Special Issue "Antimicrobial Nanomaterials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Advanced Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Luca Gavioli
Website
Guest Editor
i-LAMP & Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, via dei Musei 41, 25121 Brescia, Italy
Interests: nanoscale systems; supersonic beam deposition; chemical vapor deposition; self-assembly; multielement nanoparticles; biomedical, solar energy and catalysis applications.
Dr. Emanuele Cavaliere

Guest Editor
i-LAMP & Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, via dei Musei 41, 25121 Brescia, Italy
Interests: nanoscale systems; supersonic beam deposition; chemical vapor deposition; self-assembly; multielement nanoparticles; biomedical, solar energy and catalysis applications.

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Nanostructured materials (NMs) represent an active area of research and a techno-economic sector with many application domains. The technological importance of NMs is due to their tunable physicochemical characteristics such as optical absorption, electrical and thermal conductivity and bactericidal functionalities. For the latter, a prominent attention is devoted to the wet synthesis of NMs and NPs and the study of their effect on cells and bacteria in solution. However the spreading of multi-drug-resistant pathogens by contamination through infected surfaces (medical implants such as dental or bone repair devices) has already had a large socio-economic impact. Infectious diseases caused by fungi, viruses, bacteria, and particularly by multidrug resistant bacteria have an estimated annual cost (direct and indirect) ranging from 6 to 60 billion US$ only in the US. This adds to the limited number of new antibiotics successfully developed in the last few decades, due to the difficulty of finding new antibacterial compounds with good pharmacological profiles and low toxicity.

Therefore a fundamental goal is finding appropriate materials able to kill bacteria such as metal based NPs, but is also to obtain functional nanostructured surfaces and/or thin films that can limit the spread of bacteria through surfaces. The topological and chemical characteristics of a surface determine the rate of microorganism adhesion and the response against bacteria, hence the ability to combine materials at the nanoscale is required.

This is increasing the challenge since the nanomaterial is required to have (1) microbicidal activity against a wide number of multi-drug-resistant Gram negative (G-) and Gram positive (G+) pathogens; (2) tunable mechanical properties, morphology and adhesion, to tailor the NP release and the film durability in different conditions; (3) cost-effective, environmental friendly production with high throughput.

In this framework, explored strategies are encompassing a wide range of wet synthesis techniques, while quite surprisingly less work is available exploring the potential of physical methods such as laser ablation, magnetron sputtering, gas phase beams. The aim of this Special Issue is therefore to report up to date results on antimicrobial coatings obtained by physical methods, encompassing not only the antimicrobial properties but also opening a window on the nanotoxicity issues of such coatings.

Prof. Luca Gavioli
Dr. Emanuele Cavaliere
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • nanomaterials 
  • antimicrobial properties
  • coatings 
  • functional surfaces 
  • nanostructure mechanical properties 
  • wide spectrum microbicidal effect 
  • physical synthesis of nanoparticles
  • laser ablation
  • gas phase deposition 
  • magnetron sputtering

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Use of A Hydroalcoholic Extract of Moringa oleifera Leaves for the Green Synthesis of Bismuth Nanoparticles and Evaluation of Their Anti-Microbial and Antioxidant Activities
Materials 2020, 13(4), 876; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13040876 - 15 Feb 2020
Abstract
The employment of plant extracts in the synthesis of metal nanoparticles is a very attractive approach in the field of green synthesis. To benefit from the potential synergy between the biological activities of the Moringa oleifera and metallic bismuth, our study aimed to [...] Read more.
The employment of plant extracts in the synthesis of metal nanoparticles is a very attractive approach in the field of green synthesis. To benefit from the potential synergy between the biological activities of the Moringa oleifera and metallic bismuth, our study aimed to achieve a green synthesis of phytochemical encapsulated bismuth nanoparticles using a hydroalcoholic extract of M. oleifera leaves. The total phenolic content in the M. oleifera leaves extract used was 23.0 ± 0.3 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of dried M. oleifera leaves powder. The physical properties of the synthesized bismuth nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, FT-IR spectrometer, TEM, SEM, and XRD. The size of the synthesized bismuth nanoparticles is in the range of 40.4–57.8 nm with amorphous morphology. Using DPPH and phosphomolybdate assays, our findings revealed that the M. oleifera leaves extract and the synthesized bismuth nanoparticles possess antioxidant properties. Using resazurin microtiter assay, we also demonstrate that the M. oleifera leaves extract and the synthesized bismuth nanoparticles exert potent anti-bacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis (estimated MIC values for the extract: 500, 250, 250, and 250 µg/mL; estimated MIC values for the bismuth nanoparticles: 500, 500, 500, and 250 µg/mL, respectively). Similarly, the M. oleifera leaves extract and the synthesized bismuth nanoparticles display relatively stronger anti-fungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans, and Candida glabrata (estimated MIC values for the extract: 62.5, 62.5, 125, and 250 µg/mL; estimated MIC values for the bismuth nanoparticles: 250, 250, 62.5, and 62.5 µg/mL, respectively). Thus, green synthesis of bismuth nanoparticles using M. oleifera leaves extract was successful, showing a positive antioxidant, anti-bacterial, and anti-fungal activity. Therefore, the synthesized bismuth nanoparticles can potentially be employed in the alleviation of symptoms associated with oxidative stress and in the topic treatment of Candida infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Antibacterial Performance of a Mussel-Inspired Polydopamine-Treated Ag/Graphene Nanocomposite Material
Materials 2019, 12(20), 3360; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12203360 - 15 Oct 2019
Abstract
Graphene-based nanocomposites have attracted tremendous attention in recent years. In this study, a facile yet effective approach was developed to synthesize reduced graphene oxide and an Ag–graphene nanocomposite. The basic strategy involved in the preparation of reduced graphene oxide includes reducing graphene oxide [...] Read more.
Graphene-based nanocomposites have attracted tremendous attention in recent years. In this study, a facile yet effective approach was developed to synthesize reduced graphene oxide and an Ag–graphene nanocomposite. The basic strategy involved in the preparation of reduced graphene oxide includes reducing graphene oxide with dopamine, followed by in situ syntheses of the Ag-PDA-reducing graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposite through adding AgNO3 solution and a small amount of dopamine. The nanocomposite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR spectra, Raman spectra, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), results indicated that a uniform PDA film is formed on the surface of the GO and GO is successfully reduced. Besides, the in situ synthesized Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) were evenly distributed on the RGO surface. To investigate antibacterial properties Ag-PDA-RGO, different dosages were selected for evaluating the antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli. The Ag-PDA-RGO nanocomposites displayed excellent antibacterial property. The antibacterial ratio reached 99.9% against S. aureus and 90.9% against E. coli when the dosage of 100 mg/L Ag-PDA-RGO nanocomposites was 100 μL. The novel Ag-PDA-RGO nanocomposite prepared by a facile yet effective, environmentally friendly, and low-cost method holds great promise in a wide range of modern biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Preparation and in Vitro Evaluation of New Composite Mesh Functionalized with Cationic Antimicrobial Peptide
Materials 2019, 12(10), 1676; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12101676 - 23 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Infection caused by bacteria in hernia repair site is a severe complication, and patients have to undergo a second surgery to remove the infected prosthesis. In this study, we developed a composite biological safe mesh with antibacterial activity. The composite mesh is composed [...] Read more.
Infection caused by bacteria in hernia repair site is a severe complication, and patients have to undergo a second surgery to remove the infected prosthesis. In this study, we developed a composite biological safe mesh with antibacterial activity. The composite mesh is composed of large pore polypropylene (PP) mesh, poly-caprolactone (PCL) and antimicrobial peptide (PEP-1), which we synthesized in our lab. Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was utilized to analyze the functional groups. The surface morphology, in vitro release characters, mechanical properties, antibacterial activities, and in vitro cytotoxicity of modified mesh were evaluated. Results showed that PEP-1 was loaded in fibers successfully and could diffuse from nanofibers to inhibit bacteria (E. coli) growth. However, the modified mesh did not show inhibition to S. aureus. The mechanical properties of fabricated mesh showed no difference with two commercial surgical meshes. What is more, modified mesh was proved to be nontoxic to human dermal fibroblasts, indicating that this method to fabricate meshes with antibacterial activity is feasible and provides a new strategy for the development of surgical meshes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Nanomaterials)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Antimicrobial Nanostructured Coatings: A Gas Phase Deposition and Magnetron Sputtering Perspective
Materials 2020, 13(3), 784; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13030784 - 08 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Counteracting the spreading of multi-drug-resistant pathogens, taking place through surface-mediated cross-contamination, is amongst the higher priorities in public health policies. For these reason an appropriate design of antimicrobial nanostructured coatings may allow to exploit different antimicrobial mechanisms pathways, to be specifically activated by [...] Read more.
Counteracting the spreading of multi-drug-resistant pathogens, taking place through surface-mediated cross-contamination, is amongst the higher priorities in public health policies. For these reason an appropriate design of antimicrobial nanostructured coatings may allow to exploit different antimicrobial mechanisms pathways, to be specifically activated by tailoring the coatings composition and morphology. Furthermore, their mechanical properties are of the utmost importance in view of the antimicrobial surface durability. Indeed, the coating properties might be tuned differently according to the specific synthesis method. The present review focuses on nanoparticle based bactericidal coatings obtained via magneton-spattering and supersonic cluster beam deposition. The bacteria–NP interaction mechanisms are first reviewed, thus making clear the requirements that a nanoparticle-based film should meet in order to serve as a bactericidal coating. Paradigmatic examples of coatings, obtained by magnetron sputtering and supersonic cluster beam deposition, are discussed. The emphasis is on widening the bactericidal spectrum so as to be effective both against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, while ensuring a good adhesion to a variety of substrates and mechanical durability. It is discussed how this goal may be achieved combining different elements into the coating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessReview
Antimicrobial Silver Nanoparticles for Wound Healing Application: Progress and Future Trends
Materials 2019, 12(16), 2540; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12162540 - 09 Aug 2019
Cited by 9
Abstract
Recent data have reported that the burden of infections related to antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the European Union and European Economic Area (EEA) can be estimated as the cumulative burden of tuberculosis, influenza, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In wound management, the control of [...] Read more.
Recent data have reported that the burden of infections related to antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the European Union and European Economic Area (EEA) can be estimated as the cumulative burden of tuberculosis, influenza, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In wound management, the control of infections represents a crucial issue and a multi-billion dollar industry worldwide. For diabetic wounds ulcers, in particular, infections are related to the majority of amputations in diabetic patients, which today represent an increasing number of the elderly. The greatest barrier to healing is represented by the biofilm, an organized consortium of bacteria encapsulated in a self-produced extracellular polymeric substance with high resistance to conventional antimicrobial therapies. There is an urgent need for novel anti-biofilm strategies and novel antimicrobial agents and, in this scenario, silver nanotechnology has received tremendous attention in recent years in therapeutically enhanced healthcare. Due to its intrinsic therapeutic properties and the broad-spectrum antimicrobial efficacy, silver nanoparticles have opened new horizons towards novel approaches in the control of infections in wound healing. This review aims at providing the reader with an overview of the most recent progress in silver nanotechnology, with a special focus on the role of silver in the wound healing process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessReview
A Precautionary Approach to Guide the Use of Transition Metal-Based Nanotechnology to Prevent Orthopedic Infections
Materials 2019, 12(2), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12020314 - 20 Jan 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The increase of multidrug-resistant bacteria remains a global concern. Among the proposed strategies, the use of nanoparticles (NPs) alone or associated with orthopedic implants represents a promising solution. NPs are well-known for their antimicrobial effects, induced by their size, shape, charge, concentration and [...] Read more.
The increase of multidrug-resistant bacteria remains a global concern. Among the proposed strategies, the use of nanoparticles (NPs) alone or associated with orthopedic implants represents a promising solution. NPs are well-known for their antimicrobial effects, induced by their size, shape, charge, concentration and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. However, this non-specific cytotoxic potential is a powerful weapon effective against almost all microorganisms, but also against eukaryotic cells, raising concerns related to their safe use. Among the analyzed transition metals, silver is the most investigated element due to its antimicrobial properties per se or as NPs; however, its toxicity raises questions about its biosafety. Even though it has milder antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity, TiO2 needs to be exposed to UV light to be activated, thus limiting its use conjugated to orthopedic devices. By contrast, gold has a good balance between antimicrobial activity as an NP and cytocompatibility because of its inability to generate ROS. Nevertheless, although the toxicity and persistence of NPs within filter organs are not well verified, nowadays, several basic research on NP development and potential uses as antimicrobial weapons is reported, overemphasizing NPs potentialities, but without any existing potential of translation in clinics. This analysis cautions readers with respect to regulation in advancing the development and use of NPs. Hopefully, future works in vivo and clinical trials will support and regulate the use of nano-coatings to guarantee safer use of this promising approach against antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Nanomaterials)
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