Special Issue "Ultrasound for Material Characterization and Processing"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Manufacturing Processes and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Francesca Lionetto
Website
Guest Editor
University of Salento, Department of Engineering for Innovation, Lecce, Italy
Interests: composite manufacturing; joining of advanced materials; hybrid welding of dissimilar materials; polymer processing; materials characterization; modelling manufacturing processes; heat transfer
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Ultrasonic waves are used for multiple purposes in many different fields at present, from the nondestructive inspection of materials to sonochemical synthesis of materials and welding. Usually, ultrasonic applications are divided in low intensity–high frequency ultrasound and high intensity–low frequency ultrasound. Low intensity ultrasound transmits energy through the medium in order to obtain information about the medium or to convey information through the medium. Today, it is an essential tool to assess metals, plastics, aerospace composites, wood, concrete, and cement. High intensity ultrasound deliberately affects the propagation medium through the high local temperatures and pressures generated primarily by acoustic cavitation.

This Special Issue aims to present recent advances in ultrasound covering fundamental science as well as applications of ultrasound in the field of engineering material characterization and material processing with the analysis of heat and mass transfer related to the propagation of ultrasonic weaves in a material.

Original articles and review papers will deal with the following themes, without being limited to them:

  • Low intensity ultrasound: Nondestructive inspection, ultrasonic dynamic analysis, ultrasonic rheology, ultrasonic spectroscopy of materials, process monitoring, applications in civil, aerospace, and geological materials and structures; characterization of biological media;
  • High intensity ultrasound: Industrial processes such as welding, cleaning, emulsification, atomization, etc.; chemical reactions and reactor induced by ultrasonic waves; synthesis of organic and inorganic materials; microstructural effects; heat generation; accelerated materials characterization by ultrasonic fatigue testing; food processing, environmental protection.

Contribution on thermodynamics and transport phenomena in ultrasound-based applications are also welcome.

I kindly invite you to submit a manuscript for this Special Issue. Full papers, communications, and reviews are all welcome.

Dr. Francesca Lionetto
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • ultrasonic wave propagation
  • material characterization
  • ultrasonic welding
  • ultrasonic sonochemistry
  • numerical modeling
  • heat and mass transport phenomena
  • food processing
  • environmental protection

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Ultrasonic Bending Vibration Introduced by the L-shaped Ultrasonic Rod on Solidification Structure and Segregation of Large 2A14 Ingots
Materials 2020, 13(3), 807; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13030807 - 10 Feb 2020
Abstract
In order to achieve long-term and stable ultrasonic treatment in the direct chill semi-continuous casting process, a new L-shaped ceramic ultrasonic wave guide rod is designed to introduce ultrasonic bending vibration into 2A14 aluminum alloy melt. The effect of ultrasonic bending vibration on [...] Read more.
In order to achieve long-term and stable ultrasonic treatment in the direct chill semi-continuous casting process, a new L-shaped ceramic ultrasonic wave guide rod is designed to introduce ultrasonic bending vibration into 2A14 aluminum alloy melt. The effect of ultrasonic bending vibration on the solidification structure and composition segregation of large 2A14 aluminum alloy ingots (φ 830 mm × 6000 mm) in the process of semi-continuous casting were studied by means of a direct reading spectrometer, scanning electron microscope, metallographic microscope, and hardness test. The ultrasonic ingot treated by bending vibration was compared with the ingot without ultrasonic treatment and the ingot treated by the traditional straight-rod titanium alloy wave guide rod. The results show that, during the solidification of 2A14 aluminum alloy, ultrasonic treatment can significantly refine the grain, break up the agglomerated secondary phase, and make its distribution uniform. The macro-segregation degree of solute including the negative segregation at the edge of the ingots and the positive segregation in the center can be reduced. Through comparative analysis, the macrostructure of the ingot, treated by the L-shaped ceramic ultrasonic wave guide rod, was found to be better than that of the ingot treated by the traditional straight-rod titanium alloy wave guide rod. In particular, the grain refinement effect at the edge of the ingot was the best, the secondary phase was smaller, more solute elements can be dissolved into the α-Al matrix, and the ability of the L-shaped ultrasonic wave guide rod to restrain segregation was stronger at the edge of the ingot. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrasound for Material Characterization and Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
Topology Optimization-Based Damage Identification Using Visualized Ultrasonic Wave Propagation
Materials 2020, 13(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13010033 - 19 Dec 2019
Abstract
This study proposes a new damage identification method based on topology optimization, combined with visualized ultrasonic wave propagation. Although a moving diagram of traveling waves aids in damage detection, it is difficult to acquire quantitative information about the damage, for which topology optimization [...] Read more.
This study proposes a new damage identification method based on topology optimization, combined with visualized ultrasonic wave propagation. Although a moving diagram of traveling waves aids in damage detection, it is difficult to acquire quantitative information about the damage, for which topology optimization is suitable. In this approach, a damage parameter, varying Young’s modulus, represents the state of the damage in a finite element model. The feature of ultrasonic wave propagation (e.g., the maximum amplitude map in this study) is inversely reproduced in the model by optimizing the distribution of the damage parameters. The actual state of the damage was successfully estimated with high accuracy in numerical examples. The sensitivity of the objective function, as well as the appropriate penalization exponent for Young’s modulus, was discussed. Moreover, the proposed method was applied to experimentally measured wave propagation in an aluminum plate with an artificial crack, and the estimated damage state and the sensitivity of the objective function had the same tendency as the numerical example. These results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrasound for Material Characterization and Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
Ultrasound Axicon: Systematic Approach to Optimize Focusing Resolution through Human Skull Bone
Materials 2019, 12(20), 3433; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12203433 - 20 Oct 2019
Abstract
The use of axicon lenses is useful in many high-resolution-focused ultrasound applications, such as mapping, detection, and have recently been extended to ultrasonic brain therapies. However, in order to achieve high spatial resolution with an axicon lens, it is necessary to adjust the [...] Read more.
The use of axicon lenses is useful in many high-resolution-focused ultrasound applications, such as mapping, detection, and have recently been extended to ultrasonic brain therapies. However, in order to achieve high spatial resolution with an axicon lens, it is necessary to adjust the separation, called stand-off (δ), between a conventional transducer and the lens attached to it. Comprehensive ultrasound simulations, using the open-source k-Wave toolbox, were performed for an axicon lens attached to a piezo-disc type transducer with a radius of 14 mm, and a frequency of about 0.5 MHz, that is within the range of optimal frequencies for transcranial transmission. The materials properties were measured, and the lens geometry was modelled. Hydrophone measurements were performed through a human skull phantom. We obtained an initial easygoing design model for the lens angle and optimal stand-off using relatively simple formulas. The skull is not an obstacle for focusing of ultrasound with optimized axicon lenses that achieve an identical resolution to spherical transducers, but with the advantage that the focusing distance is shortened. An adequate stand-off improves the lateral resolution of the acoustic beam by approximately 50%. The approach proposed provides an effective way of designing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based axicon lenses equipped transducers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrasound for Material Characterization and Processing)
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