern of the positive control and MDP was mixed while it was adhesive for further groups. The MDP-containing orthodontic composite attained similar adhesion to a conventional three-step orthodontic bonding system, with a similar fracture pattern and mechanical properties. Nevertheless, the presence of acidic functional monomers reduced the DC. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Pulp Temperature Rise Induced by Light-Emitting Diode Light-Curing Units Using an Ex Vivo Model
Materials 2019, 12(3), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12030411
Received: 7 January 2019 / Revised: 21 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 29 January 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this research was to compare the pulp temperature (PT) rise induced by four light-emitting diode light-curing units (LED LCUs) (Bluephase 20i, Demi Ultra, SPEC 3, and Valo) in different curing modes. Immediately after extraction, the pulp chamber of 11 premolars [...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to compare the pulp temperature (PT) rise induced by four light-emitting diode light-curing units (LED LCUs) (Bluephase 20i, Demi Ultra, SPEC 3, and Valo) in different curing modes. Immediately after extraction, the pulp chamber of 11 premolars was accessed from the palatal cervical third of the crown for insertion of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors for temperature measurement and kept in a 37.0° water bath. The teeth were then submitted to a random sequence of curing modes with four irradiations at 30 s intervals. Care was taken to ensure complete pulp temperature reset between curing modes. The curing modes were classified as high-energy (above 80 J/cm2) or low-energy (below 40 J/cm2) according to the total energy density delivered. Statistical analysis was performed with repeated ANOVA measures and Pearson’s correlation for the association between energy density and temperature variation. The significance level was set to 0.05. All curing units promoted a statistically significant PT rise (p < 0.01). After four emissions, the PT rise was higher than 5.0 °C for the high-energy curing modes. The low-energy modes induced approximately a 2.5 °C rise. A strong positive correlation was found between energy density and PT increase (R = 0.715; p = 0.01). Exposure of intact premolars to LED LCUs induced significant and cumulative PT rise. Curing modes emitting high energy densities produced higher PT variations. Radiant exposure was positively correlated to PT variation. Full article
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2018

Jump to: 2019

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Doping β-TCP as a Strategy for Enhancing the Regenerative Potential of Composite β-TCP—Alkali-Free Bioactive Glass Bone Grafts. Experimental Study in Rats
Materials 2019, 12(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12010004
Received: 14 November 2018 / Revised: 10 December 2018 / Accepted: 13 December 2018 / Published: 20 December 2018
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Abstract
The present work aims at evaluating the potential gains derived from partially replacing calcium in resorbable β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) by two different molar percentages of strontium (5, 10) and zinc (1, 2), concomitantly with a fixed molar percentage (0.5) of manganese. Synthetic granular [...] Read more.
The present work aims at evaluating the potential gains derived from partially replacing calcium in resorbable β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) by two different molar percentages of strontium (5, 10) and zinc (1, 2), concomitantly with a fixed molar percentage (0.5) of manganese. Synthetic granular composite bone filling grafts consisting of doped β-TCP and an alkali-free bioactive glass were prepared and implanted in ~4 mm diameter bone defects drilled in the calvaria of Wistar rats used as animal models. The animals were sacrificed after 9 weeks of implantation and the calvaria was excised. Non-manipulated bone was used as positive control, while empty defects were used as a negative control group. The von Kossa staining revealed an enhanced new bone formation with increasing doping levels, supporting the therapeutic effects exerted by the doping elements. The percentage of newly formed bone was similar when the defects were filled with autologous bone, BG (previous results) or 3TCP2/7BG, which indicates that the latter two are excellent candidates for replacement of autologous bone as bone regeneration material. This finding confirms that doping with suitable doses of therapeutic ions is a good strategy towards transposing the bone graft materials to biomedical applications in humans. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hydrogen Peroxide Diffusion through Enamel and Dentin
Materials 2018, 11(9), 1694; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11091694
Received: 17 August 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 9 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro diffusion of commercial bleaching products (hydrogen peroxide (HP) or carbamide peroxide (CP) based) with different application protocols. Human enamel-dentin discs were obtained and divided into 20 groups. Four commercial products based on [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro diffusion of commercial bleaching products (hydrogen peroxide (HP) or carbamide peroxide (CP) based) with different application protocols. Human enamel-dentin discs were obtained and divided into 20 groups. Four commercial products based on HP (Pola Office+(PO), Perfect Bleach (PB), Norblanc Office-automix (NO), and Boost (BT)), and one based on CP (PolaDay CP (PD)), were evaluated with different application protocols (3 applications × 10 min or 1 application × 30 min, with or without light activation). Artificial pulp chambers with 100 µL of a buffer solution were prepared. After each application, the buffer was removed and diffused HP was quantified by fluorimetry. Data were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s test. In groups where 3 × 10 min applications were done, after the first 10 min, PB, NO, and PD showed similar diffusion (p < 0.05). After the second and third applications, diffusion proved similar for PO and PD, while PB exhibited the greatest diffusion. In the 30 min application groups, PO and BT showed no significant differences (p > 0.05), with similar results for NO and PD. Comparing products with or without light activation, PO, BT, and PB showed significantly greater diffusion with light activation (p < 0.05). Reapplication, and light activation, increased HP diffusion independently of the concentration of the product. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Comparative Study on the Mechanical Properties of a Polymer-Infiltrated Ceramic-Network Material Used for the Fabrication of Hybrid Abutment
Materials 2018, 11(9), 1681; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11091681
Received: 25 July 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 9 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
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Abstract
Polymer-infiltrated ceramic-network (PICN) material is a new type of material used for the hybrid abutments of dental implants. This study aimed to compare flexural strength, bond strengths, and fracture-resistance values of PICN with lithium disilicate ceramic (LDS) and to evaluate the effect of [...] Read more.
Polymer-infiltrated ceramic-network (PICN) material is a new type of material used for the hybrid abutments of dental implants. This study aimed to compare flexural strength, bond strengths, and fracture-resistance values of PICN with lithium disilicate ceramic (LDS) and to evaluate the effect of thermocycling on the tested parameters. Twenty specimens were fabricated using computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology for each material according to three-point bending (n = 10), microshear bond strength (µSBS), and a fracture-resistance test (hybrid abutment, n = 10). All specimens of each test group were divided into two subgroups, thermocycled or nonthermocycled. Hybrid abutments were cemented on titanium insert bases and then fixed on implants to compare fracture resistance. Failure loads were recorded for each test and data were statistically analyzed. Thermocycling decreased bond strength to the resin luting agent and the fracture-resistance values of both materials (p < 0.001), whereas flexural-strength values were not affected. LDS ceramic showed significantly higher flexural strength, bond strength, and fracture-resistance values than PICN material (p < 0.001). Within the limitations of this study, LDS may be a preferable hybrid-abutment material to PICN in terms of mechanical and bonding properties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Push-Out Bond Strength and SEM Evaluation in Roots Filled with Two Different Techniques Using New and Conventional Sealers
Materials 2018, 11(9), 1620; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11091620
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 23 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of calcium-silicate-based sealer (Endosequence-BC-Sealer) in roots, filled with thermo-plasticized injectable technique aided by Calamus-Flow-Delivery-System, on bond strength to radicular dentin, in comparison with conventional epoxy-resin-based sealer (AH-Plus) along with cold-lateral-compaction technique. Root canals [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of calcium-silicate-based sealer (Endosequence-BC-Sealer) in roots, filled with thermo-plasticized injectable technique aided by Calamus-Flow-Delivery-System, on bond strength to radicular dentin, in comparison with conventional epoxy-resin-based sealer (AH-Plus) along with cold-lateral-compaction technique. Root canals of mandibular-premolar teeth (n = 80) were instrumented using Protaper Universal rotary files and were randomly divided into four experimental groups (n = 20) as follows: (1) AH-Plus + cold-lateral-compaction technique; (2) Endosequence-BC-Sealer + cold-lateral-compaction technique; (3) AH-Plus + thermo-plasticized injectable technique; and (4) Endosequence-BC-Sealer + thermo-plasticized injectable technique. Horizontal disc shaped samples from each group (n = 60/group) were obtained and push-out bond strength testing was performed at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed statistically using nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis analysis and Mann-Whitney test (p < 0.001). The statistical analysis revealed a significant difference amongst the groups (p < 0.001). The highest bond strength values were found in group 1 compared with all the other experimental groups (p < 0.001), whereas the lowest bond strength values were found in group 4 (p < 0.001). It was concluded that thermo-plasticized injectable technique with Calamus-Flow-Delivery-System lowered the bond strengths of the sealers, especially Endosequence-BC-Sealer. Therefore, this technique is not recommended to calcium-silicate-based sealers. Further studies are needed to confirm the findings of this study. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Simultaneous Evaluation of Creep Deformation and Recovery of Bulk-Fill Dental Composites Immersed in Food-Simulating Liquids
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1180; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071180
Received: 6 June 2018 / Revised: 27 June 2018 / Accepted: 28 June 2018 / Published: 10 July 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study is to compare the creep/recovery behavior of bulk-fill dental composites after storage in various food simulating organic solvents. For this purpose, five different resin-composites (four bulk-fills and one conventional) were used. A total of 20 rectangular specimens (14 [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to compare the creep/recovery behavior of bulk-fill dental composites after storage in various food simulating organic solvents. For this purpose, five different resin-composites (four bulk-fills and one conventional) were used. A total of 20 rectangular specimens (14 mm × 3 mm × 0.7 mm) were prepared by filling the resin-composites in Teflon mold. All of the specimens for each material (n = 5) were divided into four groups namely dry (control), distilled water (DW), artificial saliva, and absolute ethanol. The specimens were subjected to three-point bending creep test during immersion directly. A constant load of 2 N was used for each specimen with loading and unloading time 2 h each. Results: SF2 and XF showed a lower creep strain % after immersion, ranging from 0.44 (dry) to 0.75 (saliva) and 0.43 (dry) to 0.80 (ethanol), respectively. TNC BF depicts the maximum creep strain % ranging from 1.24% (dry) to 2.87% (ethanol) followed by FBF ranging from 1.17 (dry) to 2.59 (ethanol). However, the conventional material (GR) showed lower creep strain after immersion ranging from 0.28 to 0.54. Moreover, SF2 resulted in the highest creep recovery in all of the composites groups, as well as conventional material. The other composite groups showed lower creep recovery as compared to the conventional material (GR). The creep strain % for all the bulk-fill composites materials were increased during immersion in the liquids. However, for the conventional material, the creep deformation is decreased after immersion. SF2 showed the highest percentage of creep recovery among the bulk-fill composites, followed by XF. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Mechanical and Morphological Effect of Plant Based Antimicrobial Solutions on Maxillofacial Silicone Elastomer
Materials 2018, 11(6), 925; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11060925
Received: 22 April 2018 / Revised: 25 May 2018 / Accepted: 25 May 2018 / Published: 30 May 2018
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of plant based antimicrobial solutions specifically tea tree and Manuka oil on facial silicone elastomers. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of disinfection with plant extract solution [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of plant based antimicrobial solutions specifically tea tree and Manuka oil on facial silicone elastomers. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of disinfection with plant extract solution on mechanical properties and morphology on the silicone elastomer. Test specimens were subjected to disinfection using tea tree oil, Manuka oil and the staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria. Furthermore, a procedure duration was used in the disinfection process to simulate up to one year of usage. Over 500 test specimens were fabricated for all tests performed namely hardness, elongation, tensile, tear strength tests, visual inspection and lastly surface characterization using SEM. A repeated measures ANOVA revealed that hardness and elongation at break varied significantly over the time period, whereas this was not observed in the tear and tensile strength parameters of the test samples. Full article
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