Special Issue "Damage and Mechanical Properties of Steels"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Smart Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Auezhan Amanov
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sunmoon University, Asan 336708, Korea
Interests: micro/nano-tribology; friction reduction practice; adhesive wear/fatigue wear; fretting; hydrodynamic lubrication; surface texturing; micro/nano structure; steel; surface treatments/coatings; deformation processing/forming
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Wear (damage to mechanical components caused by wear and fatigue) is considered to be an important issue for mechanical engineers and materials scientists. It is important to understand the different types of mechanical and chemical damages, which are usually thought of as gradual deterioration. For the purpose of wear resistance and fatigue strength, it is necessary to improve the mechanical properties of materials, as the surface damage is the result of a complex process connected with friction (wear), fatigue (cracking), fatigue (fracture), etc. Furthermore, low friction between two sliding or rolling surfaces plays an important role in saving. This Special Issue outlines research based on improvement in damage, wear, and fatigue of steels and also assesses some synergetic damage, wear, and fatigue mechanisms. We invite researchers from around the world to submit original research papers and review articles on the improvements in damage, wear, and fatigue performances of steels by controlling the mechanical properties and microstructure using different methods. Both experimental and analytical case studies related to damage, wear, and fatigue of steels are very welcome.

Prof. Dr. Auezhan Amanov
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • steels
  • mechanical properties
  • ductility
  • wear
  • wear mechanisms
  • fatigue
  • fretting damage
  • surface damage

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Jumping Wave Characteristic during Low Plasticity Burnishing Process
Materials 2021, 14(6), 1441; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14061441 - 16 Mar 2021
Viewed by 315
Abstract
During the low plasticity burnishing process of soft materials such as carbon steel with a hardness of up to 40 HRC (Rockwell grade) a raised structure of the material known as the Jumping Wave forms in front of the tool roll. This phenomenon [...] Read more.
During the low plasticity burnishing process of soft materials such as carbon steel with a hardness of up to 40 HRC (Rockwell grade) a raised structure of the material known as the Jumping Wave forms in front of the tool roll. This phenomenon significantly disturbs the burnishing process, but is very poorly described in the literature. This article presents studies of this phenomenon on the example of burnished 1.0562 steel. The research concerns the changes in the surface structure of the processed material as well as changes in the structure of the material during this process. The research shows changes in the geometric structure of the surface made in the 3D system and their parametric description. Moreover, the work presents an analysis of the metallographic structure in the tool zone. The research showed occurrence of material slippages in the wave in front of the tool, which creates an additional structure on the surface. These tests make it possible to better understand the process of changes that take place in the surface layer of the processed element in the low plasticity burnishing process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Damage and Mechanical Properties of Steels)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
The Effect of Baking Heat Treatment on the Fatigue Strength and Life of Shot Peened 4340M Landing Gear Steel
Materials 2020, 13(24), 5711; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13245711 - 15 Dec 2020
Viewed by 428
Abstract
In this study, the effect of baking heat treatment on fatigue strength and fatigue life was evaluated by performing baking heat treatment after shot peening treatment on 4340M steel for landing gear. An ultrasonic fatigue test was performed to obtain the S–N curve, [...] Read more.
In this study, the effect of baking heat treatment on fatigue strength and fatigue life was evaluated by performing baking heat treatment after shot peening treatment on 4340M steel for landing gear. An ultrasonic fatigue test was performed to obtain the S–N curve, and the fatigue strength and fatigue life were compared. The micro hardness of shot peening showed a maximum at a hardened depth of about 50 μm and was almost uniform when it arrived at the hardened depth of about 400 μm. The overall average tensile strength after the baking heat treatment was lowered by about 80–111 MPa, but the yield strength was improved by about 206–262 MPa. The five cases of specimens showed similar fatigue strength and fatigue life in high cycle fatigue (HCF) regime. However, the fatigue limit of the baking heat treated specimens showed an increasing tendency rather than that of shot peening specimens when the fatigue life was extended to the very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) regime. The effect of baking heat treatment was identified from improved fatigue limit when baking heat was used to treat the specimen treated by shot peening containing inclusions. The optimum temperature range for the better baking heat treatment effect could be constrained not to exceed maximum 246 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Damage and Mechanical Properties of Steels)
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Open AccessArticle
Better Surface Integrity and Tribological Properties of Steel Sintered by Powder Metallurgy
Materials 2020, 13(14), 3172; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13143172 - 16 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 430
Abstract
The current research reports the improvement in surface integrity and tribological characteristics of steel prepared using a powder metallurgy (PM) by ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM) at 25 and 300 °C. The surface integrity and tribological properties of three samples, namely, as-PM, UNSM-25 [...] Read more.
The current research reports the improvement in surface integrity and tribological characteristics of steel prepared using a powder metallurgy (PM) by ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM) at 25 and 300 °C. The surface integrity and tribological properties of three samples, namely, as-PM, UNSM-25 and UNSM-300 were investigated. The average surface roughness (Ra) of the as-PM, UNSM-25 and UNSM-300 samples was measured using a non-contact 3D scanner, where it was found to be 3.21, 1.14 and 0.74 µm, respectively. The top surface hardness was also measured in order to investigate the influence of UNSM treatment temperature on the hardness. The results revealed that the as-PM sample with a hardness of 109 HV was increased up to 165 and 237 HV, corresponding to a 32.1% and 57.2% after both the UNSM treatment at 25 and 300 °C, respectively. XRD analysis was also performed to confirm if any changes in chemistry and crystal size were took place after the UNSM treatment at 25 and 300 °C. In addition, dry tribological properties of the samples were investigated. The friction coefficient of the as-PM sample was 0.284, which was reduced up to 0.225 and 0.068 after UNSM treatment at 25 and 300 °C, respectively. The wear resistance was also enhanced by 33.2 and 52.9% after UNSM treatment at both 25 and 300 °C. Improvements in surface roughness, hardness and tribological properties was attributed to the elimination of big and deep porosities after UNSM treatment. Wear track of the samples and wear scar of the counter surface balls were investigated by SEM to reach a comprehensive discussion on wear mechanisms. Overall, it was confirmed that UNSM treatment at 25 and 300 °C had a beneficial effect on the surface integrity and tribological characteristics of sintered steel by the PM that is used in a shock absorber for a car engine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Damage and Mechanical Properties of Steels)
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Open AccessArticle
Mechanical and Tribological Characteristics of Cladded AISI 1045 Carbon Steel
Materials 2020, 13(4), 859; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13040859 - 14 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 999
Abstract
This study introduces a newly developed cladding device, through printing AISI 1045 carbon steel as single and double layers onto American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) H13 tool steel plate. In this study, the mechanical and tribological characteristics of single and double [...] Read more.
This study introduces a newly developed cladding device, through printing AISI 1045 carbon steel as single and double layers onto American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) H13 tool steel plate. In this study, the mechanical and tribological characteristics of single and double layers were experimentally investigated. Both layers were polished first and then subjected to ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM) treatment to improve the mechanical and tribological characteristics. Surface roughness, surface hardness and depth profile measurements, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the polished and UNSM-treated layers were carried out. After tribological tests, the wear tracks of both layers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) along with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The surface roughness (Ra and Rz) of the single and double UNSM-treated layers was reduced 74.6% and 85.9% compared to those of both the as-received layers, respectively. In addition, the surface hardness of the single and double layers was dramatically increased, by approximately 23.6% and 23.4% after UNSM treatment, respectively. There was no significant reduction in friction coefficient of both the UNSM-treated layers, but the wear resistance of the single and double UNSM-treated layers was enhanced by approximately 9.4% and 19.3% compared to the single and double polished layers, respectively. It can be concluded that UNSM treatment was capable of improving the mechanical and tribological characteristics of both layers. The newly developed cladding device can be used as an alternative additive manufacturing (AM) method, but efforts and upgrades need to progress in order to increase the productivity of the device and also improve the quality of the layers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Damage and Mechanical Properties of Steels)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Internal Pressure on Radial Strain of Steel Pipe Subjected to Monotonic and Cyclic Loading
Materials 2019, 12(18), 2849; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12182849 - 04 Sep 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 818
Abstract
Steel pipes in different engineering applications may fail, leading to numerous environmental disasters. During loading, certain mechanical and chemical phenomena develop inside the pipes and cause them to burst. In this study, the influence of internal pressure on the elastic and plastic behaviour [...] Read more.
Steel pipes in different engineering applications may fail, leading to numerous environmental disasters. During loading, certain mechanical and chemical phenomena develop inside the pipes and cause them to burst. In this study, the influence of internal pressure on the elastic and plastic behaviour of E355 steel pipes was investigated on small specimens with different wall thicknesses. First, the failure modes of pipes subjected to monotonic loading were assessed, and then the behaviour of specimens subjected to cyclic internal pressure was analysed in terms of variation of radial strain. The strain and stress states of pipes were analysed using the finite element method. The results revealed that the hardening of materials inside the pipes increases the risk of cracking and bursting because of elasticity limits being exceeded, causing entry into the plastic domain. The transition of mechanical behaviour can be observed in the microstructure of steel in cracked areas from the inside to the outside of the pipe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Damage and Mechanical Properties of Steels)
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Open AccessArticle
Double Crack Damage Identification of Welded Steel Structure Based on LAMB WAVES of S0 Mode
Materials 2019, 12(11), 1800; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12111800 - 03 Jun 2019
Viewed by 863
Abstract
Steel structures are widely used in large-span bridges, offshore platforms, mining equipment and other large-scale buildings. The damage of steel structures will cause significant safety risks in a project. Therefore, it is of great significance to identify and study damage to steel structures. [...] Read more.
Steel structures are widely used in large-span bridges, offshore platforms, mining equipment and other large-scale buildings. The damage of steel structures will cause significant safety risks in a project. Therefore, it is of great significance to identify and study damage to steel structures. In this study, the propagation of Lamb waves in a steel plate with double cracks is simulated. Using finite element analysis and experimental study, damage identification and damage imaging of double crack damage to a steel plate are performed, and the numerical simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental results. Considering the reflection and transmission of Lamb waves at the welding seam, the location and imaging of crack damage in a welded steel plate are also studied. The imaging results obtained from simulation and experiment show high level in accuracy. By comparing the amplitude of the signal in the propagation process, it is concluded that the transmission energy at the weld seam decreases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Damage and Mechanical Properties of Steels)
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Open AccessArticle
Determination of the Enhancement or Shielding Interaction between Two Parallel Cracks under Fatigue Loading
Materials 2019, 12(8), 1331; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12081331 - 24 Apr 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 933
Abstract
In this paper, the interactions between two parallel cracks are investigated experimentally and numerically. Finite element models have been established to obtain the stress intensity factors and stress distributions of the parallel cracks with different positions and sizes. Fatigue crack growth tests of [...] Read more.
In this paper, the interactions between two parallel cracks are investigated experimentally and numerically. Finite element models have been established to obtain the stress intensity factors and stress distributions of the parallel cracks with different positions and sizes. Fatigue crack growth tests of 304 stainless steel specimens with the single crack and two parallel cracks have been conducted to confirm the numerical results. The numerical analysis results indicate that the interactions between the two parallel cracks have an enhancement or shielding effect on the stress intensity factors, depending on the relative positions of the cracks. The criterion diagram to determine the enhancement or shielding effect between two parallel cracks is obtained. The changes of the stress fields around the cracks have been studied to explain the mechanism of crack interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Damage and Mechanical Properties of Steels)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Investigation on Friction and Wear Behavior of the Vertical Spindle and V-belt of a Cotton Picker
Materials 2019, 12(5), 773; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12050773 - 06 Mar 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1174
Abstract
This study deals with the friction and wear behavior of the vertical spindle and V-belt to improve the reliability, operation and to extend the service life of a cotton picker. The vertical spindle made of low-carbon steel (ST3) was treated by the ultrasonic [...] Read more.
This study deals with the friction and wear behavior of the vertical spindle and V-belt to improve the reliability, operation and to extend the service life of a cotton picker. The vertical spindle made of low-carbon steel (ST3) was treated by the ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM) technique to control the friction and wear behavior. It was found that the UNSM technique reduced surface roughness and increased surface hardness of the vertical spindle. The friction and wear behavior of the vertical spindle and V-belt was assessed by carrying out tribological tests and the results showed that the UNSM-treated vertical spindle generated a higher friction coefficient compared to the untreated one due to having less slip. In case of wear resistance, unmeasurable wear occurred on the surface of the vertical spindle due to its significant high hardness compared to the hardness of the V-belt that came into contact with the vertical spindle in relative motion. Hence, the wear behavior and mechanisms of the V-belts were systematically investigated and also discussed based on the wear track profiles and micrographs. It can be concluded that the application of the UNSM technique to the vertical spindle may contribute to improve the performance of cotton pickers by reducing the slip and prolonging the service life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Damage and Mechanical Properties of Steels)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Study on the Potential of Cavitation Damage in a Lead–Bismuth Eutectic Spallation Target
Materials 2019, 12(4), 681; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12040681 - 25 Feb 2019
Viewed by 1167
Abstract
To perform basic Research and Development for future Accelerator-driven Systems (ADSs), Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) will construct an ADS target test facility. A Lead–Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) spallation target will be installed in the target test facility and bombarded by pulsed proton [...] Read more.
To perform basic Research and Development for future Accelerator-driven Systems (ADSs), Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) will construct an ADS target test facility. A Lead–Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) spallation target will be installed in the target test facility and bombarded by pulsed proton beams (250 kW, 400 MeV, 25 Hz, and 0.5 ms pulse duration). To realize the LBE spallation target, cavitation damage due to pressure changes in the liquid metal should be determined, preliminarily, because such damage is considered to be very critical, from the viewpoint of target safety and lifetime. In this study, cavitation damage due to pressure waves caused by pulsed proton beam injection and turbulent liquid metal flow, were studied, numerically, from the viewpoint of single cavitation bubble dynamics. Specifically, the threshold of cavitation and effects of flow speed fluctuation on cavitation bubble dynamics, in an orifice structure, were investigated in the present work. The results showed that the LBE spallation target did not undergo cavitation damage, under normal nominal operation conditions, mainly because of the long pulse duration of the pulsed proton beam and the low liquid metal flow velocity. Nevertheless, the possibility of cavitation damage in the orifice structure, under certain extreme transient LBE flow conditions, cannot be neglected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Damage and Mechanical Properties of Steels)
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Open AccessArticle
Corrosion Failure Mechanism of Associated Gas Transmission Pipeline
Materials 2018, 11(10), 1935; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11101935 - 11 Oct 2018
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1522
Abstract
Corrosion has been responsible for several gas pipeline leakage accidents; thus, clarifying its failure mechanisms is a precondition to prevent such accidents. On the basis of failure analysis of corroded pipe sections, laboratory exposure tests were conducted by simulating three possible corrosion environments [...] Read more.
Corrosion has been responsible for several gas pipeline leakage accidents; thus, clarifying its failure mechanisms is a precondition to prevent such accidents. On the basis of failure analysis of corroded pipe sections, laboratory exposure tests were conducted by simulating three possible corrosion environments inside a gas pipeline. The corrosion rate indicated by depth change was adopted in this study. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to analyze corrosion products. Results showed that the specimens completely immersed in condensate water were generally corroded and that the specimens exposed to gas were locally corroded. However, the corrosion rate of the latter was slightly lower; hence, no autocatalysis of occluded corrosion cell occurred in the formation of corrosion pit, and uniform corrosion occurred in the precipitation location of condensate water. The areas in the range of 5 mm below the waterline indicated severe corrosion, and the rate could reach twice that of other areas. The corrosion products were mainly FeO(OH) and FeCO3, thereby proving that the corrosion failure of pipelines was caused by oxygen absorption corrosion and CO2 corrosion. Suggestions were presented to control corrosion failure of associated gas pipelines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Damage and Mechanical Properties of Steels)
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Open AccessArticle
Bearings Downsizing by Strength Enhancement and Service Life Extension
Materials 2018, 11(9), 1662; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11091662 - 08 Sep 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1315
Abstract
Slim bearings are used widely in aircrafts, robots, wind turbines, and industrial machineries, where their size and weight are very important for the performance of a system. The common materials of slim bearings for robots and industrial machineries are based on SAE52110 bearing [...] Read more.
Slim bearings are used widely in aircrafts, robots, wind turbines, and industrial machineries, where their size and weight are very important for the performance of a system. The common materials of slim bearings for robots and industrial machineries are based on SAE52110 bearing steel, and special heat treatment and a super polishing process are used and adapted to improve the rolling contact fatigue (RCF) strength of bearings. The improvement in RCF strength, depending on contact stress, surface hardness, and the friction behavior before and after ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification (UNSM) treatment was validated. Simple analysis shows that these improvements can reduce the size and weight of slim bearings down to about 3.40–21.25% and 14.3–26.05%, respectively. Hence, this UNSM technology is an opportunity to implement cost-saving and energy consuming super-polishing, a heat treatment process, and to reduce the size and weight of slim bearings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Damage and Mechanical Properties of Steels)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Residual Compressive Strength and Behavior of Corrosion-Damaged Carbon Steel Tubular Members
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1254; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071254 - 20 Jul 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1770
Abstract
Local corrosion damage of steel structures can occur due to damage to the paint-coated surface of structures. Such damage can affect the structural behavior and performance of steel structures. Compressive loading tests were, thus, carried out in this study to examine the effect [...] Read more.
Local corrosion damage of steel structures can occur due to damage to the paint-coated surface of structures. Such damage can affect the structural behavior and performance of steel structures. Compressive loading tests were, thus, carried out in this study to examine the effect of local corrosion damage on the structural behavior and strength of tubular members. Artificial cross-sectional damage on the surface of the tubular members was introduced to reflect the actual corroded damage under exposure to a corrosion environment. The compressive failure modes and compressive strengths of the tubular members were compared according to the localized cross-sectional damage. The compressive loading test results showed that the compressive strengths were affected by the damaged width within a certain range. In addition, finite element analysis (FEA) was conducted with various parameters to determine the effects of the damage on the failure mode and compressive strength of the stub column. From the FEA results, the compressive strength was decreased proportionally with the equivalent cross-sectional area ratio and damaged volume ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Damage and Mechanical Properties of Steels)
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