Special Issue "New and Emerging Construction Materials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Md. Safiuddin
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Angelo DelZotto School of Construction Management, George Brown College (Casa Loma Campus), 160 Kendal Ave., Room C303, Toronto, ON M5R 1M3, Canada
Department of Civil Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON M5B 2K3, Canada
Interests: sustainable construction materials and technology; green buildings; sustainable infrastructure; utilization of agro, construction, and industrial wastes to produce new construction materials; incorporation of recycled materials in new construction materials
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Construction materials have played a major role, from ancient times, in the development of built environments and civilizations. Ground-breaking advancement in the area of construction materials occurred during the last decade. This Special Issue of Materials is on “New and Emerging Construction Materials”. We invite you to submit high-quality research or review papers to this Special Issue, with an emphasis on innovative new and emerging materials. Some areas of interests for this Special Issue include, but are not limited to, green cement, photo-catalytic cement, geopolymer mortar and concrete, hempcrete masonry, carbon-negative materials, nano-concrete, nano-particles modified asphalt and asphaltic concrete, micro- and nano-fibre reinforced composites, anti-seismic reinforcement, see-through or translucent concrete, hydroceramics, floating concrete, translucent wood, aerogel or air glass insulation, nano-coatings, and self-cleansing materials. The papers on smart construction materials, such as bio-concrete, self-healing sealants or coatings, shape-memory alloy or shape-shifting metal, and self-sensing materials will also be considered. Papers will be accepted for this Special Issue after going through a rigorous peer-review procedure.

Prof. Md. Safiuddin
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Advanced wood
  • Aerogel insulation
  • Geopolymer mortar and concrete
  • Hydroceramics
  • Innovative masonry units
  • Nano- and self-healing coatings
  • Nano- and smart concretes
  • Nano- asphalt and asphalting concrete
  • New cements
  • Shape-shifting metal

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Mechanical Properties of High-Performance Steel-Fibre-Reinforced Concrete and Its Application in Underground Mine Engineering
Materials 2019, 12(15), 2470; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12152470 - 03 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
In order to economically and reasonably solve the problem of mineshaft support in complex geological conditions, the mechanical properties of high-performance steel-fiber-reinforced concrete (HPSFRC) and its application in mineshaft lining structures were investigated in this study. Firstly, the mix proportion of HPSFRC for [...] Read more.
In order to economically and reasonably solve the problem of mineshaft support in complex geological conditions, the mechanical properties of high-performance steel-fiber-reinforced concrete (HPSFRC) and its application in mineshaft lining structures were investigated in this study. Firstly, the mix proportion of HPSFRC for the mineshaft lining structure was obtained through raw material selection and preparation testing. Then, a series of mechanical property tests were conducted. The test results showed that the compressive, flexural, and tensile strengths of HPSFRC were 9%, 71%, and 53% higher than that of ordinary concrete, respectively. The fracture toughness of HPSFRC was 75% higher than that of the ordinary concrete and the fracture energy of HPSFRC was 16 times that of the ordinary concrete. Finally, the model test results of the HPSFRC shaft lining structure showed that the crack resistance, toughness, and bearing capacity of the shaft lining structure had been significantly improved under a non-uniform confining load because of the replacement of ordinary concrete with HPSFRC. HPSFRC was proved to be an ideal material for mineshaft support structures under complex geological conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New and Emerging Construction Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Optical Properties and Mechanical Modeling of Acetylated Transparent Wood Composite Laminates
Materials 2019, 12(14), 2256; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12142256 - 13 Jul 2019
Abstract
Transparent wood composites (TWCs) are a new class of light-transmitting wood-based materials composed of a delignified wood template that is infiltrated with a refractive- index-matched polymer resin. Recent research has focused primarily on the fabrication and characterization of single-ply TWCs. However, multi-ply composite [...] Read more.
Transparent wood composites (TWCs) are a new class of light-transmitting wood-based materials composed of a delignified wood template that is infiltrated with a refractive- index-matched polymer resin. Recent research has focused primarily on the fabrication and characterization of single-ply TWCs. However, multi-ply composite laminates are of interest due to the mechanical advantages they impart compared to the single ply. In this work, 1- and 2-ply [0°/90°] TWC laminates were fabricated using a delignified wood template (C) and an acetylated delignified wood template (AC). The optical and mechanical properties of resultant C and AC TWC laminates were determined using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and tensile testing (5× replicates), respectively. In addition, the ability of classical lamination plate theory and simple rule of mixtures to predict multi-ply tensile modulus and strength, respectively, from ply-level mechanical properties were investigated and are reported herein. Experimental results highlight tradeoffs that exist between the mechanical and optical responses of both unmodified and chemically modified TWCs. Template acetylation reduced the stiffness and strength in the 0° fiber direction by 2.4 GPa and 58.9 MPa, respectively, compared to the unmodified samples. At high wavelengths of light (>515 nm), AC samples exhibited higher transmittance than the C samples. Above 687 nm, the 2-ply AC sample exhibited a higher transmittance than the 1-ply C sample, indicating that thickness-dependent optical constraints can be overcome with improved interfacial interactions. Finally, both predictive models were successful in predicting the elastic modulus and tensile strength response for the 2-ply C and AC samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New and Emerging Construction Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Fibers on High-Temperature Mechanical Behavior and Microstructure of Reactive Powder Concrete
Materials 2019, 12(2), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12020329 - 21 Jan 2019
Cited by 12
Abstract
This study was aimed to investigate the effect of steel, polypropylene (PP), and hybrid (steel + PP) fibers on high-temperature mechanical properties of reactive powder concrete (RPC). The mechanical properties considered are cubic compressive strength, axial or prismatic compressive strength, split-tensile strength, flexural [...] Read more.
This study was aimed to investigate the effect of steel, polypropylene (PP), and hybrid (steel + PP) fibers on high-temperature mechanical properties of reactive powder concrete (RPC). The mechanical properties considered are cubic compressive strength, axial or prismatic compressive strength, split-tensile strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, peak strain, and stress-strain behavior. The strength recession due to high temperature was investigated at micro level by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, mercury intrusion porosity, thermogravimetric, and differential scanning calorimetry analyses. The high-temperature tests were carried out at target temperatures of 120, 300, 500, 700, and 900 °C. The hot-state compressive strength of RPC started to decrease at 120 °C; however, a partial recovery at 300 °C and a gradual decrease above 300 °C were observed. The degradation of split-tensile strength, flexural strength, and elastic modulus were gradual with increasing temperature despite the effect of different fibers. Whereas, the peak strain was gradually increasing up to 700 °C. However, after 700 °C, it remained unchanged. Steel fiber reinforced RPC (SRPC) and hybrid fiber reinforced RPC (HRPC) showed a ductile behavior. PP fiber reinforced RPC (PRPC) showed a quite brittle behavior up to 300 °C; however, further heating made the microstructure porous and it became ductile too. Overall the performance of SRPC and HRPC were superior to PRPC because of higher modulus of elasticity, higher strength, and better fire resistance of steel fibers. Fiber reinforced RPC was found to have better fire resistance than traditional types of concrete based on comparative studies with the provisions of design codes and earlier research. The constitutive equations developed can be utilized in computer programs for structural design of RPC structures exposed to fire. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New and Emerging Construction Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Autogenous Shrinkage, Microstructure, and Strength of Ultra-High Performance Concrete Incorporating Carbon Nanofibers
Materials 2019, 12(2), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12020320 - 21 Jan 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The mix design of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) is complicated by the presence of many “ingredients.” The fundamental packing density allows a simpler mix design with fewer ingredients to achieve optimum packing density and dense microstructure. The optimum particle grading increases the flowability [...] Read more.
The mix design of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) is complicated by the presence of many “ingredients.” The fundamental packing density allows a simpler mix design with fewer ingredients to achieve optimum packing density and dense microstructure. The optimum particle grading increases the flowability of UHPC and eliminates entrapped air. This study presents a simplified particle grading design approach that positively influences the strength, autogenous shrinkage, and microstructure characteristics of UHPC. Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) of superior mechanical properties were added to enhance the strength of UHPC and to reduce its autogenous shrinkage. In addition, ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) was used as a cement replacement material to reduce the amount of cement in UHPC mixes. Test results showed that the presence of homogeneously dispersed CNF increased the compressive strength and compensated the autogenous shrinkage of UHPC. The findings indicated that an ideal particle distribution, which is close to the modified Andreasen and Andersen grading model, contributed to achieving high compressive strength and CNFs were capable of providing nano-bridges to compensate the shrinkage caused by GGBS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New and Emerging Construction Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Micro and Nano Palm Oil Fuel Ash to Determine the Carbonation Resistance of the Concrete in Accelerated Condition
Materials 2019, 12(1), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12010130 - 03 Jan 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The carbonation rate of reinforced concrete is influenced by three parameters, namely temperature, relative humidity, and concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the surroundings. As knowledge of the service lifespan of reinforced concrete is crucial in terms of corrosion, the carbonation [...] Read more.
The carbonation rate of reinforced concrete is influenced by three parameters, namely temperature, relative humidity, and concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the surroundings. As knowledge of the service lifespan of reinforced concrete is crucial in terms of corrosion, the carbonation process is important to study, and high-performance durable reinforced concretes can be produced to prolong the effects of corrosion. To examine carbonation resistance, accelerated carbonation testing was conducted in accordance with the standards of BS 1881-210:2013. In this study, 10–30% of micro palm oil fuel ash (mPOFA) and 0.5–1.5% of nano-POFA (nPOFA) were incorporated into concrete mixtures to determine the optimum amount for achieving the highest carbonation resistance after 28 days water curing and accelerated CO2 conditions up to 70 days of exposure. The effect of carbonation on concrete specimens with the inclusion of mPOFA and nPOFA was investigated. The carbonation depth was identified by phenolphthalein solution. The highest carbonation resistance of concrete was found after the inclusion of 10% mPOFA and 0.5% nPOFA, while the lowest carbonation resistance was found after the inclusion of 30% mPOFA and 1.5% nPOFA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New and Emerging Construction Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Modification of Asphalt Rubber with Nanoclay towards Enhanced Storage Stability
Materials 2018, 11(11), 2093; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11112093 - 25 Oct 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Asphalt rubber (AR), which is prepared by blending crumb rubber and bitumen, provides various advantages, including superior rutting resistance, lower road-tire noise and longer service life. However, contractors have expressed concerns regarding its poor storage stability, which in turn limits its wider application. [...] Read more.
Asphalt rubber (AR), which is prepared by blending crumb rubber and bitumen, provides various advantages, including superior rutting resistance, lower road-tire noise and longer service life. However, contractors have expressed concerns regarding its poor storage stability, which in turn limits its wider application. This study aims to address the storage stability concern by incorporating nano-montmorillonite (nanoclay). Three types of nanoclay were dispersed into hot AR binder by high shear blending. The rheological properties of nanoclay-crumb rubber modifier (CRM)-modified bitumen were evaluated through Superpave performance grade (PG) tests and the storage stability was characterized by measuring the difference in softening points or complex moduli at the top and bottom portions of binders after lab-simulated storage. X-ray diffraction (XRD) evaluation was conducted to observe the variation of nanoclay layer gap distance for mechanism investigation. It was found that all selected nanoclays had insignificant effects on workability, rutting and fatigue properties. The layered nanoclay transformed to intercalated or exfoliated structures after interaction with bitumen fractions, providing superior storage stability. Among the three selected nanoclays, pure montmorillonite with Na+ inorganic group, which has an intermediate hydrophilic property and middle layer gap, showed the most obvious effect on enhancing the storage stability of AR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New and Emerging Construction Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Hygrothermal and Acoustical Performance of Starch-Beet Pulp Composites for Building Thermal Insulation
Materials 2018, 11(9), 1622; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11091622 - 05 Sep 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
This article deals with the elaboration and the characterization of an innovative 100% plant-based green composite made solely of beet pulp (BP) and potato starch (S). Using this type of material in insulation applications seems a good solution to reduce the CO2 [...] Read more.
This article deals with the elaboration and the characterization of an innovative 100% plant-based green composite made solely of beet pulp (BP) and potato starch (S). Using this type of material in insulation applications seems a good solution to reduce the CO2 gas emissions in building. The influence of the starch amount on composite characteristics was studied. Four mixtures were considered with different S/BP mass ratios (0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4). The physical properties of these materials were studied in terms of porosity, apparent and absolute densities, thermal conductivity, and hygric properties. The influence of humidity content on acoustical properties was studied as a function of frequency. Test results show a real impact of both starch and humidity contents on the hygrothermal and acoustical properties of the studied material due to the porosity. The composite with the lowest amount of starch (S/BP = 0.1) seems to be the optimal composition in terms of the hygrothermal and acoustical behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New and Emerging Construction Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Fracture Properties and Softening Curves of Steel Fiber-Reinforced Slag-Based Geopolymer Mortar and Concrete
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1445; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081445 - 15 Aug 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Adding short steel fibers into slag-based geopolymer mortar and concrete is an effective method to enhance their mechanical properties. The fracture properties of steel fiber-reinforced slag-based geopolymer concrete/mortar (SGC/SGM) and unreinforced control samples were compared through three-point bending (TPB) tests. The influences of [...] Read more.
Adding short steel fibers into slag-based geopolymer mortar and concrete is an effective method to enhance their mechanical properties. The fracture properties of steel fiber-reinforced slag-based geopolymer concrete/mortar (SGC/SGM) and unreinforced control samples were compared through three-point bending (TPB) tests. The influences of steel fiber volume contents (1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0%) on the fracture properties of SGC and SGM were studied. Load-midspan deflection (P-δ) curves and load-crack mouth opening displacement (P-CMOD) curves of the tested beams were recorded. The compressive and splitting tensile strengths were also tested. The fracture energy, flexural strength parameters, and fracture toughness of steel fiber-reinforced SGC and SGM were calculated and analyzed. The softening curves of steel fiber-reinforced SGC and SGM were determined using inverse analysis. The experimental results show that the splitting tensile strength, fracture energy, and fracture toughness are significantly enhanced with fiber incorporation. A strong correlation between the equivalent and residual flexural strengths is also observed. In addition, the trilinear strain-softening curves obtained by inverse analysis predict well of the load-displacement curves recorded from TPB tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New and Emerging Construction Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Microstructural Properties of Cement Paste and Mortar Modified by Low Cost Nanoplatelets Sourced from Natural Materials
Materials 2018, 11(5), 783; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050783 - 11 May 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Nanomaterials have been widely used in cement-based materials. Graphene has excellent properties for improving the durability of cement-based materials. Given its high production budget, it has limited its wide potential for application in the field of engineering. Hence, it is very meaningful to [...] Read more.
Nanomaterials have been widely used in cement-based materials. Graphene has excellent properties for improving the durability of cement-based materials. Given its high production budget, it has limited its wide potential for application in the field of engineering. Hence, it is very meaningful to obtain low cost nanoplatelets from natural materials that can replace graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) The purpose of this paper is to improve the resistance to chloride ion penetration by optimizing the pore structure of cement-based materials, and another point is to reduce investment costs. The results illustrated that low cost CaCO3 nanoplatelets (CCNPs) were successfully obtained under alkali treatment of seashell powder, and the chloride ion permeability of cement-based materials significantly decreased by 15.7% compared to that of the control samples when CCNPs were incorporated. Furthermore, the compressive strength of cement pastes at the age of 28 days increased by 37.9% than that of the plain sample. Improvement of performance of cement-based materials can be partly attributed to the refinement of the pore structure. In addition, AFM was employed to characterize the nanoplatelet thickness of CCNPs and the pore structures of the cement-based composites were analyzed by MIP, respectively. CCNPs composite cement best performance could lay the foundation for further study of the durability of cement-based materials and the application of decontaminated seashells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New and Emerging Construction Materials)
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