materials-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Innovative and Modern Technologies of Material Machining in Cutting and Abrasive Processes

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Manufacturing Processes and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2022) | Viewed by 31330

Special Issue Editors

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Production Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, 20-618 Lublin, Poland
Interests: cutting processes; surface metrology; tribology; maintenance; process diagnostics; additive manufacturing technologies
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Production Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, 20-618 Lublin, Poland
Interests: machining processes; surface morphology; adhesion; adhesive bonding; surface energy; aviation materials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Machining and abrasive machining are among the most important production methods for machine parts. Machining accuracy and efficiency are crucial in many areas of the aviation and automotive industry. There is also growing interest in the machining of difficult-to-cut, advanced engineering materials such as titanium- and nickel-based alloys, tool steels, stainless steels, hardened steels, composites, shape memory alloys, cobalt–chromium alloys, magnesium-based alloys, etc. This requires the use of modern tool materials and abrasive components that are capable of effective cutting with high dimensional and shape accuracy. The development of tool materials and coatings applied to cutting edges is of vital importance in this area. In addition, the formation of specified properties and technological features of the surface layer after treatment poses many difficulties. Still, difficult-to-cut advanced engineering materials are favored for use in demanding applications due to their unique metallurgical properties, ability to operate at elevated temperatures, and high resistance to corrosion and fatigue among other advantages. These materials are the most widely used in the aerospace, biomedical, and automotive industries. It must, however, be remembered that these new, difficult-to-cut materials are characterized by poor machinability, and their use implies high processing costs. Here, optimization of machining operations and their modeling as well as ecological aspects of cutting play a very important role. Therefore, the objective of this Special Issue is to publish original research and review papers in the field of machinability of modern, difficult-to-cut engineering materials, especially those utilized in the aerospace, automotive, and biomedical industry as well as in other sectors.

Potential topics in the field of cutting include, but are not limited to, the following:

  1. Research on physical phenomena in the cutting process
  2. Modeling and simulation of the cutting process and machining operations
  3. Development of tool materials and coatings applied to cutting edges
  4. Design development of cutting tools and toolholders
  5. Optimization of machining operations and ecology in cutting
  6. Research and evaluation of surface layer properties
  7. Problems of cutting efficiency and quality in various areas of industry
  8. Cutting of difficult-to-cut materials
  9. Application of information technology in cutting processes
  10. Burnishing technology
  11. Cutting process and system metrology

Potential topics in abrasive machining processes area include, but are not limited to, the following:

  1. New technologies of abrasive machining processes
  2. Innovative solutions in the field of design and technology of abrasive tools
  3. Monitoring and optimization of abrasive and erosive machining processes
  4. Examination and evaluation of surface topography and physical properties of surface layer
  5. Modeling of abrasive machining operations and processes
  6. Micro burnishing processes, methods, and applications of electrochemical machining
  7. Hybrid abrasive machining processes
  8. Automation and robotization of surface treatment processes
  9. Ecology in abrasive machining
  10. Management and processing of post-grinding waste
  11. Formation of surface adhesive properties

With this Special Issue, we invite researchers to contribute original research papers and review articles in this field of research.

Dr. Jerzy Józwik
Prof. Józef Kuczmaszewski
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cutting
  • tool materials
  • surface morphology
  • surface energy
  • surface adhesion properties
  • electrical discharge machining
  • electrochemical machining
  • aviation, medicine, and automotive materials machining
  • ultraprecision and nonconventional manufacturing
  • ecology in manufacturing, burnishing, and insert coatings

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (17 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

13 pages, 4289 KiB  
Article
Effects of Process Cutting Parameters on the Ti-6Al-4V Turning with Monolithic Driven Rotary Tool
by Richard Joch, Michal Šajgalík, Andrej Czán, Jozef Holubják, Miroslav Cedzo and Robert Čep
Materials 2022, 15(15), 5181; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15155181 - 26 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1150
Abstract
Machining with rotating tools appears to be an efficient method that employs a non-standard kinematic turning scheme. It is used in the machining of materials that we classify in the category of difficult to machine. The titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V, which is widely used [...] Read more.
Machining with rotating tools appears to be an efficient method that employs a non-standard kinematic turning scheme. It is used in the machining of materials that we classify in the category of difficult to machine. The titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V, which is widely used in industry and transportation, is an example of such material. Rotary tool machining of titanium alloys has not been the subject of many studies. Additionally, if researchers were dissatisfied with their findings, the reason may not be the kinematic machining scheme itself but rather the tool design and the choice of cutting parameters. When tools are constructed of several components, inaccuracies in production and assembly can arise, resulting in deviations in the cutting part area. A monolithic driven rotary tool eliminates these factors. In the machining process, however, it may react differently from multi-component tools. The presented work focuses on the research of the technology for machining titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V using a monolithic driven rotary tool. The primary goal is to gather data on the impact of cutting parameters on the machining process. The cutting force and the consequent integrity of the workpiece surface are used to monitor the process. The speed of workpiece rotation has the greatest impact on the process; as it increases, the cutting force increases, as do the values of the surface roughness. In the experiment, lower surface roughness values were attained by increasing the feed parameter and the depth of cut. This may predetermine the inclusion of a kinematic scheme in highly productive technologies. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 5805 KiB  
Article
Research, Modelling and Prediction of the Influence of Technological Parameters on the Selected 3D Roughness Parameters, as Well as Temperature, Shape and Geometry of Chips in Milling AZ91D Alloy
by Monika Kulisz, Ireneusz Zagórski, Jerzy Józwik and Jarosław Korpysa
Materials 2022, 15(12), 4277; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15124277 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1392
Abstract
The main purpose of the study was to define the machining conditions that ensure the best quality of the machined surface, low chip temperature in the cutting zone and favourable geometric features of chips when using monolithic two-teeth cutters made of HSS Co [...] Read more.
The main purpose of the study was to define the machining conditions that ensure the best quality of the machined surface, low chip temperature in the cutting zone and favourable geometric features of chips when using monolithic two-teeth cutters made of HSS Co steel by PRECITOOL. As the subject of the research, samples with a predetermined geometry, made of AZ91D alloy, were selected. The rough milling process was performed on a DMU 65 MonoBlock vertical milling centre. The machinability of AZ91D magnesium alloy was analysed by determining machinability indices such as: 3D roughness parameters, chip temperature, chip shape and geometry. An increase in the feed per tooth fz and depth of cut ap parameters in most cases resulted in an increase in the values of the 3D surface roughness parameters. Increasing the analysed machining parameters did not significantly increase the instantaneous chip temperature. Chip ignition was not observed for the current cutting conditions. The conducted research proved that for the adopted conditions of machining, the chip temperature did not exceed the auto-ignition temperature. Modelling of cause-and-effect relationships between the variable technological parameters of machining fz and ap and the temperature in the cutting zone T, the spatial geometric structure of the 3D surface “Sa” and kurtosis “Sku” was performed with the use of artificial neural network modelling. During the simulation, MLP and RBF networks, various functions of neuron activation and various learning algorithms were used. The analysis of the obtained modelling results and the selection of the most appropriate network were performed on the basis of the quality of the learning and validation, as well as learning and validation error indices. It was shown that in the case of the analysed 3D roughness parameters (Sa and Sku), a better result was obtained for the MLP network, and in the case of maximum temperature, for the RBF network. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 10800 KiB  
Article
Effect of Laser Heating on the Life of Cutting Tools Coated with Single- and Multilayer Coatings Containing a TiN Layer
by Maciej Jan Kupczyk and Jerzy Józwik
Materials 2022, 15(11), 4022; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15114022 - 6 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2051
Abstract
This study proposes a novel use of laser heating to increase the adhesion between coatings fabricated by low-temperature PVD and replaceable cemented carbide cutting inserts, thus extending the life of these cutting tools in the machining of difficult-to-machine materials. Our previous studies conducted [...] Read more.
This study proposes a novel use of laser heating to increase the adhesion between coatings fabricated by low-temperature PVD and replaceable cemented carbide cutting inserts, thus extending the life of these cutting tools in the machining of difficult-to-machine materials. Our previous studies conducted on CVD coatings showed that these coatings had higher adhesion due to a much higher process temperature. However, taking into account the fact that PVD coatings have better technological properties (e.g., lower structure porosity, higher hardness, and better tribological properties) than CVD coatings, it is fully justified to investigate ways of improving the PVD coating adhesion to the substrate. In this study, replaceable cutting inserts with different hard coatings of titanium nitride were used. Laser heating was conducted with different power densities. The adhesion strength of the tested coatings was determined via vibration spectrum analysis. In addition, 2D surface imaging, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry were employed to examine the coatings after laser heating. A significant increase in the adhesion of single-layer (TiN) and double-layer (TiCN + TiN) coatings to the cemented carbide substrate, together with increased tool life, was observed after heating the samples with 40% of the maximum laser power. The application of a multilayer coating containing thermal shock-sensitive (TiAlSi) N did not increase the tool life. This paper attempts to interpret the obtained results. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 10736 KiB  
Article
Machining with a Precision Five-Axis Machine Tools Created by Combining a Horizontal Parallel Three-Axis Motion Platform and a Three-Axis Machine Tools
by Yuan-Ming Cheng
Materials 2022, 15(6), 2268; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15062268 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2173
Abstract
Five-axis working machines are applied in the high-precision machining of complex convex surfaces. Therefore, this study integrated a horizontal parallel three-axis motion platform and a three-axis machine tools to create a reconfigurable precision five-axis machine tools (RPFMT). A DELTA OPEN computer numerical control [...] Read more.
Five-axis working machines are applied in the high-precision machining of complex convex surfaces. Therefore, this study integrated a horizontal parallel three-axis motion platform and a three-axis machine tools to create a reconfigurable precision five-axis machine tools (RPFMT). A DELTA OPEN computer numerical control controller was used as the control system architecture. A human–machine interface and programmable controller were incorporated into the developed tool to achieve automatic online measurement. A suitable cutting tool was selected to calculate the five-axis NC machining code for a complex convex surface. The NC codes were input into the LabVIEW software for five-axis postprocessing conversion. A concave workpiece was cut through rough and finishing machining to verify the accuracy of the produced RPFMT. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

27 pages, 6696 KiB  
Article
Comparative Performance Evaluation of Multiconfiguration Touch-Trigger Probes for Closed-Loop Machining of Large Jet Engine Cases
by Grzegorz Szyszka and Jarosław Sęp
Materials 2022, 15(4), 1461; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15041461 - 16 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1698
Abstract
This article presents advances in the methodology of rapid various probe configurations comparison for the five-axis, tilting-head machine tools in conjunction with master artifacts. The research was performed in a direct context of automated machining of large, complex jet engine cases made from [...] Read more.
This article presents advances in the methodology of rapid various probe configurations comparison for the five-axis, tilting-head machine tools in conjunction with master artifacts. The research was performed in a direct context of automated machining of large, complex jet engine cases made from 17-4PH and 321 stainless steel materials. The aim of the study was to investigate whether all probe configurations have comparable measurement capability for use in manufacturing environment conditions. Based on the preliminary stage of the study, the T1 main straight probe achieved acceptable results of repeatability and reproducibility, lower than 10%, except for the reference diameter measurement of MT#2, where 15.4% R&R was achieved, conditionally accepted. For the straight probe configuration, error lower than 10 μm was achieved for the true position measurement and error ±10 μm for the reference diameter measurement, in relation to the vertical and horizontal head position, with the exception of the T9 and T5 MT#2 probe configuration, where higher error was noticed. The obtained results of the T5 MT#2 and T9 probes were supplemented with additional tests, which are also included. For the custom styli probes, the T4 and T6 configurations, unacceptable error, higher than 0.30 mm, was observed for the Y axis position. Depending on the shop floor and machine tool condition, variability of the results was also observed. Hence, the collected data and research helped to determine the mutual measurement errors and determine the application limitations of probes for an adaptive process flow. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 56447 KiB  
Article
The Influence of the Depth of Grinding on the Condition of the Surface Layer of 20MnCr5 Steel Ground with the Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) Method
by Wojciech Stachurski, Jacek Sawicki, Bartłomiej Januszewicz and Radosław Rosik
Materials 2022, 15(4), 1336; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15041336 - 11 Feb 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1493
Abstract
This paper describes the research on abrasive machining conditions and their influence on microhardness and residual stresses distribution in the technological surface layer of 20MnCr5 steel. The roughness of ground samples was also measured. Samples underwent a vacuum carburizing process (LPC) followed by [...] Read more.
This paper describes the research on abrasive machining conditions and their influence on microhardness and residual stresses distribution in the technological surface layer of 20MnCr5 steel. The roughness of ground samples was also measured. Samples underwent a vacuum carburizing process (LPC) followed by high-pressure gas quenching (HPGQ) in a 4D quenching chamber. Processes were realized with a single-piece flow method. Then, the flat surfaces of samples were ground with a Vortex type IPA60EH20VTX alumina grinding wheel using a flat-surface grinder. The samples were ground to three depths of grinding (ae = 0.01; 0.02; 0.03 mm) with grinding fluid supply using either flood method (WET) or minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) method. The condition of the technological surface layer was described using microhardness and residual stresses, as well as some selected parameters of surface roughness. The results obtained revealed that changes in microhardness as compared to microhardness of the material before grinding were lower in samples ground with grinding fluid supplied with MQL method. At the same time, the values of residual stresses were also better for samples ground using MQL method. Furthermore, the use of grinding fluid fed with MQL method produced lower values of surface roughness compared to the parameters obtained with WET method. It was concluded that for the tested scope of machining conditions, the MQL method can be a favourable alternative to the flood method of supplying grinding fluid into the grinding zone. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 4852 KiB  
Article
Post-Machining Deformations of Thin-Walled Elements Made of EN AW-2024 T351 Aluminum Alloy as Regards the Mechanical Properties of the Applied, Rolled Semi-Finished Products
by Magdalena Zawada-Michałowska and Paweł Pieśko
Materials 2021, 14(24), 7591; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14247591 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1983
Abstract
The paper presents an evaluation of post-machining deformations of thin-walled elements as regards the mechanical properties of the applied, rolled semi-finished products. Nowadays, wrought aluminum alloys, supplied primarily in the form of rolled plates, are widely applied in the production of thin-walled integral [...] Read more.
The paper presents an evaluation of post-machining deformations of thin-walled elements as regards the mechanical properties of the applied, rolled semi-finished products. Nowadays, wrought aluminum alloys, supplied primarily in the form of rolled plates, are widely applied in the production of thin-walled integral parts. Considering the high requirements for materials, especially in the aviation sector, it is important to be aware of their mechanical properties and for semi-finished products delivered after plastic working to take into account the so-called “technological history” concerning, inter alia, the direction of rolling. The study focused on determining the influence of the ratio of the tension direction to the rolling direction on the selected mechanical properties of the EN AW-2024 T351 aluminum alloy depending on the sample thickness and its relation to the deformation of thin-walled parts. Based on the obtained results, it was found that the sample thickness and the ratio of the tension direction to the rolling direction affected the mechanical properties of the selected aluminum alloy, which in turn translated into post-machining deformations. Summarizing, the textured surface layer had a significant impact on the mentioned deformation. Greater deformations were noted for samples made of a semi-finished product with a thickness of 5 mm in comparison to 12 mm. It was the result of the influence of the surface layer, which at lower thickness had a higher percentage of contents than in thicker samples. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 6967 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Surface Properties of Nickel Alloy Elements Exposed to Impulse Shot Peening with the Use of Positron Annihilation
by Agnieszka Skoczylas, Kazimierz Zaleski, Radosław Zaleski and Marek Gorgol
Materials 2021, 14(23), 7328; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14237328 - 30 Nov 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1572
Abstract
The paper presents the results of experimental studies on the impact of impulse shot peening parameters on surface roughness (Sa, Sz, Sp, Sv), surface layer microhardness, and the mean positron lifetime (τmean). In the study, samples made of the Inconel 718 [...] Read more.
The paper presents the results of experimental studies on the impact of impulse shot peening parameters on surface roughness (Sa, Sz, Sp, Sv), surface layer microhardness, and the mean positron lifetime (τmean). In the study, samples made of the Inconel 718 nickel alloy were subjected to impulse shot peening on an originally designed stand. The variable factors of the experiment included the impact energy, the diameter of the peening element, and the number of impacts per unit area. The impulse shot peening resulted in changes in the surface structure and an increase in surface layer microhardness. After the application of impulse shot peening, the analyzed roughness parameters increased in relation to post-milling values. An increase in microhardness was obtained, i.e., from 27 HV 0.05 to 108 HV 0.05 at the surface, while the maximum increase the microhardness occur at the depth from 0.04 mm to 0.08 mm. The changes in the physical properties of the surface layer were accompanied by an increase in the mean positron lifetime τmean. This is probably related to the increased positron annihilation in point defects. In the case of small surface deformations, the increase in microhardness was accompanied by a much lower increase in τmean, which may indicate a different course of changes in the defect structure consisting mainly in modification of the dislocation system. The dependent variables were subjected to ANOVA analysis of variance (it was one-factor analysis), and the effect of independent variables was evaluated using post-hoc tests (Tukey test). Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 5718 KiB  
Article
Electrodischarge Methods of Shaping the Cutting Ability of Superhard Grinding Wheels
by Marcin Gołąbczak, Robert Święcik, Andrzej Gołąbczak, Dariusz Kaczmarek, Ryszard Dębkowski and Barbara Tomczyk
Materials 2021, 14(22), 6773; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14226773 - 10 Nov 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1670
Abstract
In the paper, the influence of the electrodischarge dressing methods of superhard grinding wheels on shaping their cutting ability are presented. The results of research concerning the influence of dressing conditions using a stationary electrode, rotating electrode and segmental tool electrode on shaping [...] Read more.
In the paper, the influence of the electrodischarge dressing methods of superhard grinding wheels on shaping their cutting ability are presented. The results of research concerning the influence of dressing conditions using a stationary electrode, rotating electrode and segmental tool electrode on shaping the cutting ability of the superhard grinding wheels are reported. The cutting ability of superhard grinding wheels is assessed using an external tester made of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V (with a thermocouple) to determine the grinding temperature and the relative volumetric grinding efficiency of the tool. The results of the research reveal the diversified usefulness of the analyzed methods. At the end of the article application conclusions concerning the adaptation of developed methods of electrodischarge dressing in the industry are formulated. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 30466 KiB  
Article
Integrated Design of Spindle Speed Modulation and Cutting Vibration Suppression Controls Using Disturbance Observer for Thread Milling
by Syh-Shiuh Yeh and Chai-Wei Chen
Materials 2021, 14(21), 6656; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216656 - 4 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1507
Abstract
In thread milling, there exists a trade-off between thread manufacturing efficiency and thread quality. In this study, an integrated design of spindle speed modulation (SSM) and cutting vibration suppression (CVS) controls using a disturbance observer were developed to simultaneously ensure superior quality and [...] Read more.
In thread milling, there exists a trade-off between thread manufacturing efficiency and thread quality. In this study, an integrated design of spindle speed modulation (SSM) and cutting vibration suppression (CVS) controls using a disturbance observer were developed to simultaneously ensure superior quality and high manufacturing efficiency. The proposed integrated design not only controls the cutting torque while suppressing cutting vibrations but also ensures cost-effectiveness and mitigates the installation problems prevalent in existing sensor-based methods. The SSM control uses a disturbance observer to estimate the cutting torque required on the spindle during thread milling. The estimated cutting torque is used as a feedback signal so that the SSM control can modulate the spindle speed to make the cutting torque achieve a preset torque command. To further avoid cutting vibrations in thread milling, the CVS control analyzes the estimated cutting torque, detects the occurrence of cutting vibrations, and then adjusts the torque command of the SSM control to suppress the cutting vibrations. In this study, thread milling experiments were performed on a computer numerical control milling machine using the workpiece with stacked materials. The feasibility and performance of the proposed integrated design were validated by experiments. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 62864 KiB  
Article
Dimensional Accuracy and Surface Quality of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy Components after Precision Milling
by Jarosław Korpysa, Józef Kuczmaszewski and Ireneusz Zagórski
Materials 2021, 14(21), 6446; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216446 - 27 Oct 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1585
Abstract
This study investigates a precision milling process conducted with the use of conventional end mills and a standard CNC (Computer Numerical Control) machine tool. Milling tests were performed on samples of AZ91D magnesium alloy using TiB2- and TiAlN-coated three-edge end mills [...] Read more.
This study investigates a precision milling process conducted with the use of conventional end mills and a standard CNC (Computer Numerical Control) machine tool. Milling tests were performed on samples of AZ91D magnesium alloy using TiB2- and TiAlN-coated three-edge end mills measuring 16 mm in diameter. The following technological parameters were made variable: cutting speed, feed per tooth and axial depth of cut. The effects of precision milling were evaluated by analysing the scatter of dimension values obtained in successive tool passes. In addition to that, deviations from the assumed nominal depth as well as obtained ranges of dimension varation were analysed. The study also examined surface quality obtained in the precision milling process, based on the basic surface roughness parameters: Ra, Rz and RSm. Results have confirmed that the use of conventional cutting tools and a standard CNC machine tool makes it possible to manufacture components characterized by relatively small scatter of dimension values and high accuracy classes. Additionally, the results have shown that the type of tool coating and variations of individual technological parameters exert impact on the dimensional accuracy and surface quality obtained. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

17 pages, 5408 KiB  
Article
Finite Element Analysis and Experimental Investigation of Cut Surface Formation of Magnetic Silicon Steel in Shear Cutting
by Łukasz Bohdal, Agnieszka Kułakowska and Marcin Kułakowski
Materials 2021, 14(21), 6415; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216415 - 26 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1904
Abstract
Shear cutting allows for shaping materials with any length of cutting line with high efficiency and without negative thermal effects, but it causes stresses and deformations in the cutting zone of the material. This has a negative effect on the magnetic properties of [...] Read more.
Shear cutting allows for shaping materials with any length of cutting line with high efficiency and without negative thermal effects, but it causes stresses and deformations in the cutting zone of the material. This has a negative effect on the magnetic properties of the sheet in the areas of the cut edge. The main problem on production lines is to ensure appropriate control of the process so as to obtain the appropriate technological quality of the cut edge, free of not only defects in the form of burrs and shape deviations, but also the minimum deformed zone. This task is difficult due to the large number of control variables, the influence of which on the shaping of the material and the formation of the cut edge is not fully understood. The article attempts to determine the course of the cutting process and to examine the influence of control variables on the formation of the cut edge in the shear-slitting process in which the tools perform a rotary motion. For this purpose, FEM modeling, vision techniques and experimental studies were used. A 3D model of the process was developed, which enables a detailed analysis of the states of stresses, strains, displacements and fracture mechanisms of the material. The simulation results were verified using vision techniques, which were used in the work to observe the flow and cracking mechanisms of the material. Parametric analyses were performed for the process control variables. The research showed a significant influence of the cutting velocity and the clearance between the tools on the formation of the cut edge. The most homogeneous surface of the cut edge with the minimum burr height was obtained for the following parameters: rake angle α = 15–30°, horizontal clearance hc = 0.03 mm and slitting velocity v2 = 15 m/min. The developed results can be useful for controlling the cutting process on production lines in terms of maximum process efficiency while maintaining the appropriate technological quality of the cut edge. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 4236 KiB  
Article
Cutting Forces during Inconel 718 Orthogonal Turn-Milling
by Agata Felusiak-Czyryca, Marek Madajewski, Paweł Twardowski and Martyna Wiciak-Pikuła
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6152; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14206152 - 16 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1998
Abstract
Inconel 718 is a material often used in the aerospace and marine industries due to its properties and ability to work in harsh environments. However, its machining is difficult, and therefore methods are sought to facilitate this process. One of such methods is [...] Read more.
Inconel 718 is a material often used in the aerospace and marine industries due to its properties and ability to work in harsh environments. However, its machining is difficult, and therefore methods are sought to facilitate this process. One of such methods is turn-milling. This paper presents the forces during orthogonal turn-milling of the Inconel 718 alloy. In this machining, both the side and the end edge are involved in the material removal, which causes the tool to be more loaded. The forces during turn-milling can be up to 50% higher than in the case of milling, which causes damage to the tool. Tool wear during machining has a significant impact on the values of the cutting force proportional coefficients. In the case of the tested material, it is important to take it into account when creating cutting force models. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 46534 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation of Surface Roughness in Milling of DuralcanTM Composite
by Martyna Wiciak-Pikuła, Paweł Twardowski, Aneta Bartkowska and Agata Felusiak-Czyryca
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6010; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14206010 - 12 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1374
Abstract
In today’s developing aircraft and automotive industry, extremely durable and wear-resistant materials, especially in high temperatures, are applied. Due to this practical approach, conventional materials have been superseded by composite materials. In recent years, the application of metal matrix composites has become evident [...] Read more.
In today’s developing aircraft and automotive industry, extremely durable and wear-resistant materials, especially in high temperatures, are applied. Due to this practical approach, conventional materials have been superseded by composite materials. In recent years, the application of metal matrix composites has become evident in industry 4.0. A study has been performed to analyze the surface roughness of aluminum matrix composites named Duralcan® during end milling. Two roughness surface parameters have been selected: arithmetical mean roughness value Ra and mean roughness depth Rz regarding the variable cutting speed. Due to the classification of aluminum matrix composites as hard-to-cut materials concerning excessive tool wear, this paper describes the possibility of surface roughness prediction using machine learning algorithms. In order to find the best algorithm, Classification and Regression Tree (CART) and pattern recognition models based on artificial neural networks (ANN) have been compared. By following the obtained models, the experiment shows the effectiveness of roughness prediction based on verification models. Based on experimental research, the authors obtained the coefficient R2 for the CART model 0.91 and the mean square error for the model ANN 0.11. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 4987 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Displacement of Thin-Walled Workpiece Using a High-Speed Camera during Peripheral Milling of Aluminum Alloys
by Jakub Czyżycki, Paweł Twardowski and Natalia Znojkiewicz
Materials 2021, 14(16), 4771; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14164771 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2048
Abstract
The paper presents the possibilities of a high-speed camera in recording displacements of thin-walled workpiece during milling made of aluminum alloys, which allowed for an analysis in which it was compared to other methods of testing the deflection of such elements. The tests [...] Read more.
The paper presents the possibilities of a high-speed camera in recording displacements of thin-walled workpiece during milling made of aluminum alloys, which allowed for an analysis in which it was compared to other methods of testing the deflection of such elements. The tests were carried out during peripheral milling with constant cutting parameters. Deflection of thin-walled workpiece due to cutting forces was measured using a high-speed camera and a laser displacement sensor. Additionally, the experimental results were compared with the theoretical results obtained with the use of the finite element method. The research proved the effectiveness of the use of high-speed camera in diagnostics of thin-walled workpieces during milling with an accuracy of up to 11% compared to measurements made with a displacement laser sensor. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 2216 KiB  
Article
Influence of the Kinematic System on the Geometrical and Dimensional Accuracy of Holes in Drilling
by Mateusz Bronis, Edward Miko and Lukasz Nowakowski
Materials 2021, 14(16), 4568; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14164568 - 14 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1505
Abstract
This article attempts to show how the kinematic system affects the geometrical and dimensional accuracy of through-holes in drilling. The hole cutting tests were performed using a universal turning center. The tool was a TiAlN-coated Ø 6 mm drill bit, while the workpiece [...] Read more.
This article attempts to show how the kinematic system affects the geometrical and dimensional accuracy of through-holes in drilling. The hole cutting tests were performed using a universal turning center. The tool was a TiAlN-coated Ø 6 mm drill bit, while the workpiece was a C45 steel cylinder with a diameter of 30 mm and a length of 30 mm. Three kinematic systems were studied. The first consisted of a fixed workpiece and a rotating and linearly moving tool. In the second, the workpiece rotated, while the tool moved linearly. The third system comprised a rotating workpiece and a rotating and linearly moving tool, but they rotated in opposite directions. The geometrical and dimensional accuracy of the hole was assessed by analyzing the cylindricity, straightness, roundness, and diameter errors. The experiment was designed using the Taguchi orthogonal array method to determine the significance of the effects of the input parameters (cutting speed, feed per revolution, and type of kinematic system) on the accuracy errors. A multifactorial statistical analysis (ANOVA) was employed for this purpose. The study revealed that all the input parameters considered had a substantial influence on the hole quality in drilling. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 12986 KiB  
Article
Adaptation of Fracture Mechanics Methods for Quality Assessment of Tungsten Carbide Cutting Inserts
by Sylwester Samborski, Jerzy Józwik, Jakub Skoczylas and Mariusz Kłonica
Materials 2021, 14(13), 3441; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14133441 - 22 Jun 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1705
Abstract
Tungsten carbide (WC) is well known as one of the hardest materials widely used in machining, cutting and drilling, especially for cutting tools production. Knowing fracture toughness grants the opportunity to prevent catastrophic wear of a tool. Moreover, fracture toughness of WC-based materials [...] Read more.
Tungsten carbide (WC) is well known as one of the hardest materials widely used in machining, cutting and drilling, especially for cutting tools production. Knowing fracture toughness grants the opportunity to prevent catastrophic wear of a tool. Moreover, fracture toughness of WC-based materials may vary because of different material compositions, as well as a different way of production. Hence, each material should be treated individually. In this paper, SM25T (HW) tungsten carbide (HW—uncoated grade, TNMR 401060 SM25T, manufactured by Baildonit company, Katowice, Poland) was taken into consideration. Sintered carbides—designated as S—are designed to be applied for machining steel, cast steel and malleable cast iron. Fracture mechanics methods were adapted to make a quality assessment of WC cutting inserts. Both quasi-statical three-point bending tests, as well as Charpy dynamic impact tests, were performed to calculate static and dynamic fracture toughness (KIC and KID, respectively). In addition, a special emphasis was placed on the microscopic analysis of fracture surfaces after impact tests to discuss material irregularities, such as porosity, cracks and so-called “river patterns”. There is a lack of scientific works in this field of study. However, cutting engineers are interested in obtaining the experimental results of that kind. Although there are a few standardized methods that may be used to determine fracture toughness of hard metals, none of them is expected to be the most reliable. Moreover, there is a lack of scientific works in the field of determining static and dynamic fracture toughness of WC by the presented method. The proposed examination solution can be then successfully used to calculate toughness properties of WC-based materials, as the results obtained seem to be with a good agreement with other works. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop