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Research on Tribological Properties of Materials and Coatings

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 May 2023) | Viewed by 23263

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
The Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, Rzeszow University of Technology, Rzeszow, Poland
Interests: metrology; lubrication; wear; friction; coatings; surface treatment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Laboratoire de Tribologie et Dynamique des Systèmes, CNRS, École Centrale Lyon, 69134 Ecully, France
Interests: metrology; physical-chemical surface characterizations; surface topography; instrumentation design; surface technology; nano-technology; machining; tribology; rheology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Material Science, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, Rzeszow University of Technology, Powstancow Warszawy 12, 35-959 Rzeszow, Poland
Interests: thermal spraying process; hard coatings; diffusion coating; wear resistant coatings; plasma nitriding and pack boriding processes; coatings properties; superalloys; Intermetallics (TiAl)
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mankind is facing many challenges. Environmental protection appears to be the most critical and can be realized through energy conservation. The key element in preserving energy may increase the efficiency of machines and devices, for example, by decreasing friction. Tribology is a highly interdisciplinary field of science, and tribological tests can assess the nature of friction, wear resistance by friction, and determine cooperating materials’ coefficient of friction, and, therefore, research in this area can help address energy conservation needs.

This Special Issue will bring together the work of academic scientists, researchers, and research scholars to spread and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Tribological Properties of Materials and Coatings from all fields of interest, ones including traditional tribological research concentrated on machine elements and manufacturing processes through green tribology, nanotribology, as well as by open system tribology and even space tribology.

In this context, this Special Issue entitled Research on Tribological Properties of Materials and Coatings is being launched.

We kindly invite you to submit manuscripts for this Special Issue. Research papers, communications, and reviews dealing with the investigation, modeling, simulation, and assessment of tribological properties of materials and coatings are all welcome.

Dr. Wiesław A. Graboń
Dr. Thomas G. Mathia
Prof. Marek Goral
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • friction
  • wear
  • lubrication
  • contact between solids
  • surface topography
  • tribo-fatigue
  • green tribology
  • nanotribology
  • computational tribology
  • space tribology
  • open system tribology

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 6372 KiB  
Article
The Concept of WC-CrC-Ni Plasma-Sprayed Coating with the Addition of YSZ Nanopowder for Cylinder Liner Applications
by Marek Goral, Tadeusz Kubaszek, Wieslaw A. Grabon, Karol Grochalski and Marcin Drajewicz
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1199; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031199 - 31 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1565
Abstract
In the article, the new concept of plasma-sprayed coatings for the cylinder liner was presented. The new type of powder containing WC-CrC-Ni with a 5 and 10 wt. % addition of nano-YSZ powder was plasma-sprayed on aluminum 2017 alloy samples. The selection of [...] Read more.
In the article, the new concept of plasma-sprayed coatings for the cylinder liner was presented. The new type of powder containing WC-CrC-Ni with a 5 and 10 wt. % addition of nano-YSZ powder was plasma-sprayed on aluminum 2017 alloy samples. The selection of optimal plasma-spraying parameters was made taking into account the thickness, porosity, and hardness of the coatings. For the coatings obtained according to the developed parameters, the analysis of their microstructure, chemical, and phase composition was performed. At the next stage, the friction coefficient of the developed coatings was tested and compared with the properties of a classic cast-iron cylinder liner. The obtained results suggest that the developed type of coating might be used for cylinder liner applications after a deeper friction analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Tribological Properties of Materials and Coatings)
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15 pages, 5398 KiB  
Article
The Effect of the Extrusion Ratio on Load and Die Wear in the Extrusion Process
by Stanisław Kut and Irena Nowotyńska
Materials 2023, 16(1), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16010084 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1738
Abstract
In this paper, regarding the example of concurrent extrusion of a round bar, the results of a comparative analysis of the impact of the extrusion ratio R on process parameters such as die wear intensity, extrusion force, stress intensity in the die, and [...] Read more.
In this paper, regarding the example of concurrent extrusion of a round bar, the results of a comparative analysis of the impact of the extrusion ratio R on process parameters such as die wear intensity, extrusion force, stress intensity in the die, and its elastic deformation during extrusion are presented. The tests were carried out in a wide range of the R (1.5–11), assuming a constant outer diameter of the die. A comparative analysis of the wear was carried out in the area of the die corner radius and the calibration strip since the wear is the highest there. Based on the result obtained, it was shown that the increase in the extrusion force was not proportional to the increase in the extrusion ratio, and this could be described by a logarithmic equation. On the other hand, the value of equivalent stresses in the area of the die corner depends, to a relatively small extent, on the value of the extrusion ratio. However, due to the deformation of the die, it is most advantageous to use an extrusion ratio greater than or equal to three. Based on the wear analysis, it was estimated that the increase in the extrusion ratio R from 3 to 7 caused a more than 2.5 times increase in tool wear. In turn, the implementation of the extrusion process with the use of R = 11 caused a 4.5-fold increase in the average depth of die wear compared to its wear using the extrusion ratio R = 3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Tribological Properties of Materials and Coatings)
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25 pages, 6638 KiB  
Article
Application of Artificial Neural Networks to the Analysis of Friction Behaviour in a Drawbead Profile in Sheet Metal Forming
by Tomasz Trzepieciński and Sherwan Mohammed Najm
Materials 2022, 15(24), 9022; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15249022 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1563
Abstract
Drawbeads are used when forming drawpieces with complex shapes to equalise the flow resistance of a material around the perimeter of the drawpiece or to change the state of stress in certain regions of the drawpiece. This article presents a special drawbead simulator [...] Read more.
Drawbeads are used when forming drawpieces with complex shapes to equalise the flow resistance of a material around the perimeter of the drawpiece or to change the state of stress in certain regions of the drawpiece. This article presents a special drawbead simulator for determining the value of the coefficient of friction on the drawbead. The aim of this paper is the application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to understand the effect of the most important parameters of the friction process (sample orientation in relation to the rolling direction of the steel sheets, surface roughness of the counter-samples and lubrication conditions) on the coefficient of friction. The intention was to build a database for training ANNs. The friction coefficient was determined for low-carbon steel sheets with various drawability indices: drawing quality DQ, deep-drawing quality DDQ and extra deep-drawing quality EDDQ. Equivalents of the sheets tested in EN standards are DC01 (DQ), DC03 (DDQ) and DC04 (EDDQ). The tests were carried out under the conditions of dry friction and the sheet surface was lubricated with machine oil LAN46 and hydraulic oil LHL32, commonly used in sheet metal forming. Moreover, various specimen orientations (0° and 90°) in relation to the rolling direction of the steel sheets were investigated. Moreover, a wide range of surface roughness values of the counter-samples (Ra = 0.32 μm, 0.63 μm, 1.25 μm and 2.5 μm) were also considered. In general, the value of the coefficient of friction increased with increasing surface roughness of the counter-samples. In the case of LAN46 machine oil, the effectiveness of lubrication decreased with increasing mean roughness of the counter-samples Ra = 0.32–1.25 μm. With increasing drawing quality of the sheet metal, the effectiveness of lubrication increased, but only in the range of surface roughness of the counter-samples in which Ra = 0.32–1.25 μm. This study investigated different transfer functions and training algorithms to develop the best artificial neural network structure. Backpropagation in an MLP structure was used to build the structure. In addition, the COF was calculated using a parameter-based analytical equation. Garson partitioning weight was used to calculate the relative importance (RI) effect on coefficient of friction. The Bayesian regularization backpropagation (BRB)—Trainbr training algorithm, together with the radial basis normalized—Radbasn transfer function, scored best in predicting the coefficient of friction with R2 values between 0.9318 and 0.9180 for the training and testing datasets, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Tribological Properties of Materials and Coatings)
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15 pages, 12097 KiB  
Article
Low-Friction of ta-C Coatings Paired with Brass and Other Materials under Vacuum and Atmospheric Conditions
by Fabian Härtwig, Lars Lorenz, Stefan Makowski, Matthias Krause, Carsten Habenicht and Andrés Fabián Lasagni
Materials 2022, 15(7), 2534; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15072534 - 30 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1985
Abstract
Vacuum environments provide challenging conditions for tribological systems. MoS2 is one of the materials commonly known to provide low friction for both ambient and vacuum conditions. However, it also exhibits poor wear resistance and low ability to withstand higher contact pressures. In [...] Read more.
Vacuum environments provide challenging conditions for tribological systems. MoS2 is one of the materials commonly known to provide low friction for both ambient and vacuum conditions. However, it also exhibits poor wear resistance and low ability to withstand higher contact pressures. In search of wear-resistant alternatives, superhard hydrogen-free tetrahedral amorphous carbon coatings (ta-C) are explored in this study. Although known to have excellent friction and wear properties in ambient atmospheres, their vacuum performance is limited when self-paired and with steel. In this study, the influence of the paired material on the friction behavior of ta-C is studied using counterbodies made from brass, bronze, copper, silicon carbide, and aluminum oxide, as well as from steel and ta-C coatings as reference materials. Brass was found to be the most promising counterbody material and was further tested in direct comparison to steel, as well as in long-term performance experiments. It was shown that the brass/ta-C friction pair exhibits low friction (µ < 0.1) and high wear in the short term, irrespective of ambient pressure, whereas in the long term, the friction coefficient increases due to a change in the wear mechanism. Al2O3 was identified as another promising sliding partner against ta-C, with a higher friction coefficient than that of brass (µ = 0.3), but considerably lower wear. All other pairings exhibited high friction, high wear, or both. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Tribological Properties of Materials and Coatings)
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21 pages, 7403 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Study of Aluminium and Titanium Warm Sprayed Coatings on AZ91E Magnesium Alloy
by Rafał Maksymilian Molak, Bartosz Morończyk, Ewa Ura-Bińczyk, Zbigniew Pakieła, Wojciech Żórawski, Krzysztof Jan Kurzydłowski and Seiji Kuroda
Materials 2022, 15(6), 2005; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15062005 - 8 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2005
Abstract
Aluminium (Al) and titanium (Ti) coatings were applied on AZ91E magnesium alloy using a low-pressure warm spray (WS) method. The deposition was completed using three different nitrogen flow rates (NFR) for both coatings. NFR effects on coating microstructure and other physical properties were [...] Read more.
Aluminium (Al) and titanium (Ti) coatings were applied on AZ91E magnesium alloy using a low-pressure warm spray (WS) method. The deposition was completed using three different nitrogen flow rates (NFR) for both coatings. NFR effects on coating microstructure and other physical properties were systematically studied. Microstructural characterization was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the porosity was estimated using two methods—image analysis and X-ray microtomography. The coating adhesion strength, wear resistance, and hardness were examined. The protective properties of the coatings were verified via a salt spray test. Decreasing NFR during coating deposition produced more dense and compact coatings. However, these conditions increased the oxidation of the powder. Al coatings showed lower hardness and wear resistance than Ti coatings, although they are more suitable for corrosion protection due to their low porosity and high compactness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Tribological Properties of Materials and Coatings)
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21 pages, 4333 KiB  
Article
Experimental Analysis of the Influence of the Application of TiN, TiAlN, CrN and DLC1 Coatings on the Friction Losses in an Aviation Internal Combustion Engine Intended for the Propulsion of Ultralight Aircraft
by Piotr Wróblewski and Robert Rogólski
Materials 2021, 14(22), 6839; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14226839 - 12 Nov 2021
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 2372
Abstract
Currently, there are many methods of reducing the friction losses of the main components of an internal combustion piston engine. The operating conditions of internal combustion piston engines intended for the propulsion of ultralight aircraft differ significantly from those prevailing in the case [...] Read more.
Currently, there are many methods of reducing the friction losses of the main components of an internal combustion piston engine. The operating conditions of internal combustion piston engines intended for the propulsion of ultralight aircraft differ significantly from those prevailing in the case of using these engines for the propulsion of vehicles. There are many studies on the influence of selected anti-wear coatings on the friction coefficients when using various lubricants, measured via tribometers. Unfortunately, the conditions obtained in the laboratory significantly differ from those prevailing in an engine operating under external conditions. The study investigated the influence of a change in the tribological parameters of TiN, TiAlN, CrN and DLC1 anti-wear coatings on the moment of resistance to the piston movement of an aircraft engine. The operating parameters of a real engine working in an aircraft were simulated. The main focus was on the coating layers of the sliding surfaces of the piston rings and the cylinder running surface. The properties of the coatings affect the correlation of the scale of the adhesion and cohesion phenomena of the oil to the opposite planes, and this determines the nature of the changes in the moment of resistance to engine motion. As it is commonly known, with an increase in the value of the maximum pressure of the working medium in the combustion chamber, the share of mixed friction in liquid friction increases, similar to the high oil temperatures occurring in aircraft engines. Therefore, there is a justified need to supplement the research in the field of analyzing the characteristics of the torque of resistance to motion for these engines, in particular in the field of the usable rotational speeds of the crankshaft. Applicable anti-wear systems based on selected coatings can significantly improve operational safety and noticeably reduce fuel consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Tribological Properties of Materials and Coatings)
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12 pages, 5617 KiB  
Article
The Designation Degree of Tool Wear after Machining of the Surface Layer of Duplex Stainless Steel
by Tomasz Dyl
Materials 2021, 14(21), 6425; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216425 - 26 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1467
Abstract
This paper presents problems related to the machining of the surface layer. It is important that steel structures are used in material engineering and machine construction. Austenitic, ferritic, martensitic and two-phase corrosion resistant steel was widely used in the petrochemical and shipbuilding industries. [...] Read more.
This paper presents problems related to the machining of the surface layer. It is important that steel structures are used in material engineering and machine construction. Austenitic, ferritic, martensitic and two-phase corrosion resistant steel was widely used in the petrochemical and shipbuilding industries. Duplex stainless steel was used in sea water and acid installations. The shafts of centrifugal pumps can be made of stainless steel and are used in acid or seawater pumps. The surface layer of corrosion resistant steel shafts must have a low surface roughness. Machine elements made of stainless steel, and in particular of the duplex type, are difficult-to-cut materials. This article aims to study the effect of parameters on tool life and tool wear. The influence of technological parameters such as depth of cut, cutting speed, feed on maximum value tool wear is presented. The treatment of the surface layer was performed using carbide inserts. The highest wear and the lowest roughness were used as selection criteria. This problem is a significant issue due to the ability of the machine parts for the required reliable operation of devices and machines. To determine the degree of tool wear to increase of the surface layer quality after shaping DSS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Tribological Properties of Materials and Coatings)
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17 pages, 6905 KiB  
Article
On the Tribological and Oxidation Study of Xanthophylls as Natural Additives in Castor Oil for Green Lubrication
by Karla J. Moreno, María Teresa Hernández-Sierra, José E. Báez, Eloy Rodríguez-deLeón, Luis Daniel Aguilera-Camacho and J. Santos García-Miranda
Materials 2021, 14(18), 5431; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14185431 - 19 Sep 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2177
Abstract
The present study focuses on an introductory analysis of the use of three xanthophylls as additives for green lubricant applications. For this purpose, the additives were characterized by FTIR and 1H-NMR techniques, and the bio-lubricants were described by their physical properties. The [...] Read more.
The present study focuses on an introductory analysis of the use of three xanthophylls as additives for green lubricant applications. For this purpose, the additives were characterized by FTIR and 1H-NMR techniques, and the bio-lubricants were described by their physical properties. The effect of the natural compounds on the friction and wear properties of bio-lubricants were evaluated by sliding friction tests under boundary conditions, as confirmed by an analysis of the lubricating film thickness. The antioxidant capacity was analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy. It was observed better wear protection in castor oil with xanthophylls than without these additives. The wear rate was reduced up to 50% compared with neat oil. Lesser beneficial effects were appreciated in friction coefficient since it was increased 25%. The best contribution was observed with astaxanthin as an additive. In addition, a significant improvement in the oxidation of castor oil, complemented with this additive, was exhibited by FTIR analysis. It was found that xanthophylls could be employed as additives for totally biodegradable lubricant applications since they have better tribological and antioxidant behavior than current additives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Tribological Properties of Materials and Coatings)
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13 pages, 2868 KiB  
Article
Influence of Process Parameters on the Tribological Behavior of PEO Coatings on CP-Titanium 4+ Alloys for Biomedical Applications
by Stephan Lederer, Serkan Arat and Wolfram Fuerbeth
Materials 2021, 14(18), 5364; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14185364 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1705
Abstract
Wear resistant ceramic coatings were generated on novel commercially pure titanium grade 4+ alloys by the plasma electrolytic oxidation technique (PEO) in an aluminate and zirconia containing electrolyte. The coatings were obtained adopting a full regular two-level factorial design of experiments (DoE) varying [...] Read more.
Wear resistant ceramic coatings were generated on novel commercially pure titanium grade 4+ alloys by the plasma electrolytic oxidation technique (PEO) in an aluminate and zirconia containing electrolyte. The coatings were obtained adopting a full regular two-level factorial design of experiments (DoE) varying the PEO process parameters current density, repetition rate and duty cycle. The generated coatings were characterized with respect to its wear resistance and mechanical properties by reciprocal ball-on-flat tests and nanoindentation measurements. Thickness, morphology and phase formation of the PEO coatings was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS) and X-ray diffraction. XRD results indicate the formation of crystalline aluminium titanate (TiAl2O5) as well as t-ZrO2 and alumina leading to an increase in hardness and wear resistance of the PEO coatings. Evaluation of the DoE’s parameter interaction shows that the main effects for generating wear resistant coatings are current density and repetition rate. In particular, the formation of mechanically stable and adhesive corundum and zirconia containing coatings with increasing current density and frequency turned out to be responsible for the improvement of the tribological properties. Overall, the PEO processing significantly improves the wear resistance of the CP titanium base alloy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Tribological Properties of Materials and Coatings)
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15 pages, 6263 KiB  
Article
Influence of Contact Plateaus Characteristics Formed on the Surface of Brake Friction Materials in Braking Performance through Experimental Tests
by Rafael Lucas Machado Pinto, Juan Carlos Horta Gutiérrez, Robson Bruno Dutra Pereira, Paulo Eustáquio de Faria and Juan Carlos Campos Rubio
Materials 2021, 14(17), 4931; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14174931 - 30 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1967
Abstract
This work applies a procedure for analysis and characterization of the surface of brake friction materials, correlating them with the tribological and thermal properties achieved in different vehicle braking conditions. Experiments were performed in a vehicle under two real conditions of braking operation, [...] Read more.
This work applies a procedure for analysis and characterization of the surface of brake friction materials, correlating them with the tribological and thermal properties achieved in different vehicle braking conditions. Experiments were performed in a vehicle under two real conditions of braking operation, simulated flat track descent and emergency braking. Characteristics of the plates formed on the surfaces of the friction materials were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and correlated with the performance during braking, as measured by the coefficient of friction at the interface of the friction pair and temperature. As a result, the formation of the primary and secondary plateaus in these two different braking operating conditions was observed, and the relationship between the characteristics of the plateaus formed on the surface and the surface roughness parameters and performance measurements during braking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Tribological Properties of Materials and Coatings)
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15 pages, 6154 KiB  
Article
Properties of Elasto-Hydrodynamic Oil Film in Meshing of Harmonic Drive Gears
by Adam Kalina, Aleksander Mazurkow, Waldemar Witkowski, Bartłomiej Wierzba and Mariusz Oleksy
Materials 2021, 14(5), 1194; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14051194 - 3 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2374
Abstract
Among the essential issues facing designers of strain wave gears, the provision for correct lubrication should be of paramount importance. The present paper presents the results of research on elasto-hydrodynamic oil film in meshing of a harmonic drive with an involute tooth profile. [...] Read more.
Among the essential issues facing designers of strain wave gears, the provision for correct lubrication should be of paramount importance. The present paper presents the results of research on elasto-hydrodynamic oil film in meshing of a harmonic drive with an involute tooth profile. The research was carried out based on theoretical models developed by Dowson and Higginson. For the discussed structural problem, results of the study are presented graphically in the form of static characteristics of the oil film. Correct operation regimes were determined for two different oils. The paper also provides a review of information concerning the design and principle of operation of strain wave transmission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Tribological Properties of Materials and Coatings)
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