Special Issue "Advanced Carbon Materials For Catalytical Applications"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Carbon Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. José Rodríguez-Mirasol
Website
Guest Editor
University of Málaga, Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Industrial Engineering, Doctor Ortiz Ramos Street, 29079 Málaga, Spain
Interests: carbon materials; thermochemical processes; biomass and industrial waste valorization; catalysis in bio-refinery; surface functionalization; electrospinning; carbon fibers; electrocatalysis
Prof. Dr. Juana María Rosas
Website
Guest Editor
University of Málaga, Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Industrial Engineering, Doctor Ortiz Ramos Street, 29079 Málaga, 29079 Málaga, Spain
Interests: pollutants removal; biorefinery; applied catalysis; industrial process development; carbon materials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Carbon research and technology has seen extraordinary advances in last few decades, leading to the synthesis of a wide variety of carbon materials that present different properties, depending on their structure, texture, chemistry, shape, size, etc., which has allowed broadening their application possibilities in different fields of electronics, biomedical, energy, chemical and environmental technologies. Heterogeneous catalysis has a relevant role in many chemical, electrochemical, photochemical and biological processes. The possibility of tailoring the physical surface characteristics and pore size distribution, and of modifying the surface chemistry during their synthesis, makes carbon materials suitable, not only as catalyst supports, but as catalysts themselves, satisfying most of the requirements for many different catalytical applications, given that these materials show also chemical and thermal stability and mechanical resistance. Exploiting the chemical surface properties of carbon materials by surface functionalization, allowing the introduction of different heteroatoms (oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, boron) on the carbon surface that improves anchoring, immobilizing and/or dispersing the catalytic active phase to the carbon support or adds specific functionalities, is also a powerful tool when designing carbon-supported catalysts and/or carbon catalysts, strongly influencing the catalytic behavior in terms of conversion, selectivity, stability, etc.

Controlling the structural order, size and conformation of carbon materials may lead to significant changes in catalytic behavior. Thus, nanoarchitectures like those of graphene and carbon nanotubes may present different catalytical properties than those of activated carbons, carbon aerogels or xerogels. Carbon material morphology is also of great importance for catalytical applications, in order to avoid reactor pressure drop and transport limitations and, in this sense, different physical forms of carbons can be produced, such as granules, pellets, monoliths, fibers, cloths, spheres, etc. On the other hand, carbon materials can be synthetized from many different precursors such as coals, hydrocarbons, oil and coal derivatives, biomass, agro-alimentary and agroforestry industrial waste, etc. The nature of carbon precursors and the synthesis route and operation conditions play an important role in the final carbon material properties and characteristics that control and govern the catalytical applications.

This Special Issue deals with the study of advanced carbon materials for catalytical applications, covering materials preparation, functionalization, characterization, engineering and applications in the field of heterogeneous catalysis, such as catalysis, electrocatalysis, photocatalysis, biocatalysis, environmental remediation, etc.

It is our pleasure to invite you to submit original research papers, short communications or state-of-the-art reviews within the scope of this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. José Rodríguez-Mirasol
Prof. Dr. Juana María Rosas
Guest Editor


Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Advanced carbon materials
  • Synthesis
  • Functionalization
  • Characterization
  • Heterogeneous catalysis
  • Catalytical applications
  • Electrocatalysis
  • Photocatalysis
  • Biocatalysis
  • Environmental remediation

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Acid Mesoporous Carbon Monoliths from Lignocellulosic Biomass Waste for Methanol Dehydration
Materials 2019, 12(15), 2394; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12152394 - 26 Jul 2019
Abstract
Activated carbon monoliths (ACMs), with 25 cells/cm2, were prepared from the direct extrusion of Alcell, Kraft lignin and olives stones particles that were impregnated with phosphoric acid, followed by activation at 700 °C. These ACMs were used as catalysts for methanol [...] Read more.
Activated carbon monoliths (ACMs), with 25 cells/cm2, were prepared from the direct extrusion of Alcell, Kraft lignin and olives stones particles that were impregnated with phosphoric acid, followed by activation at 700 °C. These ACMs were used as catalysts for methanol dehydration reaction under air atmosphere. ACM that was prepared from olive stone and at impregnation ratio of 2, OS2, showed the highest catalytic activity, with a methanol conversion of 75%, a selectivity to dimethyl ether (DME) higher than 90%, and a great stability under the operating conditions studied. The results suggest that the monolithic conformation, with a density channel of 25 cells/cm2 avoid the blockage of active sites by coke deposition to a large extent. Methanol conversion for OS2 was reduced to 29% in the presence of 8%v water, at 350 °C, although the selectivity to DME remained higher than 86%. A kinetic model of methanol dehydration in the presence of air was developed, while taking into account the competitive adsorption of water. A Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism, whose rate-limiting step was the surface reaction between two adsorbed methanol molecules, represented the experimental data under the conditions studied very well. An activation energy value of 92 kJ/mol for methanol dehydration reaction and adsorption enthalpies for methanol and water of −12 and −35 kJ/mol, respectively, were obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Carbon Materials For Catalytical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Methanol Dehydration to Dimethyl Ether on Zr-Loaded P-Containing Mesoporous Activated Carbon Catalysts
Materials 2019, 12(13), 2204; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12132204 - 09 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Activated carbons have been prepared by the chemical activation of olive stones with phosphoric acid and loaded with Zr. The addition of Zr to the phosphorus-containing activated carbons resulted in the formation of zirconium phosphate surface groups. Gas phase methanol dehydration has been [...] Read more.
Activated carbons have been prepared by the chemical activation of olive stones with phosphoric acid and loaded with Zr. The addition of Zr to the phosphorus-containing activated carbons resulted in the formation of zirconium phosphate surface groups. Gas phase methanol dehydration has been studied while using the prepared Zr-loaded P-containing activated carbons as catalysts. Carbon catalysts showed high steady-state methanol conversion values, which increased with Zr loading up to a limit that was related to P content. The selectivity towards dimethyl ether was higher than 95% for all Zr loadings. Zirconium phosphate species that were present on catalysts surface were responsible for the catalytic activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Carbon Materials For Catalytical Applications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Nitrogen-Doped Superporous Activated Carbons as Electrocatalysts for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction
Materials 2019, 12(8), 1346; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12081346 - 25 Apr 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
Nitrogen-containing superporous activated carbons were prepared by chemical polymerization of aniline and nitrogen functionalization by organic routes. The resulting N-doped carbon materials were carbonized at high temperatures (600–800 °C) in inert atmosphere. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that nitrogen amount ranges from 1 [...] Read more.
Nitrogen-containing superporous activated carbons were prepared by chemical polymerization of aniline and nitrogen functionalization by organic routes. The resulting N-doped carbon materials were carbonized at high temperatures (600–800 °C) in inert atmosphere. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that nitrogen amount ranges from 1 to 4 at.% and the nature of the nitrogen groups depends on the treatment temperature. All samples were assessed as electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline solution (0.1 M KOH) in order to understand the role of well-developed microporosity as well as the different nitrogen functionalities on the electrocatalytic performance in ORR. It was observed that nitrogen groups generated at high temperatures were highly selective towards the water formation. Among the investigated samples, polyaniline-derived activated carbon carbonized at 800 °C displayed the best performance (onset potential of 0.88 V versus RHE and an electron transfer number of 3.4), which was attributed to the highest concentration of N–C–O sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Carbon Materials For Catalytical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Copper-Doped Cobalt Spinel Electrocatalysts Supported on Activated Carbon for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction
Materials 2019, 12(8), 1302; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12081302 - 20 Apr 2019
Abstract
The development of electrocatalysts based on the doping of copper over cobalt spinel supported on a microporous activated carbon has been studied. Both copper–cobalt and cobalt spinel nanoparticles were synthesized using a silica-template method. Hybrid materials consisting of an activated carbon (AC), cobalt [...] Read more.
The development of electrocatalysts based on the doping of copper over cobalt spinel supported on a microporous activated carbon has been studied. Both copper–cobalt and cobalt spinel nanoparticles were synthesized using a silica-template method. Hybrid materials consisting of an activated carbon (AC), cobalt oxide (Co3O4), and copper-doped cobalt oxide (CuCo2O4) nanoparticles, were obtained by dry mixing technique and evaluated as electrocatalysts in alkaline media for hydrogen evolution reaction. Physical mixtures containing 5, 10, and 20 wt.% of Co3O4 or CuCo2O4 with a highly microporous activated carbon were prepared and characterized by XRD, TEM, XPS, physical adsorption of gases, and electrochemical techniques. The electrochemical tests revealed that the electrodes containing copper as the dopant cation result in a lower overpotential and higher current density for the hydrogen evolution reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Carbon Materials For Catalytical Applications)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Biomass tar removal and syngas production over rice husk char-supported nickel catalysts under microwave condition

Qing Dong

Abstract: In the present work, in-situ biomass pyrolysis tar cracking and reforming together with the high quality syngas production over rice husk (RHC)-supported nickel catalysts(Ni/RHC) coupled with microwave heating was investigated. The surface area and pore properties of the RHC and Ni/RHC catalysts were determined by applying a Micromeritics instrument ASAP 2020. The Ni loading amount and contents of the other metal element contained in the RHC were determined by using an ICP-OES. The contents of the acid functional groups present in RHC before and after reactions were analyzed by using Boehm titration method. The Ni/RHC catalysts before and after reactions were also characterized. The Ni/RHC catalysts exhibited high catalytic performance on tar removal and were much favorable to the production of CO and H2. The conversion rate could reach up to 97.34% together with the CO and H2 yields being 274.03 ml/g and 248.87 ml/g, respectively, at 700 oC under microwave condition when the nickel loading amount was 10.42 wt.% of the supporter. The tar conversion rates and the syngas yields were significantly increased with the cracking temperatures increasing from 500oC to 700oC and the nickel loading amount increasing from 0 to 10.42 wt.%. The Ni/RHC catalysts became more effective on the tar removal and syngas production under microwave condition than under conventional condition. 

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