Special Issue "Laser Processing for Bioengineering"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Marzena Dominiak
Website
Guest Editor
Dental Surgery Department, Wroclaw Medical University, 50-367 Wrocław, Poland
Interests: oral sugery; periosurgery; laser treatment; dental lasers; lasers in oral and perio surgery; soft tissue; bone regeneration; periimplantitis; recession; 3D customized bone blocks; orthosurgery
Dr. Jacek Matys
Website
Guest Editor
Dental Surgery Department, Wroclaw Medical University, 50-367 Wrocław, Poland
Interests: medical and dental lasers; laser surface processing; laser decontamination; laser ablation; laser in bone surgery; photobiomodulation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are delighted to be able to invite you to submit a manuscript to the forthcoming Special Issue, “Laser Processing for Bioengineering”, for the journal Materials (IF: 2.972). This Special Issue is covering a wide variety of topics, from basic and applied research to laboratory and pre-clinical applications related to laser processing for applications in bioengineering and medicine.

The high-level laser beam interaction with different materials contributes to advanced material processing procedures, among others shaping of surfaces, surface patterning, surface laser micromachining, surface cleaning, drilling and cutting, surface treatment, and laser sintering. The application of laser processing methods allows unique applications in bioengineering for clinical use in medicine, veterinary, and dentistry. Nowadays, a wide brand of different laser wavelengths is used for various therapeutical reasons in surgery, ophthalmology, and dentistry. Laser surface shaping is used for the treatment of patients needing orthopedic and dental implants.

In this Special Issue, the most advanced research and improvements in laser processing for bioengineering applications will be accepted.

Special attention will be paidto new procedures and approaches of laser processing for bioengineering and pre-clinical applications.

Study displaying the effects of laser light and describing precisely the laser parameters, e.g., power, energy, fluence, power density, wavelength, pulse duration, repetition rate, and exposure time will also be considered. (Please read the reference: DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2015/15561.6955).

Prof. Marzena Dominiak
Dr. Jacek Matys
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • laser processing
  • bioengineering
  • laser surface cleaning
  • laser surface pattering
  • laser surface shaping
  • surgery
  • titanium
  • zirconia
  • implants
  • orthopedic
  • dentistry

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Q-Switch Nd:YAG Laser-Assisted Elimination of Multi-Species Biofilm on Titanium Surfaces
Materials 2020, 13(7), 1573; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13071573 - 29 Mar 2020
Abstract
(1) Background: The relatively high prevalence of peri-implantitis (PI) and the lack of a standard method for decontamination of the dental implant surface have pushed us to conduct further research in the field. Bacterial biofilms were found to play a primordial role in [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The relatively high prevalence of peri-implantitis (PI) and the lack of a standard method for decontamination of the dental implant surface have pushed us to conduct further research in the field. Bacterial biofilms were found to play a primordial role in the etiology of PI. Therefore, the aim is to evaluate the efficacy of a laser-assisted elimination of biofilm protocol in the removal of a multi-species biofilm on titanium surfaces. (2) Methods: In total, 52 titanium discs (grade 4) were used. The study group consisted of 13 titanium disks contaminated with multi-species biofilms and subsequently irradiated with the laser (T + BF + L). The control groups consisted of the following types of titanium disks: 13 contaminated with multi-species biofilms (T + BF), 13 sterile and irradiated (T + L), 13 sterile and untreated (T). Q-Switch Nd:YAG laser Irradiation parameters were the following: energy density equal to 0.597 J/cm2 per pulse, power equal to 270 milliwatt per pulse, 2.4 mm of spot diameter, and 10 Hz repetition rate for pulse duration of six nanoseconds (ns). The laser irradiation was made during 2 s of total time in non-contact and at 0.5 mm away from the titanium disc surface. After treatment, presence of biofilms on the disks was evaluated by staining with crystal violet (CV), which was measured as optical density at six hundred thirty nm, and statistical analyses were done. (3) Results: the optical density values were 0.004 ± 0.004 for the study group T + BF + L, 0.120 ± 0.039 for group T + BF, 0.006 ± 0.003 for group T + L, and 0.007 ± 0.007 for group T. For the study group, laser treatment resulted in a total elimination of the biofilm, with mean values statistically significantly lower than those of contaminated titanium surfaces and similar to those of sterile titanium surfaces. (4) Conclusions: Our irradiation protocol provided a significant elimination of the multi-species biofilm on titanium surfaces. Laser treated titanium surfaces were biofilm-free, similar to the sterile ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Processing for Bioengineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of A 1940 nm Thulium-Doped Fiber Laser and A 1470 nm Diode Laser for Cutting Efficacy and Hemostasis in A Pig Model of Spleen Surgery
Materials 2020, 13(5), 1167; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13051167 - 05 Mar 2020
Abstract
Partial and total splenectomies are associated with a high risk of substantial blood loss. Lasers operating at wavelengths strongly absorbed by water have the potential to improve hemostasis and cut while providing a narrow zone of thermal damage. The aim of this study [...] Read more.
Partial and total splenectomies are associated with a high risk of substantial blood loss. Lasers operating at wavelengths strongly absorbed by water have the potential to improve hemostasis and cut while providing a narrow zone of thermal damage. The aim of this study is to compare a thulium-doped fiber laser (TDFL) emitting a wavelength of 1940 nm and a diode laser (DL) operating at 1470 nm for spleen surgery in a pig model. A partial splenectomy and spleen incisions were made in 12 animals using the two laser devices. The hemostasis was evaluated visually during surgeries. Post-mortem and histopathological evaluations were done on days 0, 7, and 14 following surgery. Neither TDFL nor DL caused bleeding on day 0 or delayed bleeding. On day 14, pale streaks at the site of incision were slightly wider after cutting with DL than with TDFL. Histological analysis revealed a carbonized zone with exudation and a deeper zone of thermal tissue damage on day 0. The width of the thermal changes was 655.26 ± 107.70 μm for TDFL and 1413.37 ± 111.85 μm for DL. On day 7, a proliferation of fibroblasts and splenocytes was visible, as well as a formation of multinucleated giant cells adjacent to the residues of carbonization. The zone of thermal damage was broader for DL (1157.5 ± 262.77 μm) than for TDFL (682.22 ± 116.58 μm). On day 14, cutting sites were filled with connective and granulation tissues with the residues of carbonization. The zone of thermal damage was narrower for TDFL (761.65 ± 34.3 μm) than for DL (1609.82 ± 202.22 μm). Thus, both lasers are efficient in spleen surgery, providing good hemostasis. However, TDFL produces a narrower zone of thermal damage, which suggests its better efficiency for spleen surgery, especially when performing more precise procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Processing for Bioengineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Laser Pulse Overlap and Scanning Line Overlap on Femtosecond Laser-Structured Ti6Al4V Surfaces
Materials 2020, 13(4), 969; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13040969 - 21 Feb 2020
Abstract
Surface structuring is a key factor for the tailoring of proper cell attachment and the improvement of the bone-implant interface anchorage. Femtosecond laser machining is especially suited to the structuring of implants due to the possibility of creating surfaces with a wide variety [...] Read more.
Surface structuring is a key factor for the tailoring of proper cell attachment and the improvement of the bone-implant interface anchorage. Femtosecond laser machining is especially suited to the structuring of implants due to the possibility of creating surfaces with a wide variety of nano- and microstructures. To achieve a desired surface topography, different laser structuring parameters can be adjusted. The scanning strategy, or rather the laser pulse overlap and scanning line overlap, affect the surface topography in an essential way, which is demonstrated in this study. Ti6Al4V samples were structured using a 300 fs laser source with a wavelength of 1030 nm. Laser pulse overlap and scanning line overlap were varied between 40% and 90% over a wide range of fluences (F from 0.49 to 12.28 J/cm²), respectively. Four different main types of surface structures were obtained depending on the applied laser parameters: femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures (FLIPSS), micrometric ripples (MR), micro-craters, and pillared microstructures. It could also be demonstrated that the exceedance of the strong ablation threshold of Ti6Al4V strongly depends on the scanning strategy. The formation of microstructures can be achieved at lower levels of laser pulse overlap compared to the corresponding value of scanning line overlap due to higher heat accumulation in the irradiated area during laser machining. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Processing for Bioengineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Temperature Changes and SEM Effects of Three Different Implants-Abutment Connection during Debridement with Er:YAG Laser: An Ex Vivo Study
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3748; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223748 - 14 Nov 2019
Abstract
The study aimed to evaluate a temperature increase in, and damage to, titanium implants during flapless laser debridement. The study analyzed 15 implants with various implant–abutment connections: a two-piece implant (n = 4) with a screw abutment (IA—Implant–Abutment) and a one-piece implant with [...] Read more.
The study aimed to evaluate a temperature increase in, and damage to, titanium implants during flapless laser debridement. The study analyzed 15 implants with various implant–abutment connections: a two-piece implant (n = 4) with a screw abutment (IA—Implant–Abutment) and a one-piece implant with a ball type fixture (BTF, n = 4) or fix type fixture (FTF, n = 4). The implants were placed in porcine mandibles 2 mm over a bone crest to imitate a peri-implantitis. The implants were debrided in contact mode for 60 s with a Er:YAG laser at fluence of 9.95 J/cm2 (G1 group: 50 mJ/30 Hz); 19.89 J/cm2 (G2 group: 100 mJ/30 Hz); 39.79 J/cm2 (G3 group: 200 mJ/30 Hz), or a scaler with a ceramic tip (G4 control group: 4 W/20 Hz). The temperature was measured with thermocouples at implant and abutment levels. The damage in the titanium surface (n = 3, non-irradiated implants from each type) was assessed using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy). The temperature increase at the implant level for the laser was higher at IA in contrast with FTF and BTF. (p < 0.05) The temperature change at the abutment level was lower for the scaler in contrast to Er:YAG laser at FTF. (p < 0.0002) Er:YAG laser didn’t increase the temperature by 10 °C at 100 mJ/30 Hz and 50 mJ/30 Hz. Based on SEM analysis, cracks occurred on the surface of two-piece implants and were more pronounced. Cracks and the melting of the titanium surface of two-piece implants cleaned with Er:YAG laser at 100 or 200 mJ were observed. The specimens treated with the ultrasonic scaler with a plastic curette showed the remaining dark debris on the titanium surface. We recommend using Er:YAG laser at 50 mJ/30 Hz during flapless implants debridement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Processing for Bioengineering)
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