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Environment-Friendly Construction Materials

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 February 2019) | Viewed by 189847

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Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China
Interests: asphalt based road construction materials; pavement structure design; solid waste utilization
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway
Interests: materials for transport infrastructure; environmental impact of pavement materials

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Guest Editor
Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA
Interests: construction materials; recycling issues and polymers; rubber tire recycling

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Guest Editor
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chang’an University, Xi’an, China
Interests: solid waste recycling in road engineering; road and pavement materials; asphalt pavement maintenance
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The 1st International Conference on Sustainable Mega Infrastructures (SMI 2018) and the 3rd International Conference on Sustainable Construction Materials: Design, Performance and Application (SCM2018) will be held in Donghu Hotel, Wuhan City, Hubei, China, on 10-11 August 2018. This conference is sponsored by the Wuhan University of Technology (WUT), the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Alabama.

The SCM conferences have been a successful and a longstanding event since 2010, which bring together academic researchers and civil engineers from the world to promote technological achievement in sustainable construction materials. SMI2018 and SCM2018 will once again provide a unique opportunity to discuss the strategies and challenges related to the planning, execution and use of mega infrastructures, as well as sustainable construction materials. The scope of SMI2018 and SCM2018 will include, but is not limited to, cementitious paving materials, bituminous paving materials, recycled materials, waste materials, and so on.

The SMI2018 and SCM2018 will prepare diverse programs, including a plenary/keynote sessions, oral/poster sessions, exhibitions, and social events. This Special Issue was proposed based on the productive abstract submissions. Participants at SMI2018 and SCM2018 are highly encouraged to submit papers in this Special Issue for possible publication in Materials. Authors who would not attend the SMI2018 and SCM2018 conference are also warmly invited to submit a paper for this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Shaopeng Wu
Prof. Dr. Inge Hoff
Prof. Dr. Serji Amirkhanian
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yue Xiao
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Social and economic aspects of mega projects
  • Asphalt-based & cement-based mixtures
  • Pavement engineering
  • Environmental impact
  • Sustainable materials
  • Planning process
  • Digitalization of mega infrastructures
  • Pavement maintenance

Published Papers (48 papers)

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Editorial

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5 pages, 176 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue of Environment-Friendly Construction Materials
by Shaopeng Wu, Inge Hoff, Serji Amirkhanian and Yue Xiao
Materials 2019, 12(7), 1101; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12071101 - 03 Apr 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2985
Abstract
This special issue, “Environment-Friendly Construction Materials”, has been proposed and organized as a means to present recent developments in the field of construction materials. For this reason, the articles highlighted in this editorial relate to different aspects of construction materials, from pavement materials [...] Read more.
This special issue, “Environment-Friendly Construction Materials”, has been proposed and organized as a means to present recent developments in the field of construction materials. For this reason, the articles highlighted in this editorial relate to different aspects of construction materials, from pavement materials to building materials, from material design to structural design, from self-healing to cold recycling, from asphalt mixture to cement concrete. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

20 pages, 7024 KiB  
Article
Effects of Cement and Emulsified Asphalt on Properties of Mastics and 100% Cold Recycled Asphalt Mixtures
by Yanan Li, Yuchao Lyv, Liang Fan and Yuzhen Zhang
Materials 2019, 12(5), 754; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12050754 - 05 Mar 2019
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 3350
Abstract
Cold recycled asphalt mixtures (CRAM) are a cost-effective and environmentally-friendly way to reuse reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). This paper evaluates the rheological properties and microstructure of mineral filler-asphalt mastic, mineral filler-residue mastic, and cement-residue mastic. Then, based on the premise of using 100% [...] Read more.
Cold recycled asphalt mixtures (CRAM) are a cost-effective and environmentally-friendly way to reuse reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). This paper evaluates the rheological properties and microstructure of mineral filler-asphalt mastic, mineral filler-residue mastic, and cement-residue mastic. Then, based on the premise of using 100% RAP with a gradation that was determined experimentally, the effects of emulsified asphalt and cement on the porosity, indirect tensile strength, tensile strength ratio, dynamic stability, and mechanical properties of CRAM were evaluated. It was found that the rheological properties and cohesive coefficient of the cement-residue mastic varied differently to those of the first two types of mastic and the results show that the addition of cement can greatly improve the interfacial bonding between binders and fillers in the mastic, thereby improving the water damage resistance and high-temperature stability of CRAM. The relationships between cement content and the dynamic modulus and phase angle of CRAM are different to that for emulsified asphalt obviously. In addition, under certain conditions, the properties of CRAM can meet the requirements of relevant technical specifications for its application to subsurface layer of pavement. Hence, the use of 100% RAP in CRAM may be feasible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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11 pages, 2497 KiB  
Article
Assessment on Physical and Rheological Properties of Aged SBS Modified Bitumen Containing Rejuvenating Systems of Isocyanate and Epoxy Substances
by Zhelun Li, Xiong Xu, Jianying Yu and Shaopeng Wu
Materials 2019, 12(4), 618; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12040618 - 19 Feb 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2784
Abstract
Styrene–butadiene copolymer (SBS)-modified bitumen (SMB) is widely applied in pavement construction. With yearly services, many SMB wastes urgently need to be reclaimed for repaving roads based on the objectives of environmental protection, landfill saving, as well as resource utilization. The present work is [...] Read more.
Styrene–butadiene copolymer (SBS)-modified bitumen (SMB) is widely applied in pavement construction. With yearly services, many SMB wastes urgently need to be reclaimed for repaving roads based on the objectives of environmental protection, landfill saving, as well as resource utilization. The present work is focused on the investigation of the physical and rheological properties of aged SMB incorporated with rejuvenating systems consisting of fluid catalytic cracking slurry (FCC slurry), C12–14 aliphatic glycidyl ether (AGE), diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI), and other additives. The rejuvenating systems containing the main components of 10% FCC slurry, 10%FCC/3%AGE, and 10%FCC/3%AGE/1% MDI were respectively recorded as Ra, Rb, and Rc. The results indicate that both Rb and Rc have obvious workability that make contributions for improving comprehensive physical properties while slightly reducing the softening point, which were also proven to be effective for the re-rejuvenation of re-aged binder. The higher viscous-elastic temperature caused by the agglomeration of binder molecules in aged SMB could be dropped to a lower value with rejuvenating systems, while improving the low-temperature crack resistance. With the use of the Rb and Rc rejuvenating systems, the high-temperature deformation resistance of aged SMB fell, approaching the performance of fresh SMB. Vibration noise consumption could be improved for aged SMB incorporated with Rb and Rc in the form of viscous loss, while the effects for re-aged SMB containing the same rejuvenating systems were weakened but still effective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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16 pages, 5496 KiB  
Article
Improvement of Asphalt-Aggregate Adhesion Using Plant Ash Byproduct
by Zhuangzhuang Liu, Xiaonan Huang, Aimin Sha, Hao Wang, Jiaqi Chen and Cheng Li
Materials 2019, 12(4), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12040605 - 18 Feb 2019
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3840
Abstract
The adhesion bonding between asphalt and aggregate significantly influences field performance and durability of asphalt pavement. Adhesion promoters are typically used to improve asphalt-aggregate bonding and minimize moisture-related pavement damage, such as cracking and raveling. This study evaluated the effectiveness of plant ash [...] Read more.
The adhesion bonding between asphalt and aggregate significantly influences field performance and durability of asphalt pavement. Adhesion promoters are typically used to improve asphalt-aggregate bonding and minimize moisture-related pavement damage, such as cracking and raveling. This study evaluated the effectiveness of plant ash byproduct as adhesion promoter to improve asphalt-aggregate adhesion performance. Three commonly used aggregate types (granite, basic rock, and limestone) and two asphalt binder types were used in laboratory testing. A modified stripping test method was developed to evaluate test results with image analysis and measurement of asphalt film thickness. The contact angle test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) were conducted. Test results showed that plant ash lixivium significantly improved asphalt-aggregate adhesion. Among three aggregate types, granite yielded the worst asphalt-aggregate adhesion for both control and treated specimens. The effectiveness of adhesion promotion varied depending on the type of asphalt or aggregate and temperature. The SEM/EDS observations showed that the mesh-like crystalline was formed at the interface between asphalt binder and aggregate in the treated specimen, which was believed to enhance the interfacial bonding and prevent asphalt film peeling off from aggregate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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13 pages, 5016 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Potential Use of Calcium Alginate Capsules for Self-Healing in Porous Asphalt Concrete
by Shi Xu, Xueyan Liu, Amir Tabaković and Erik Schlangen
Materials 2019, 12(1), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12010168 - 07 Jan 2019
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 4795
Abstract
Improving the healing capacity of asphalt is proving to be an effective method to prolong the service life of an asphalt pavement. The calcium alginate capsules encapsulating rejuvenator have been developed and proved to provide successful localized crack healing in asphalt mastic. However, [...] Read more.
Improving the healing capacity of asphalt is proving to be an effective method to prolong the service life of an asphalt pavement. The calcium alginate capsules encapsulating rejuvenator have been developed and proved to provide successful localized crack healing in asphalt mastic. However, it is not known whether this self-healing asphalt system will improve healing capacity of a full asphalt mix. To this aim, this paper reports on study which investigate effect of the calcium alginate capsules onto self-healing capacity of the porous asphalt mix. X-ray computed tomography (XCT) was used to visualize the distribution of the capsules in porous asphalt. The effect of the capsules on fracture resistance of porous asphalt concrete was studied by semi-circular bending (SCB) tests. A semi-circular bending and healing programme was carried out to evaluate the healing effect of these capsules in porous asphalt concrete. Indirect Tensile Stiffness Modulus (ITSM) tests were employed in order to investigate the influence of the capsules on the stiffness of the porous asphalt concrete. The results indicate that incorporating calcium alginate capsules significantly improve the healing capacity of porous asphalt concrete without compromising its performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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20 pages, 5249 KiB  
Article
Effect of Modified Polyvinyl Alcohol Fibers on the Mechanical Behavior of Engineered Cementitious Composites
by Mian Sun, Youzhi Chen, Jiaoqun Zhu, Tao Sun, Zhonghe Shui, Gang Ling, Haoxuan Zhong and Yourui Zheng
Materials 2019, 12(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12010037 - 22 Dec 2018
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3669
Abstract
Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fiber was proposed to enhance the mechanical performance of engineered cementitious composite in this research. A mixture of engineered cementitious composite with better expected performance was made by adding 2% PVA fiber. Mechanics tests, including pressure resistance, fracture resistance, and [...] Read more.
Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fiber was proposed to enhance the mechanical performance of engineered cementitious composite in this research. A mixture of engineered cementitious composite with better expected performance was made by adding 2% PVA fiber. Mechanics tests, including pressure resistance, fracture resistance, and ultimate tensile strength, were conducted. They reveal that the engineered cementitious composites not only exhibit good pressure resistance, but they also exhibit excellent fracture resistance and strain capability against tensile stress through mechanics tests, including pressure resistance, fracture resistance, and ultimate tensile resistance. To further improve the engineered composites’ ductility, attempts to modify the performance of the PVA fiber surface have been made by using a vinyl acetate (VAE) emulsion, a butadiene–styrene emulsion, and boric anhydride. Results indicated that the VAE emulsion achieved the best performance improvement. Its use in fiber pre-processing enables the formation of a layer of film with weak acidity, which restrains the hydration of adjacent gel materials, and reduces the strength of transitional areas of the fiber/composite interface, which restricts fiber slippage and pulls out as a result of its growth in age, and reduces hydration levels. Research illustrates that the performance-improvement processing that is studied not only improves the strain of the engineered cementitious composites, but can also reduce the attenuation of the strain against tensile stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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22 pages, 9157 KiB  
Article
Effects of Pumice-Based Porous Material on Hydration Characteristics and Persistent Shrinkage of Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC)
by Kaizhi Liu, Rui Yu, Zhonghe Shui, Xiaosheng Li, Xuan Ling, Wenhao He, Shuangqin Yi and Shuo Wu
Materials 2019, 12(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12010011 - 20 Dec 2018
Cited by 63 | Viewed by 5107
Abstract
In this paper, two kinds of pumice particles with different diameters and water absorption rates are employed to substitute the corresponding size of river sands by volume fraction, and their effects on the hydration characteristics and persistent shrinkage of Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) [...] Read more.
In this paper, two kinds of pumice particles with different diameters and water absorption rates are employed to substitute the corresponding size of river sands by volume fraction, and their effects on the hydration characteristics and persistent shrinkage of Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) are investigated. The obtained experimental results show that adopting a low dosage of 0.6–1.25 mm saturated pumice as the internal curing agent in UHPC can effectively retract the persistent shrinkage deformation of concrete without a decrease of strength. Heat flow calorimetry results demonstrate that the additional water has a retarding effect and promotes the hydration process. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Differential Thermal Gravimetry (DTG) are utilized to quantify the Ca(OH)2 content in the hardened paste, which can confirm that the external moisture could accelerate the early cement hydration and secondary hydration of active mineral admixtures. The Ca/Si ratio of C–S–H calculated by the Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) reveals that the incorporation of wet pumice can transform the composition and structure of hydration products in its effective area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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16 pages, 3085 KiB  
Article
Rheological Behavior and Microstructure Characteristics of SCC Incorporating Metakaolin and Silica Fume
by Gang Ling, Zhonghe Shui, Tao Sun, Xu Gao, Yunyao Wang, Yu Sun, Guiming Wang and Zhiwei Li
Materials 2018, 11(12), 2576; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11122576 - 18 Dec 2018
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 3650
Abstract
This study explores the effects of metakaolin (MK) and silica fume (SF) on rheological behaviors and microstructure of self-compacting concrete (SCC). The rheology, slump flow, V-funnel, segregation degree (SA), and compressive strength of SCC are investigated. Microstructure characteristics, including hydration product and pore [...] Read more.
This study explores the effects of metakaolin (MK) and silica fume (SF) on rheological behaviors and microstructure of self-compacting concrete (SCC). The rheology, slump flow, V-funnel, segregation degree (SA), and compressive strength of SCC are investigated. Microstructure characteristics, including hydration product and pore structure, are also studied. The results show that adding MK and SF instead of 4%, 6% and 8% fly ash (FA) reduces flowability of SCC; this is due to the fact that the specific surface area of MK and SF is larger than FA, and the total water demand increases as a result. However, the flowability increases when replacement ratio is 2%, as the small MK and SF particles will fill in the interstitial space of mixture and more free water is released. The fluidity, slump flow, and SA decrease linearly with the increase of yield stress. The total amount of SF and MK should be no more than 6% to meet the requirement of self-compacting. Adding MK or SF to SCC results in more hydration products, less Ca(OH)2 and refinement of pore structure, leading to obvious strength and durability improvements. When the total dosage of MK and SF admixture is 6%, these beneficial effects on workability, mechanical performance, and microstructure are more significant when SF and MK are applied together. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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15 pages, 2173 KiB  
Article
Adhesion between Asphalt and Recycled Concrete Aggregate and Its Impact on the Properties of Asphalt Mixture
by Yueqin Hou, Xiaoping Ji, Jia Li and Xianghang Li
Materials 2018, 11(12), 2528; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11122528 - 12 Dec 2018
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 3483
Abstract
To study and evaluate the adhesion between recycled concrete aggregate and asphalt, the contact angles (CAs) between droplet (water and ethanol) and recycled concrete aggregate (RCA), natural aggregates, and solid bitumen (matrix asphalt, SBS modified asphalt) were tested via the sessile drop method [...] Read more.
To study and evaluate the adhesion between recycled concrete aggregate and asphalt, the contact angles (CAs) between droplet (water and ethanol) and recycled concrete aggregate (RCA), natural aggregates, and solid bitumen (matrix asphalt, SBS modified asphalt) were tested via the sessile drop method with an optical microscope. The surface free energy was then calculated. The CAs between hot asphalt and RCA and natural aggregates were tested via the hanging slice method. The adhesive energy between asphalt and RCA and natural aggregates were calculated based on the test results of the surface free energy and CAs. Then, the influence of RCA on the water stability and fatigue performance of the asphalt mixture was analyzed by testing the water stability and fatigue properties of hot mix asphalts containing RCA (HMA-RCA) with different aggregates and RCA dosages. The surface energy of the various aggregates and the CAs between aggregates and asphalts were sorted as follows: Granite > RCA > serpentinite > limestone. The surface energy and CA of RCA were very close to that of serpentinite. The adhesive energy between various aggregates and asphalt were sorted as follows: Limestone > serpentinite > RCA > granite. The adhesive energy between RCA and asphalt was also very close to that of serpentinite. The residual Marshall stability, tensile strength ratio, and fatigue performance of the HMA-RCAs were gradually reduced along with the increasing RCA dosage. This effect may be attributed to the fact that the adhesive energy between the RCA and the asphalt was less than that of water and that the asphalt was easily stripped from the RCA surface. Excessive RCA content in the aggregate can lead to excessive porosity of the HMA-RCA. The CAs and adhesive energy between RCA and asphalt showed significant effects on the water stability and fatigue performance of HMA-RCA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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19 pages, 2857 KiB  
Article
Viscoelastic Mechanical Responses of HMAP under Moving Load
by Yazhen Sun, Bincheng Gu, Lin Gao, Linjiang Li, Rui Guo, Qingqing Yue and Jinchang Wang
Materials 2018, 11(12), 2490; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11122490 - 07 Dec 2018
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2883
Abstract
In order to represent the mechanical response laws of high-modulus asphalt pavement (HMAP) faithfully and objectively, the viscoelasticity of high-modulus asphalt mixture (HMAM) was considered, and the viscoelastic mechanical responses were calculated systematically based on moving load by numerical simulations. The performances of [...] Read more.
In order to represent the mechanical response laws of high-modulus asphalt pavement (HMAP) faithfully and objectively, the viscoelasticity of high-modulus asphalt mixture (HMAM) was considered, and the viscoelastic mechanical responses were calculated systematically based on moving load by numerical simulations. The performances of the HMAP in resistance to the deformation and the cracking at the bottom layer were compared with the ordinary asphalt pavement. Firstly, Lubao and Honeywell 7686 (H7686) were selected as the high modulus modifiers. The laboratory investigations of Asphalt mix-70 penetration, Asphalt mix-SBS (styrene-butadiene-styrene), HMAM-Lubao and HMAM-H7686 were carried out by dynamic modulus tests and wheel tracking tests. The conventional performances related to the purpose of using the HMAM were indicated. The master curves of the storage moduli were obtained and the viscoelastic parameters were fitted based on viscoelastic theories. Secondly, 3D pavement models based on moving loads for the viscoelastic structures were built using the non-linear finite element software ABAQUS. The wheel path was discretized in time and space to apply the Haversine wave load, and then the mechanical responses of four kinds of asphalt pavement were calculated. Finally, the sensitivity analysis was carried out. The results showed that the addition of the high modulus modifiers can improve the resistance to high-temperature rutting of the pavements. Except for the tensile strain and stress at the bottom of the underlayer, other responses decreased with the increases of the dynamic moduli and the change laws of the tensile strain and stress were affected by the range of the dynamic modulus. The tensile stress at the bottom of the asphalt layer would be too large if the modulus of the layer were too large, and a larger tensile strain would result. Therefore, the range of the modulus must be restricted to avoid the cracking due to excessive tension when using the HMAM. The resistance of the HMAP to deformation was better and the HMAP was less sensitive to load changes and could better withstand the adverse effects inflicted by heavy loads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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17 pages, 4700 KiB  
Article
Comparative Study on the Damage Characteristics of Asphalt Mixtures Reinforced with an Eco-Friendly Basalt Fiber under Freeze-thaw Cycles
by Yongchun Cheng, Wensheng Wang, Yafeng Gong, Shurong Wang, Shuting Yang and Xun Sun
Materials 2018, 11(12), 2488; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11122488 - 07 Dec 2018
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 3432
Abstract
The main distresses of asphalt pavements in seasonal frozen regions are due to the effects of water action, freeze-thaw cycles, traffic, and so on. Fibers are usually used to reinforce asphalt mixtures, in order to improve its mechanical properties. Basalt fiber is an [...] Read more.
The main distresses of asphalt pavements in seasonal frozen regions are due to the effects of water action, freeze-thaw cycles, traffic, and so on. Fibers are usually used to reinforce asphalt mixtures, in order to improve its mechanical properties. Basalt fiber is an eco-friendly mineral fiber with high mechanical performance, low water absorption, and an appropriate temperature range. This paper aims to address the freeze-thaw damage characteristics of asphalt mixtures (AC-13) reinforced with eco-friendly basalt fiber, with a length of 6 mm. Based on the Marshall design method and ordinary pavement performances, including rutting resistance, anti-cracking, and moisture stability, the optimum asphalt and basalt fiber contents were determined. Test results indicated that the pavement performances of asphalt mixture exhibited a trend of first increasing and then deceasing, with the basalt fiber content. Subsequently, asphalt mixtures with a basalt fiber content of 0.4% were prepared for further freeze-thaw tests. Through the comparative analysis of air voids, splitting strength, and indirect tensile stiffness modulus, it could be found that the performances of asphalt mixtures gradually declined with freeze-thaw cycles and basalt fiber had positive effects on the freeze-thaw resistance. This paper can be used as a reference for further investigation on the freeze-thaw damage model of asphalt mixtures with basalt fiber. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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16 pages, 6124 KiB  
Article
Laboratory Evaluation on Performance of Eco-Friendly Basalt Fiber and Diatomite Compound Modified Asphalt Mixture
by Yongchun Cheng, Di Yu, Yafeng Gong, Chunfeng Zhu, Jinglin Tao and Wensheng Wang
Materials 2018, 11(12), 2400; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11122400 - 28 Nov 2018
Cited by 48 | Viewed by 3628
Abstract
This study proposed an asphalt mixture modified by basalt fiber and diatomite. Performance of diatomite modified asphalt mixture (DAM), basalt fiber modified asphalt mixture (BFAM), diatomite and basalt fiber compound modified asphalt mixture (DBFAM), and control asphalt mixture (AM) were investigated by experimental [...] Read more.
This study proposed an asphalt mixture modified by basalt fiber and diatomite. Performance of diatomite modified asphalt mixture (DAM), basalt fiber modified asphalt mixture (BFAM), diatomite and basalt fiber compound modified asphalt mixture (DBFAM), and control asphalt mixture (AM) were investigated by experimental methods. The wheel tracking test, low-temperature indirect tensile test, moisture susceptibility test, fatigue test and freeze–thaw cycles test of four kinds of asphalt mixtures were carried out. The results show that the addition of basalt fiber and diatomite can improve the pavement performance. Diatomite has a significant effect on the high temperature stability, moisture susceptibility and resistance to moisture and frost damage under freeze–thaw cycles of asphalt mixture. Basalt fiber has a significant effect on low-temperature cracking resistance of asphalt mixture. Composed modified asphalt mixture has obvious advantages on performance compared to the control asphalt mixture. It will provide a reference for the design of asphalt mixture in seasonal frozen regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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26 pages, 13229 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Effect of Hydrophobic Nanosilica on the Viscoelasticity Property of Asphalt and Asphalt Mixture
by Wei Guo, Xuedong Guo, Mengyuan Chang and Wenting Dai
Materials 2018, 11(11), 2328; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11112328 - 19 Nov 2018
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 3918
Abstract
Viscoelasticity property of bitumen is closely related to the service life of bituminous pavement. This paper evaluated the impact of one of the most efficient and widely used nanomaterials in various industries called hydrophobic nanosilica on the viscoelasticity property of bitumen and asphalt [...] Read more.
Viscoelasticity property of bitumen is closely related to the service life of bituminous pavement. This paper evaluated the impact of one of the most efficient and widely used nanomaterials in various industries called hydrophobic nanosilica on the viscoelasticity property of bitumen and asphalt mixture. In this paper, three hydrophobic nanosilica modified bitumens and asphalt mixtures were researched by conventional physical properties test, SEM test, FTIR test, DSC test, DSR test, static creep test and dynamic creep test. The results showed that the introduction of hydrophobic nanosilica could strengthen the viscosity of asphalt more effectively and had better dispersion than hydrophilic nanosilica in asphalt. From conventional physical properties test and rheological performance test, hydrophobic nanosilica could weaken the temperature susceptibility of bitumen observably. From DSR test, hydrophobic nanosilica modified asphalt had a lower sensitivity and dependence on temperature and frequency than hydrophilic nanosilica modified asphalt. The Cole–Cole diagrams indicated that hydrophobic nanosilica exhibited good compatibility with asphalt compared with hydrophilic nanosilica. Newly formed chemical bonds were found in the hydrophobic nanosilica modified asphalt and its mixture with stone according to SEM test, FTIR test, and DSC test, which is the biggest difference from the modification mechanism of hydrophilic nanosilica modified asphalt. Through static and dynamic creep test, it found that the addition of hydrophobic nanosilica can significantly reduce the creep strain at the same temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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12 pages, 3832 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Thermal-Mechanical Properties of Bio-Oil Regenerated Aged Asphalt
by Tianyuan Yang, Meizhu Chen, Xinxing Zhou and Jun Xie
Materials 2018, 11(11), 2224; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11112224 - 08 Nov 2018
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 3370
Abstract
Different proportions of bio-oil (5, 10, 15, and 20 wt%) were added into aged asphalt for its regeneration. Molecular dynamic simulations were used to measure the thermal and mechanical performances of bio-oil regenerated aged asphalt (BRAA). A new, simplified BRAA model was built [...] Read more.
Different proportions of bio-oil (5, 10, 15, and 20 wt%) were added into aged asphalt for its regeneration. Molecular dynamic simulations were used to measure the thermal and mechanical performances of bio-oil regenerated aged asphalt (BRAA). A new, simplified BRAA model was built to calculate the specific heat capacity, thermal expansion coefficient, elastic constant, shear modulus, bulk modulus, and Young’s modulus. Simulation results showed that the thermal expansion coefficient (CTE α) of asphalt at 298 K decreased by 10% after aging. Bio-oil of 5 wt% could make the CTE α restore to the original level of base asphalt, while the addition of bio-oil would further decrease the specific heat capacity of aged asphalt. The shear modulus (G), Young’s modulus (K) and bulk modulus (E) of asphalt increased after aging and decreased with the increasing amount of bio-oil. According to the calculated E/G value, the ductility of aged asphalt increased by 6.0% with the addition of 10 wt% bio-oil, while over 15 wt% bio-oil would make the ductility of BRAA decrease. In summary, the regeneration effects of bio-oil to the thermal expansion coefficient, flexibility, and ductility of aged asphalt had been proven, while excessive bio-oil would decrease the thermal stability of asphalt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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11 pages, 21650 KiB  
Article
Graphene-Modulated Removal Performance of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Pollutants in a Sequencing Batch Chlorella Reactor
by Gonghan Xia, Wenlai Xu, Qinglin Fang, Zishen Mou and Zhicheng Pan
Materials 2018, 11(11), 2181; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11112181 - 04 Nov 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3137
Abstract
In this work, the influence of graphene on nitrogen and phosphorus in a batch Chlorella reactor was studied. The impact of graphene on the removal performance of Chlorella was investigated in a home-built sewage treatment system with seven identical sequencing batch Chlorella reactors [...] Read more.
In this work, the influence of graphene on nitrogen and phosphorus in a batch Chlorella reactor was studied. The impact of graphene on the removal performance of Chlorella was investigated in a home-built sewage treatment system with seven identical sequencing batch Chlorella reactors with graphene contents of 0 mg/L (T1), 0.05 mg/L (T2), 0.1 mg/L (T3), 0.2 mg/L (T4), 0.4 mg/L (T5), 0.8 mg/L (T6) and 10 mg/L (T7). The influence of graphene concentration and reaction time on the pollutant removal performance was studied. The malondialdehyde (MDA) and total superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentrations in each reactor were measured, and optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterizations were performed to determine the related mechanism. The results show that after 168 h, the total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (AN) and total phosphorus (TP) removal rates of reactors T1–T7 become stable, and the TN, AN and TP removal rates were gradually reduced with increasing graphene concentration. At 96 h, the concentrations of both MDA and SOD in T1–T7 gradually increased as the graphene concentration increased. In optical microscopy and SEM measurements, it was found that graphene was adsorbed on the surface of Chlorella, and entered Chlorella cells, deforming and reducing Chlorella. Through the blood plate count method, we estimated an average Chlorella reduction of 16%. According to the water quality and microscopic experiments, it can be concluded that the addition of graphene causes oxidative damage to microalgae and destruction of the Chlorella cell wall and cell membrane, inhibiting the nitrogen and phosphorus removal in Chlorella reactors. This study provides theoretical and practical support for the safe use of graphene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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21 pages, 3908 KiB  
Article
Low-Temperature Performance and Damage Constitutive Model of Eco-Friendly Basalt Fiber–Diatomite-Modified Asphalt Mixture under Freeze–Thaw Cycles
by Yongchun Cheng, Di Yu, Guojin Tan and Chunfeng Zhu
Materials 2018, 11(11), 2148; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11112148 - 31 Oct 2018
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 3171
Abstract
Asphalt pavement located in seasonal frozen regions usually suffers low-temperature cracking and freeze–thaw damage. For this reason, diatomite and basalt fiber were used to modify asphalt mixtures. An indirect tensile test was used to determine the low-temperature performance of the asphalt mixture. The [...] Read more.
Asphalt pavement located in seasonal frozen regions usually suffers low-temperature cracking and freeze–thaw damage. For this reason, diatomite and basalt fiber were used to modify asphalt mixtures. An indirect tensile test was used to determine the low-temperature performance of the asphalt mixture. The influences of freeze–thaw (F–T) cycles on strength, tensile failure strain, stiffness modulus, and strain energy density were analyzed. The variation of the stress–strain curve under F–T cycles was analyzed. The stress–strain curve was divided into a linear zone and nonlinear zone. The linear zone stress ratio and linear zone strain ratio were proposed as indexes to evaluate the nonlinear characteristics of the stress–strain curve. The results show that the basalt fiber–diatomite-modified asphalt mixture had better low temperature crack resistance and antifreeze–thaw cycles capacity compared to the control asphalt mixture. The F–T cycles made the nonlinear characteristics of the stress–strain relationship of the asphalt mixture remarkable, and also decreased the linear zone stress ratio and linear zone strain ratio. The damage constitutive model established in this paper can describe the stress–strain relationship after F–T damage well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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15 pages, 3722 KiB  
Article
Temperature Sensitivity Characteristics of SBS/CRP-Modified Bitumen after Different Aging Processes
by Rui He, Shuhua Wu, Xiaofeng Wang, Zhenjun Wang and Huaxin Chen
Materials 2018, 11(11), 2136; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11112136 - 30 Oct 2018
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3231
Abstract
Temperature sensitivity characteristics of bitumen can be evidently influenced by modifier types and natural aging processes. Many types of modifiers have been used to improve the temperature sensitivity performance of bitumen, but their effects are different. Therefore, different bitumen specimens as well as [...] Read more.
Temperature sensitivity characteristics of bitumen can be evidently influenced by modifier types and natural aging processes. Many types of modifiers have been used to improve the temperature sensitivity performance of bitumen, but their effects are different. Therefore, different bitumen specimens as well as SBS/CRP (Styrene-butadiene-styrene polymer/crumb rubber powder)-modified bitumen were prepared and the temperature sensitivity characteristics of bitumen after different aging processes were analyzed in this study. A dynamic rheological property test and performance test at low temperature were carried out to analyze temperature sensitivity and low temperature rheological properties of bitumen. An infrared spectrum test was adopted to study the effect of functional groups under different aging process on the properties of bitumen. The relationship between macroscopic properties and microstructures of bitumen was analyzed. The results show that SBS/CRP-modified bitumen has a strong anti-aging ability in that its flexibility and structure remain in a good condition after long-term aging. The aging process has no significant effect on SBS/CRP-modified bitumen. SBS/CRP-modified bitumen has an excellent low-temperature relaxation ability and low-temperature crack resistance. In contrast to original bitumen and SBS-modified bitumen, the temperature sensitivity performance of SBS/CRP-modified bitumen is evidently enhanced. The physical blending effect is dominant in the bitumen modified process and there is no evident chemical reaction between bitumen and crumb rubber powder. SBS/CRP-modified bitumen is recommended for wide use in plateau areas with ultraviolet and cold surroundings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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26 pages, 6945 KiB  
Article
Influence Analysis and Optimization for Aggregate Morphological Characteristics on High- and Low-Temperature Viscoelasticity of Asphalt Mixtures
by Yongchun Cheng, Wensheng Wang, Jinglin Tao, Meng Xu, Xiaoli Xu, Guirong Ma and Shurong Wang
Materials 2018, 11(10), 2034; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11102034 - 19 Oct 2018
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2924
Abstract
Aggregate is an indispensable raw material for asphalt pavement construction. This study evaluates the influences of aggregate morphological characteristics on the high- and low-temperature viscoelasticity of asphalt mixtures. Based on simplex lattice mixture design (SLD), asphalt mix samples were designed and prepared with [...] Read more.
Aggregate is an indispensable raw material for asphalt pavement construction. This study evaluates the influences of aggregate morphological characteristics on the high- and low-temperature viscoelasticity of asphalt mixtures. Based on simplex lattice mixture design (SLD), asphalt mix samples were designed and prepared with the same gradation but three different types of aggregates. Subsequently, three morphological characteristics of aggregate (roundness, perimeter index, and erosion-dilation area ratio) are presented to characterize fine and coarse aggregates. Then based on Burgers viscoelastic model, uniaxial compression static creep test was carried out to analyze the high-temperature viscoelastic properties for asphalt mortar and mixture. Meanwhile fitting Prony series models have been utilized to represent relaxation modulus conversed from creep compliance and the low-temperature relaxation characteristics can be also discussed. The experimental results indicated that morphological characteristics of aggregate, especially fine aggregates, are strongly correlated with the viscoelastic parameters of asphalt mixtures. However, the complex morphological characteristics of aggregates have opposite influences on the high- and low-temperature viscoelastic parameters. Therefore, when considering both high- and low-temperature viscoelastic properties, the aggregate proportion was optimized for the appropriate morphological characteristics, which will provide a reference for asphalt mixture design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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11 pages, 15208 KiB  
Article
Effects of Aluminum Hydroxide and Layered Double Hydroxide on Asphalt Fire Resistance
by Menglin Li, Ling Pang, Meizhu Chen, Jun Xie and Quantao Liu
Materials 2018, 11(10), 1939; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11101939 - 11 Oct 2018
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 3638
Abstract
When a fire occurs in a tunnel, the instantaneous high temperature and smoke cause great danger to people. Therefore, the asphalt pavement material in the tunnel must have sufficient fire resistance. In this study, the effects of aluminum hydroxide and layered double hydroxide [...] Read more.
When a fire occurs in a tunnel, the instantaneous high temperature and smoke cause great danger to people. Therefore, the asphalt pavement material in the tunnel must have sufficient fire resistance. In this study, the effects of aluminum hydroxide and layered double hydroxide on the fire resistance of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) polymer-modified asphalt was investigated. The fire resistance of the asphalt was evaluated by using a limiting oxygen index (LOI). The impact of aluminum hydroxide (ATH), layered double hydroxide (LDHs), and mixed flame retardant (MFR) on LOI was studied. The synergistic fire resistance mechanism of ATH and LDHs in asphalt binder was analyzed by using an integrated thermal analyzer‒mass spectrometry combined system (TG-DSC-MS) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The experimental results indicated that the main active temperature range of these flame retardants was 221–483 °C. The main components of smoke were methane, hydroxyl, water, carbon monoxide, aldehyde, carbon dioxide, etc. The addition of flame retardants could inhibit the production of methane, carbon monoxide, and aldehyde. Moreover, due to the good synergistic effects of ATH and LDHs, 20 wt % MFR had the best fire resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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20 pages, 3198 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Aggregate Morphological Characteristics for Viscoelastic Properties of Asphalt Mixes Using Simplex Lattice Design
by Wensheng Wang, Yongchun Cheng, Guojin Tan and Jinglin Tao
Materials 2018, 11(10), 1908; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11101908 - 08 Oct 2018
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3441
Abstract
Morphological characteristics of aggregates have direct impacts on performances of asphalt mixes. This paper aims to investigate the effects of the morphological characteristics of fine and coarse aggregates on the high-temperature viscoelastic properties of asphalt mortars and mixtures. For this purpose, an experimental [...] Read more.
Morphological characteristics of aggregates have direct impacts on performances of asphalt mixes. This paper aims to investigate the effects of the morphological characteristics of fine and coarse aggregates on the high-temperature viscoelastic properties of asphalt mortars and mixtures. For this purpose, an experimental proportion scheme was designed for asphalt mixes prepared with three different types of aggregates (basalt, andesite and pebble/river sand) based on the simplex lattice design (SLD) method. Three morphological parameters were chosen to characterize shape, angularity and texture of aggregates. Afterwards, the uniaxial compression creep test was conducted for asphalt mixes and the high-temperature viscoelastic properties were obtained based on Burgers model. The effects of fine and coarse aggregates on the viscoelastic properties are analyzed through asphalt mortars and mixtures, respectively. The results showed that aggregate morphological characteristics correlate with the high-temperature viscoelastic properties of asphalt mixes, especially for fine aggregates. Aggregates with complex morphological characteristics are conducive to improving the deformation recovery and anti-deformation of asphalt mixes. Furthermore, coarse aggregates can enhance the anti-deformation of asphalt mixture effectively due to its skeleton effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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16 pages, 8203 KiB  
Article
Laboratory and Field Investigation of the Feasibility of Crumb Rubber Waste Application to Improve the Flexibility of Anti-Rutting Performance of Asphalt Pavement
by Hongyin Li, Hailong Jiang, Wenwu Zhang, Peng Liu, Shanshan Wang, Fei Wang, Jizhe Zhang and Zhanyong Yao
Materials 2018, 11(9), 1738; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11091738 - 15 Sep 2018
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3671
Abstract
Resistance of asphalt mix to low-temperature cracking and rutting at high temperature is very important to ensure the service performance of asphalt pavement under seasonal changes in temperature and loading. However, it is challenging to balance the improvement of such resistance by using [...] Read more.
Resistance of asphalt mix to low-temperature cracking and rutting at high temperature is very important to ensure the service performance of asphalt pavement under seasonal changes in temperature and loading. However, it is challenging to balance the improvement of such resistance by using additives, e.g., anti-rutting agent (ARA). This study focuses on improving the flexibility of anti-rutting asphalt mix by incorporating crumb rubber (CR) and ARA. The properties of the prepared modified asphalt mix were evaluated in the laboratory by performing wheel tracking, three-point bending, indirect tensile, and uniaxial compression tests. The experimental results showed that the dynamic stability of modified asphalt mix was significantly increased due to the addition of ARA and further improved by incorporating CR. The maximum bending strain at −10 °C was increased due to the contribution of CR. The results of indirect tensile strength and resilient modulus further indicated that the CR-modified anti-rutting mixture was more flexible. Moreover, the field observation and evaluation indicated that the CR-modified anti-rutting asphalt pavement met the standard requirements, better than normal asphalt mixture in many parameters. A conclusion can be made that incorporating CR in asphalt mixture prepared with ARA can improve pavement performance at both high and low in-service temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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18 pages, 3209 KiB  
Article
Comparative Study of Water-Leaching and Acid-Leaching Pretreatment on the Thermal Stability and Reactivity of Biomass Silica for Viability as a Pozzolanic Additive in Cement
by Weiting Xu, Jiangxiong Wei, Jiajian Chen, Bin Zhang, Peng Xu, Jie Ren and Qijun Yu
Materials 2018, 11(9), 1697; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11091697 - 12 Sep 2018
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 3542
Abstract
The present work aims to introduce a novel and eco-friendly method, i.e., a water-leaching pretreatment for extracting highly reactive biomass silica from rice husk (RH), for viability as a pozzolanic additive in cement. For comparison, the traditional acid pretreatment method was also employed [...] Read more.
The present work aims to introduce a novel and eco-friendly method, i.e., a water-leaching pretreatment for extracting highly reactive biomass silica from rice husk (RH), for viability as a pozzolanic additive in cement. For comparison, the traditional acid pretreatment method was also employed throughout the experimental study. The silica from RH was extracted using boiled deionized water and acid solution as leaching agents to remove the alkali metal impurities, and then dried and submitted to pyrolysis treatment. The results indicated that potassium was found to be the major contaminant metal inducing the formation of undesirable black carbon particles and the decrease in crystallization temperature of amorphous RHA silica. The boiling-water-leaching pretreatment and acid-leaching pretreatment on RHs significantly removed the metallic impurities and reduced the crystallization sensitivity of RHA silica to calcination temperature. A highly reactive amorphous silica with purity of 96% was obtained from RH via 1 N hydrochloric acid leaching followed by controlled calcination at 600 °C for 2 h. The acid treatments increased the crystallization temperature of silica to 1200 °C and retained the amorphous state of silica for 2.5 h. In the case of water-leaching pretreatment, leaching duration for 2.5 h could yield an amorphous silica with purity of 94% and render the silica amorphous at 900 °C for 7 h. The RHA silica yielded by water-leaching pretreatment presented a comparable enhancing effect to that of acid leaching on hydration and improved the strength of cement. Furthermore, compared with the acid-leaching method, the water-leaching pretreatment method is more environmentally friendly and easier to operate, and hence more widely available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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12 pages, 2306 KiB  
Article
Energy-Based Approach to Predict Fatigue Life of Asphalt Mixture Using Three-Point Bending Fatigue Test
by Yazhen Sun, Chenze Fang, Jinchang Wang, Zuoxin Ma and Youlin Ye
Materials 2018, 11(9), 1696; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11091696 - 12 Sep 2018
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3385
Abstract
The three-point bending fatigue tests were carried out in order to accurately predict the fatigue life of an asphalt mixture based on the plateau value (PV) of the dissipated strain energy ratio (DSER). The relations of the dissipated strain energy (DSE) to the [...] Read more.
The three-point bending fatigue tests were carried out in order to accurately predict the fatigue life of an asphalt mixture based on the plateau value (PV) of the dissipated strain energy ratio (DSER). The relations of the dissipated strain energy (DSE) to the stress-strength ratio, temperature and loading rate were studied, and the constructions of the mathematical models of DSE and DSER were completed based on the change laws of the DSE. The relation of the fatigue life to the PV was determined based on the analysis of damage evolution, based on which the fatigue equation was established and used to predict the fatigue life. The results show that the change laws of DSE and DSER can be well described by the proposed mathematical models. The PV is defined as the average value of the DSER in the second stage and the fatigue life decreases in power function with the increase of PV, based on which the fatigue equation of Nf = A(PV)B was established, and the established fatigue equation is very close to that is used in the MEPDG. The fatigue equation can well predict the fatigue life asphalt mixture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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18 pages, 3438 KiB  
Article
A Comprehensive Evaluation of Rejuvenator on Mechanical Properties, Durability, and Dynamic Characteristics of Artificially Aged Asphalt Mixture
by Pan Pan, Yi Kuang, Xiaodi Hu and Xiao Zhang
Materials 2018, 11(9), 1554; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11091554 - 29 Aug 2018
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 3252
Abstract
In this study, the aged asphalt binder and mixture were laboratory prepared through short-term ageing testing and long-term ageing testing. Firstly, the effect of rejuvenator on physical properties of aged asphalt binders was investigated. In addition, a series of laboratory tests were performed [...] Read more.
In this study, the aged asphalt binder and mixture were laboratory prepared through short-term ageing testing and long-term ageing testing. Firstly, the effect of rejuvenator on physical properties of aged asphalt binders was investigated. In addition, a series of laboratory tests were performed to evaluate the influence of ageing and rejuvenator content on the mechanical properties, durability and dynamic characteristics of asphalt mixtures. Physical test results of asphalt binder testified that rejuvenator used can efficiently recover the aged asphalt binder. However, the effect of ageing and rejuvenator content exhibits different trends depending on the physical property tests conducted. Moreover, artificially aged asphalt mixture with rejuvenator has better ability to resist moisture damage and ravelling. In addition, the ITSR value is more suitable to evaluate the moisture susceptibility for asphalt recycling. Although rejuvenator improves the thermal cracking resistance and fatigue property of aged asphalt mixture, rejuvenated mixture shows greater modulus and inferior ability to resist reflective cracking than the unaged mixture. Moreover, rejuvenated mixture shows less dependence on frequency at high temperature regions and stronger dependence at low temperature regions compared to unaged and long-term aged mixtures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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16 pages, 5181 KiB  
Article
Study on the Effect of Demulsification Speed of Emulsified Asphalt based on Surface Characteristics of Aggregates
by Fanlong Tang, Guangji Xu, Tao Ma and Lingyun Kong
Materials 2018, 11(9), 1488; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11091488 - 21 Aug 2018
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3416
Abstract
Aggregate is an indispensable raw material for emulsified asphalt construction. For the purpose of explaining the influence of aggregate characteristics on the demulsification speed of emulsified asphalt, the surface energy and specific surface area (SSA) characteristics of aggregates were calculated based on the [...] Read more.
Aggregate is an indispensable raw material for emulsified asphalt construction. For the purpose of explaining the influence of aggregate characteristics on the demulsification speed of emulsified asphalt, the surface energy and specific surface area (SSA) characteristics of aggregates were calculated based on the capillary rise method and the BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) adsorption test. Afterwards, the effect of the surface energy and specific surface area of the aggregate on the emulsified asphalt demulsification speed was systematically studied by using ultraviolet spectroscopy as well as the orthogonal test. Experimental results indicate that the specific surface energy parameter of the aggregate is certainly related to the particle size of the aggregate. That is, the surface free energy of the unit system is proportional to the surface area A and the density of the interface unit. The specific surface area parameter of aggregates increases with the decrease of particle size, when the particle size is reduced to 600 mesh, the specific surface area parameters of the three aggregates selected in this paper tend to be consistent. Orthogonal experimental analysis demonstrates that the surface energy and specific surface area have an impact on the emulsion breaking speed and they are proven to be positively correlated. Meanwhile, in the case of small particle sizes, there is no statistically significant correlation between the physical properties of aggregates and the demulsification speed of emulsified asphalt, and the physical property of aggregates is not the main factor that affects the demulsification speed of the emulsified asphalt. On the contrary, the material properties of the aggregate, such as acid-base property and chargeability, are the dominant factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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20 pages, 4013 KiB  
Article
Feasibility Evaluation of Preparing Asphalt Mixture with Low-Grade Aggregate, Rubber Asphalt and Desulphurization Gypsum Residues
by Xiaoliang Zhang, Ben Zhang, Huaxin Chen and Dongliang Kuang
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1481; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081481 - 20 Aug 2018
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3903
Abstract
Road construction consumes great amounts of high-grade natural resources. Using low-grade natural rocks or some solid wastes as substitute materials is a hot topic. Considering this, the feasibility of using low-grade granite aggregate, solid waste-based filler (desulphurization gypsum residues, DGR) and binder (waste [...] Read more.
Road construction consumes great amounts of high-grade natural resources. Using low-grade natural rocks or some solid wastes as substitute materials is a hot topic. Considering this, the feasibility of using low-grade granite aggregate, solid waste-based filler (desulphurization gypsum residues, DGR) and binder (waste tire rubber modified asphalt, RMA) simultaneously in asphalt mixtures has been fully investigated in this research. The commonly used base asphalt and limestone powder (LP) filler were control groups. Material characteristics of raw materials mainly including micro-morphology, functional group, mineral phase, chemical composition and thermal stability were first evaluated in order to recognize them. Four asphalt mixtures (two asphalt binder and two filler) were then designed by standard Superpave method. Finally, a detailed investigation into the pavement performance of asphalt mixtures was carried out. The moisture damage resistance and low-temperature crack resistance were detected by the changing rules of stability, strength and fracture energy, and the high-temperature stability and fatigue performance were determined by wheel tracking test and indirect tensile (IDT) fatigue test, respectively. Results suggested that RMA and DGR both showed positive effects on the low-temperature crack resistance and fatigue property of the granite asphalt mixture. DGR also strengthened moisture stability. The contribution of RMA on high-temperature deformation resistance of the granite asphalt mixture was compelling. It can offset the insufficiency in high-temperature stability made by DGR. A conclusion can be made that asphalt mixture prepared with granite, DGR and RMA possesses satisfactory pavement performances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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13 pages, 3290 KiB  
Article
Effect of Rejuvenator Containing Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonic Acid (DBSA) on Physical Properties, Chemical Components, Colloidal Structure and Micro-Morphology of Aged Bitumen
by Dongliang Kuang, Zhou Ye, Lifeng Yang, Ning Liu, Zaihong Lu and Huaxin Chen
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1476; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081476 - 20 Aug 2018
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3734
Abstract
DBSA was used as a solubilizer together with conventional rejuvenator (CR) to produce a solubilized rejuvenator (SR), two kinds of aged bitumen involving TFOT aged bitumen and PAV aged bitumen were obtained by thin film oven test (TFOT) and pressurized aging vessel (PAV), [...] Read more.
DBSA was used as a solubilizer together with conventional rejuvenator (CR) to produce a solubilized rejuvenator (SR), two kinds of aged bitumen involving TFOT aged bitumen and PAV aged bitumen were obtained by thin film oven test (TFOT) and pressurized aging vessel (PAV), respectively. Effects of CR and SR on the physical properties, chemical components, colloidal structure and micro-morphology of TFOT aged bitumen and PAV aged bitumen were investigated. Testing results of physical properties and chemical components indicated that CR and SR can replenish aged bitumen with necessary aromatics, TFOT aged bitumen that chemical component variation deteriorates its physical properties. With regard to PAV aged bitumen, of which the performance attenuation lies in chemical components variation and colloidal structure transformation, even if the content of CR reached up to 10 wt %, the regenerated bitumen cannot meet the regeneration requirement yet due to its definite influence on colloidal structure transformation, comparatively, sulfonic group in SR can react with the superficial atoms of asphaltenes to reform a solvation layer to facilitate the colloidal structure transformation of PAV aged bitumen, performance and beelike structure of regenerated PAV aged with bitumen with 10 wt % SR were approximated to that of virgin bitumen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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9 pages, 3287 KiB  
Article
Excellent Carbonation Behavior of Rankinite Prepared by Calcining the C-S-H: Potential Recycling of Waste Concrete Powders for Prefabricated Building Products
by Kai Wang, Liang Ren and Luqing Yang
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1474; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081474 - 19 Aug 2018
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 4264
Abstract
Pure rankinite (C3S2) was prepared by calcining a C-S-H gel precursor at a temperature of 1300 °C. The carbonation hardening behavior of the resulting rankinite was revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and differential thermal [...] Read more.
Pure rankinite (C3S2) was prepared by calcining a C-S-H gel precursor at a temperature of 1300 °C. The carbonation hardening behavior of the resulting rankinite was revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectrum (EDS). The results indicate that the pure rankinite can be easily prepared at a lower temperature. The cubic compressive strengths of the resulting rankinite samples reach a value of 62.5 MPa after 24 h of carbonation curing. The main carbonation products formed during the carbonation process are crystalline calcite, vaterite and highly polymerized amorphous silica gels. The formed carbonation products fill the pores and bind to each other, creating a dense microstructure, which contributes to the excellent mechanical strength. These results provide a novel insight into potential recycling of waste concrete powders for prefabricated building products with lower CO2 emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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13 pages, 7121 KiB  
Article
Self-Healing Property of Ultra-Thin Wearing Courses by Induction Heating
by Jiuming Wan, Yue Xiao, Wei Song, Cheng Chen, Pan Pan and Dong Zhang
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1392; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081392 - 09 Aug 2018
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3538
Abstract
Ultra-thin wearing course (UTWC) has been developed in pavement preventive maintenance for many years. However, how to prolong the service life of UTWC still requires further research. This study introduced AC-5 and SMA-5 asphalt mixtures, which can be induction heated. Steel fiber and [...] Read more.
Ultra-thin wearing course (UTWC) has been developed in pavement preventive maintenance for many years. However, how to prolong the service life of UTWC still requires further research. This study introduced AC-5 and SMA-5 asphalt mixtures, which can be induction heated. Steel fiber and steel slag were used in the mixtures as additives. Marshall Stability and induction heating property of mixtures were characterized. In addition, self-healing property of UTWC materials had been emphatically conducted. Adding steel fiber in mixtures led to higher Marshall Stability and lower flow value, while steel slag generally showed a negative effect. Induction heating property showed a positive relationship with the additives. Induction heating time was positively correlated to the healing ratio of the mixtures. Induction heating on the mixtures could recover the strength of mixtures to a certain degree. Mixtures with more steel fiber showed a higher healing ratio. Basalt-steel slag based mixtures showed better healing ratios than the basalt based mixtures. The healing ratios of mixtures illustrated a decreasing tendency as the healing cycle increased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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18 pages, 4218 KiB  
Article
Effect of Healing Agents on Crack Healing of Asphalt and Asphalt Mortar
by Changluan Pan, Ping Tang, Martin Riara, Liantong Mo, Mingliang Li and Meng Guo
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1373; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081373 - 07 Aug 2018
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3856
Abstract
This study investigated the effect of seven healing agents on crack healing ability of long-term aged asphalt and its mortar. Different healing agents including sunflower oil, aromatic oil, bitumen emulsion, and maltene-based emulsions were used. The crack healing of asphalt made use of [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effect of seven healing agents on crack healing ability of long-term aged asphalt and its mortar. Different healing agents including sunflower oil, aromatic oil, bitumen emulsion, and maltene-based emulsions were used. The crack healing of asphalt made use of two asphalt disk samples and healing was evaluated using direct tensile tests. For asphalt mortar, notched semi-circular samples were used. Test results indicated that the crack healing of asphalt and its mortar depended strongly on the type of healing agent. In general, asphalt healed faster than its mortar. Asphalt healing could be well improved by using oil agents, while asphalt mortar could be well healed with maltene-based emulsions. The crack healing of asphalt mortar developed rapidly followed by a steady state of increase. Initial crack healing using healing agents could be contributed by the diffusion and softening effects, which resulted in low strength recovery. Long term healing could lead to the bonding reconstitution in the cracks, which were decisive for the final strength gain. The promising healing agent should be able to achieve maximum strength recovery to resist cracking as well as a sufficient re-healing ability to deal with crack opening and closing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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11 pages, 13246 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Ageing in Bitumen Using Fluorescence Spectrum
by Ning Tang, Yu-Li Yang, Mei-Ling Yu, Wen-Li Wang, Shi-Yue Cao, Qing Wang and Wen-Hao Pan
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1325; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081325 - 31 Jul 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3430
Abstract
Bitumen ageing is a very complex process and poses a threat to the performance of pavements. In the present work, a fluorescence spectrophotometer was employed to research the change rule of components and the structure of bitumen after the ageing process. The Thin [...] Read more.
Bitumen ageing is a very complex process and poses a threat to the performance of pavements. In the present work, a fluorescence spectrophotometer was employed to research the change rule of components and the structure of bitumen after the ageing process. The Thin Film Oven Test (TFOT) and Ultraviolet (UV) light treatment were carried out as ageing methods. The properties and components of bitumen were tested before and after aging. The 2D and 3D fluorescence spectra of bitumen were analyzed. The vector of fluorescence peak was calculated for evaluating the ageing process. The results indicated that the ideal concentration of bitumen- tetrachloromethane solution was 0.1 g/L or smaller for avoiding the fluorescence quenching. The coordinates of fluorescent peak appeared “blue-shift” after ageing due to the change of aromatics. In addition, bitumen has already occurred serious ageing when the magnitude of a vector is more than 36. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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22 pages, 9084 KiB  
Article
Design Optimization of SBS-Modified Asphalt Mixture Reinforced with Eco-Friendly Basalt Fiber Based on Response Surface Methodology
by Wensheng Wang, Yongchun Cheng and Guojin Tan
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1311; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081311 - 29 Jul 2018
Cited by 91 | Viewed by 5777
Abstract
This paper investigates the effects of basalt fiber content, length and asphalt-aggregate ratio on the volumetric and strength properties of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS)-modified asphalt mixture reinforced with eco-friendly basalt fiber. An experimental scheme was designed to optimize three preparation parameters for the Marshall test [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the effects of basalt fiber content, length and asphalt-aggregate ratio on the volumetric and strength properties of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS)-modified asphalt mixture reinforced with eco-friendly basalt fiber. An experimental scheme was designed to optimize three preparation parameters for the Marshall test indices based on response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that basalt fiber content presents a more significant effect on air voids, voids in mineral aggregates and voids filled with asphalt. Basalt fiber length is more related to Marshall stability, and flow value exhibits a significant variation trend with asphalt-aggregate ratio. The optimization of preparation parameters is determined as follows: basalt fiber content is 0.34%, length is 6 mm, asphalt-aggregate ratio is 6.57%, which possesses favorable and reliable accuracy compared with experimental results. Furthermore, basalt fiber reinforced asphalt binder and mixture were also studied, and it was found that basalt fiber can enhance the performance of asphalt binder and mixture in terms of cone penetration, softening point, force ductility, as well as pavement performance tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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15 pages, 5621 KiB  
Article
The Wastes of Sanitary Ceramics as Recycling Aggregate to Special Concretes
by Paweł Ogrodnik, Jacek Szulej and Wojciech Franus
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1275; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081275 - 24 Jul 2018
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3514
Abstract
This article presents the results of research on the wastes of sanitary ceramics as an aggregate to concretes. The case of high temperature load was taken into account. Six concrete mixes were designed on Portland and calcium aluminate cement with various content of [...] Read more.
This article presents the results of research on the wastes of sanitary ceramics as an aggregate to concretes. The case of high temperature load was taken into account. Six concrete mixes were designed on Portland and calcium aluminate cement with various content of aerating admixture. Only the ground waste ceramics were used as an aggregate from one of the Polish sanitary ceramics plants. The abrasion test by Boehme blade of the designed concrete was conducted within the frame of study and compression strength tests on the cylindrical samples were performed as well. Some samples were initially annealed at 400 or 800 °C prior to strength tests. In order to determine the impact of annealing on the phase content and the concrete sample structure, the analyses on phase content (XRD—X-ray diffraction) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were conducted. The tests on compression strength demonstrated that there is considerable resistance of concrete containing ceramic aggregate and calcium aluminate cement to high temperatures. Abrasion tests confirmed that selected mixes have a high resistance to abrasion and they can be applied as a concrete coating. The possibility of ceramic cullet use as an aggregate to special concretes has been confirmed by the conducted research on specific features. Taking into consideration the available literature, the article presents widely conducted research in the area of the internal structure of concrete designed on the basis of recycled ceramic aggregate, the phase content of individual components, and basic mechanical tests both in normal temperatures and under thermal stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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20 pages, 7894 KiB  
Article
Enhancement of Dynamic Damping in Eco-Friendly Railway Concrete Sleepers Using Waste-Tyre Crumb Rubber
by Sakdirat Kaewunruen, Dan Li, Yu Chen and Zhechun Xiang
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1169; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071169 - 09 Jul 2018
Cited by 79 | Viewed by 7888
Abstract
There is no doubt that the use of waste rubber in concrete applications is a genius alternative because Styrene is the main component of rubber, which has a strong toxicity and is harmful to humans. Therefore, it will significantly reduce impacts on the [...] Read more.
There is no doubt that the use of waste rubber in concrete applications is a genius alternative because Styrene is the main component of rubber, which has a strong toxicity and is harmful to humans. Therefore, it will significantly reduce impacts on the environment when waste rubber can be recycled for genuine uses. In this paper, the dynamic properties of high-strength rubberised concrete have been investigated by carrying out various experiments to retain the compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength, electrical resistivity, and damping characteristics by replacing fine aggregates with micro-scale crumb rubber. Over 20 variations of concrete mixes have been performed. The experimental results confirm that a decrease in the compressive strength can be expected when the rubber content is increased. The new findings demonstrate that the high-strength concrete can be enhanced by optimal rubber particles in order to improve splitting tensile and flexural strengths, damping properties, and electrical resistivity. It is therefore recommended to consider the use of rubberised concrete (up to 10 wt. % crumb rubber) in designing railway sleepers as this will improve the service life of railway track systems and reduce wastes to the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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18 pages, 3654 KiB  
Article
Fatigue Performance of Different Thickness Structure Combinations of Hot Mix Asphalt and Cement Emulsified Asphalt Mixtures
by Zhenjun Wang, Linlin Cai, Xiaofeng Wang, Chuang Xu, Bo Yang and Jingjing Xiao
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1145; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071145 - 05 Jul 2018
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3384
Abstract
Cement emulsified asphalt mixture (CEAM) is widely used in asphalt pavement for its environmental virtues. However, a CEAM layer can influence fatigue performance of asphalt pavement because of higher air voids of CEAM in contrast to hot mix asphalt (HMA). Therefore, it is [...] Read more.
Cement emulsified asphalt mixture (CEAM) is widely used in asphalt pavement for its environmental virtues. However, a CEAM layer can influence fatigue performance of asphalt pavement because of higher air voids of CEAM in contrast to hot mix asphalt (HMA). Therefore, it is common to use HMA and CEAM structure combinations for improving the fatigue performance. In this work, three different thickness structure combinations of HMA (AC-10) and CEAM (AC-16) were designed, in which HMA and CEAM were used as top layer and bottom layer, respectively. The fatigue performance of the three combinations was studied. The fatigue equations of the combinations were established and the rational combination was recommended. The distributions of the internal voids in the combinations were studied with X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); and the correlation between the fatigue life and the void ratios were analyzed. Artificial neural network (ANN) was employed to predict the fatigue life of each combination. The results show that the fatigue life of the combinations is inversely proportional to the stress ratio level and environment temperature. The optimal combination is the structure with 40 mm HMA and 40 mm CEAM. The internal void ratio of CEAM is higher than that of HMA. A thinner HMA and thicker CEAM structure can result in higher void ratios and lower fatigue life of the combinations. The prediction results of ANN are similar to the experimental results. The obtained results can potentially guide the design of cement emulsified asphalt pavement structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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19 pages, 6778 KiB  
Article
Effect of Polyacrylic Acid on Rheology of Cement Paste Plasticized by Polycarboxylate Superplasticizer
by Baoguo Ma, Yi Peng, Hongbo Tan, Zhenghang Lv and Xiufeng Deng
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1081; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071081 - 25 Jun 2018
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 5210
Abstract
Viscosity-enhancing agents (VEA) have been widely employed in high flowability cement-based materials, so as to ensure that no bleeding and segregation would occur. However, in most cases, interaction between VEA and superplasticizer would be unavoidable. In this study, the effect of polyacrylic acid [...] Read more.
Viscosity-enhancing agents (VEA) have been widely employed in high flowability cement-based materials, so as to ensure that no bleeding and segregation would occur. However, in most cases, interaction between VEA and superplasticizer would be unavoidable. In this study, the effect of polyacrylic acid (PAA), known as one of the most commonly used VEAs, on rheology performance of cement paste containing polycarboxylate superplasticizer (PCE), was studied. The initial fluidity was assessed with mini slump, and rheological behavior of cement paste was evaluated with rotor rheometer. Adsorption amount was examined with total organic carbon (TOC) analyzer, and the zeta potential was also tested. The interaction between PAA and PCE in the presence of calcium ion (Ca2+) was analyzed with conductivity, X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The results illustrate that PAA can adsorb onto the surface of cement particles to plasticize cement paste, being similar to PCE. In the presence of Ca2+, PAA can be curled and crosslinked, as a result of the combination between carboxyl groups (COO) and Ca2+, thereby affecting the adsorption performance and conformation behavior. It is interesting that negative impact of PAA on dispersion efficiency of PCE can be demonstrated; one reason is the reduced adsorption amount of PCE by PAA competitively adsorbing onto the cement surface, and another possible reason is the invalided PCE by adsorption of PAA. Additionally, molecular weight of PAA should be considered if being used as VEA in PCE system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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17 pages, 7726 KiB  
Article
Influence of Water Solute Exposure on the Chemical Evolution and Rheological Properties of Asphalt
by Ling Pang, Xuemei Zhang, Shaopeng Wu, Yong Ye and Yuanyuan Li
Materials 2018, 11(6), 983; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11060983 - 11 Jun 2018
Cited by 52 | Viewed by 4134
Abstract
The properties of asphalt pavement are damaged under the effects of moisture. The pH value and salt concentration of water are the key factors that affect the chemical and rheological properties of asphalt during moisture damage. Four kinds of water solutions, including distilled [...] Read more.
The properties of asphalt pavement are damaged under the effects of moisture. The pH value and salt concentration of water are the key factors that affect the chemical and rheological properties of asphalt during moisture damage. Four kinds of water solutions, including distilled water, an acidic solution, alkaline solution and saline solution were used to investigate the effects of aqueous solute compositions on the chemical and rheological properties of asphalt. Thin-layer chromatography with flame ionization detection (TLC-FID), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) were applied to investigate the components, chemistry and rheology characteristics of asphalt specimens before and after water solute exposure. The experimental results show that moisture damage of asphalt is not only associated with an oxidation process between asphalt with oxygen, but it is also highly dependent on some compounds of asphalt dissolving and being removed in the water solutions. In detail, after immersion in water solute, the fraction of saturates, aromatics and resins in asphalt binders decreased, while asphaltenes increased; an increase in the carbonyl and sulphoxide indices, and a decrease in the butadiene index were also found from the FTIR analyzer test. The rheological properties of asphalt are sensitive to water solute immersing. The addition of aqueous solutes causes more serious moisture damage on asphalt binders, with the pH11 solution presenting as the most destructive during water solute exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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14 pages, 4345 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Fine Aggregate Morphology by Image Method and Its Effect on Skid-Resistance of Micro-Surfacing
by Yue Xiao, Feng Wang, Peide Cui, Lei Lei, Juntao Lin and Mingwei Yi
Materials 2018, 11(6), 920; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11060920 - 29 May 2018
Cited by 60 | Viewed by 5053
Abstract
Micro-surfacing is a widely used pavement preventive maintenance technology used all over the world, due to its advantages of fast construction, low maintenance cost, good waterproofness, and skid-resistance performance. This study evaluated the fine aggregate morphology and surface texture of micro-surfacing by AIMS [...] Read more.
Micro-surfacing is a widely used pavement preventive maintenance technology used all over the world, due to its advantages of fast construction, low maintenance cost, good waterproofness, and skid-resistance performance. This study evaluated the fine aggregate morphology and surface texture of micro-surfacing by AIMS (aggregate image measurement system), and explored the effect of aggregate morphology on skid-resistance of single-grade micro-surfacing. Sand patch test and British pendulum test were also used to detect skid-resistance for comparison with the image-based method. Wet abrasion test was used to measure skid-resistance durability for feasibility verification of single-grade micro-surfacing. The results show that the effect of Form2D on the skid-resistance of micro-surfacing is much stronger than that of angularity. Combining the feasibility analysis of durability and skid-resistance, 1.18–2.36 grade micro-surfacing meets the requirements of durability and skid-resistance at the same time. This study also determined that, compared with British pendulum test, the texture result obtained by sand patch test fits better with results of image method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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15 pages, 16304 KiB  
Article
Initial Self-Healing Temperatures of Asphalt Mastics Based on Flow Behavior Index
by Chao Li, Shaopeng Wu, Guanyu Tao and Yue Xiao
Materials 2018, 11(6), 917; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11060917 - 29 May 2018
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3313
Abstract
Increasing temperature is a simple and convenient method to accelerate the self-healing process of bitumen. However, bitumen may not achieve the healing capability at lower temperature, and may be aged if temperature is too high. In addition, the bitumen is mixed with mineral [...] Read more.
Increasing temperature is a simple and convenient method to accelerate the self-healing process of bitumen. However, bitumen may not achieve the healing capability at lower temperature, and may be aged if temperature is too high. In addition, the bitumen is mixed with mineral filler and formed as asphalt mastic in asphalt concrete, so it is more accurate to study the initial self-healing from the perspective of asphalt mastic. The primary purpose of this research was to examine the initial self-healing temperature of asphalt mastic, which was determined by the flow behavior index obtained from the flow characteristics. Firstly, the texture and geometry characteristics of two fillers were analyzed, and then the initial self-healing temperature of nine types of asphalt mastic, pure bitumen (PB) and styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) modified bitumen were determined by the flow behavior index. Results demonstrate that the average standard deviation of gray-scale texture value of limestone filler (LF) is 21.24% lower than that of steel slag filler (SSF), showing that the steel slag filler has a better particle distribution and geometry characteristics. Also the initial self-healing temperatures of asphalt mastics with 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 LF-PB volume ratio are 46.5 °C, 47.2 °C and 49.4 °C, which are 1.4 °C, 0.8 °C and 0.4 °C higher than that of asphalt mastics with SSF-PB, but not suitable for the evaluation of asphalt mastic contained SBS modified bitumen because of unique structure and performance of SBS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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13 pages, 5712 KiB  
Article
Heating Characteristics and Induced Healing Efficiencies of Asphalt Mixture via Induction and Microwave Heating
by Quantao Liu, Cheng Chen, Bin Li, Yihan Sun and Hechuan Li
Materials 2018, 11(6), 913; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11060913 - 29 May 2018
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 3892
Abstract
This paper investigates the heating characteristics and induced healing efficiencies of asphalt mixture containing steel fiber under induction heating and microwave heating. The heating characteristics of an asphalt mixture with different heating methods were studied with an infrared camera. The healing performance of [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the heating characteristics and induced healing efficiencies of asphalt mixture containing steel fiber under induction heating and microwave heating. The heating characteristics of an asphalt mixture with different heating methods were studied with an infrared camera. The healing performance of the asphalt mixture specimens in different healing conditions were investigated by observing the crack closure and testing the fracture resistance recovery after healing. The results showed that the heating speed at the surface of asphalt mixture with induction heating was much higher than that with microwave machine heating, under a similar output power and the same method of radiation. While the temperature distribution within the asphalt mixture under induction heating was quite uneven, microwave heating resulted in a more uniform temperature distribution. The effective heating depth of microwave heating is much higher than that of induction heating. Gradient healing occurred within the sample heated with induction healing, while a uniform healing effect can be achieved with microwave heating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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13 pages, 3613 KiB  
Article
Residual Fatigue Properties of Asphalt Pavement after Long-Term Field Service
by Peide Cui, Yue Xiao, Mingjing Fang, Zongwu Chen, Mingwei Yi and Mingliang Li
Materials 2018, 11(6), 892; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11060892 - 25 May 2018
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 4613
Abstract
Asphalt pavement is widely used for expressways due to its advantages of flexibility, low cost, and easy maintenance. However, pavement failures, including cracking, raveling, and potholes, will appear after long-term service. This research evaluated the residual fatigue properties of asphalt pavement after long-term [...] Read more.
Asphalt pavement is widely used for expressways due to its advantages of flexibility, low cost, and easy maintenance. However, pavement failures, including cracking, raveling, and potholes, will appear after long-term service. This research evaluated the residual fatigue properties of asphalt pavement after long-term field service. Fatigue behavior of specimens with different pavement failure types, traffic load, service time, and layers were collected and characterized. Results indicate that after long-term field service, surface layer has a longer fatigue life under small stress levels, but shorter fatigue life under large stress levels. Longer service time results in greater sensitivity to loading stress, while heavier traffic results in shorter fatigue life. Surface and underneath layers present very close fatigue trend lines in some areas, indicating that the fatigue behavior of asphalt mixture in surface and underneath layers are aged to the same extent after eight to ten years of field service. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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11 pages, 1780 KiB  
Article
Diffusibility Enhancement of Rejuvenator by Epoxidized Soybean Oil and Its Influence on the Performance of Recycled Hot Mix Asphalt Mixtures
by Dongliang Kuang, Yuan Jiao, Zhou Ye, Zaihong Lu, Huaxin Chen, Jianying Yu and Ning Liu
Materials 2018, 11(5), 833; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050833 - 18 May 2018
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 3538
Abstract
Epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) was employed as a novel penetrant cooperating with a conventional rejuvenator (CR) for the recycling of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). The influence of ESO on the diffusibility and the regenerating effects of CR on RAP were investigated. The diffusibility [...] Read more.
Epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) was employed as a novel penetrant cooperating with a conventional rejuvenator (CR) for the recycling of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). The influence of ESO on the diffusibility and the regenerating effects of CR on RAP were investigated. The diffusibility testing result shows that the diffusibility of CR is enhanced by the addition of ESO because the epoxy group in ESO can facilitate asphaltene dispersion due to its high polarity, which simultaneously reduces the viscosity and improves the fluidity of aged bitumen so as to allow diffusion of the rejuvenator into the aged bitumen. Road performance testing of a recycled hot mix asphalt mixture (RHMA) indicates that the fatigue and cracking resistance properties as well as the water stability of RHMA containing CR can be improved by the addition of ESO due to the diffusibility enhancement of CR, which boosts the regenerating effect of CR on aged bitumen in RAP. The fatigue and cracking resistance properties as well as the water stability of the recycled hot mix asphalt mixture containing CR with 7 wt % ESO approximate those of the hot mix asphalt mixture composed of the same virgin aggregates and bitumen. Taking into account the rutting resistance decline versus the addition of ESO, the content of ESO should not exceed 7 wt % of the conventional rejuvenator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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16 pages, 35327 KiB  
Article
Preparation and Thermal Properties of Molecular-Bridged Expanded Graphite/Polyethylene Glycol Composite Phase Change Materials for Building Energy Conservation
by Dong Zhang, Meizhu Chen, Quantao Liu, Jiuming Wan and Jinxuan Hu
Materials 2018, 11(5), 818; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050818 - 16 May 2018
Cited by 51 | Viewed by 5096
Abstract
Using phase change materials (PCMs) in building envelopes became a reliable method to improve indoor comfort and reduce buildings’ energy consumption. This research developed molecular-bridged expanded graphite (EG)/polyethylene glycol (PEG) composite PCMs (m-EPs) to conserve energy in buildings. The m-EPs were prepared through [...] Read more.
Using phase change materials (PCMs) in building envelopes became a reliable method to improve indoor comfort and reduce buildings’ energy consumption. This research developed molecular-bridged expanded graphite (EG)/polyethylene glycol (PEG) composite PCMs (m-EPs) to conserve energy in buildings. The m-EPs were prepared through a vacuum absorption technique, and a titanate coupling agent was used to build a molecular bridge between EG and PEG. SEM, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), the leakage test, microcalorimetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were conducted to characterize the morphology, pore structure, absorbability, and modifying effects of the m-EPs. The phase change temperature, latent heat, thermal stability, and thermal conductivity of the m-EPs were determined by a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), TGA, and a thermal constants analyzer. Results showed that the maximum mass ratio of PEG to EG without leakage was 1:7, and a stable connection was established in the m-EPs after modification. Compared with the unmodified EPs, the supercooling degree of the m-EPs reduced by about 3 °C, but the latent heats and initial decomposition temperatures increased by approximately 10% and 20 °C, respectively, which indicated an improvement in the thermal energy storage efficiency. The thermal conductivities of the m-EPs were 10 times higher than those of the pristine PEGs, which ensured a rapid responding to building temperature fluctuations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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14 pages, 5750 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Ultraviolet Radiation on Bitumen Aging Depth
by Jinxuan Hu, Shaopeng Wu, Quantao Liu, Maria Inmaculada García Hernández, Wenbo Zeng, Shuai Nie, Jiuming Wan, Dong Zhang and Yuanyuan Li
Materials 2018, 11(5), 747; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050747 - 07 May 2018
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 4282
Abstract
The aging effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on bitumen has gained increasing attention from researchers, resulting in the emergence of a new method to simulate the UV aging that occurs during the service life of bitumen. However, the UV aging degree is closely [...] Read more.
The aging effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on bitumen has gained increasing attention from researchers, resulting in the emergence of a new method to simulate the UV aging that occurs during the service life of bitumen. However, the UV aging degree is closely related to bitumen thickness and the effect of UV radiation on aging depth is not clear. The relationship between ultraviolet (UV) radiation and bitumen UV aging depth was investigated in this paper. Three groups of samples were UV aged using different aging procedures to investigate the bitumen aging mechanism of UV radiation. The results from the first group showed that UV aging depth increased along with aging time. After aging for five hours, the complex modulus of the second and third layers increased. The second group’s results indicated that the aging effect of ozone was small and that the increase in aging depth was uncorrelated with ozone. The results from the third group showed that the transmittance of bitumen increased after UV aging and that the real reason why aging depth increased was permeation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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16 pages, 3611 KiB  
Article
Method of Fatigue-Life Prediction for an Asphalt Mixture Based on the Plateau Value of Permanent Deformation Ratio
by Yazhen Sun, Chenze Fang, Jinchang Wang, Xuezhong Yuan and Dong Fan
Materials 2018, 11(5), 722; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050722 - 03 May 2018
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3748
Abstract
Laboratory predictions for the fatigue life of an asphalt mixture under cyclic loading based on the plateau value (PV) of the permanent deformation ratio (PDR) were carried out by three-point bending fatigue tests. The influence of test conditions on the recovery ratio of [...] Read more.
Laboratory predictions for the fatigue life of an asphalt mixture under cyclic loading based on the plateau value (PV) of the permanent deformation ratio (PDR) were carried out by three-point bending fatigue tests. The influence of test conditions on the recovery ratio of elastic deformation (RRED), the permanent deformation (PD) and PDR, and the trends of RRED, PD, and PDR were studied. The damage variable was defined by using PDR, and the relation of the fatigue life to PDR was determined by analyzing the damage evolution process. The fatigue equation was established based on the PV of PDR and the fatigue life was predicted by analyzing the relation of the fatigue life to the PV. The results show that the RRED decreases with the increase of the number of loading cycles, and the elastic recovery ability of the asphalt mixture gradually decreases. The two mathematical models proposed are based on the change laws of the RRED, and the PD can well describe the change laws. The RRED or the PD cannot well predict the fatigue life because they do not change monotonously with the fatigue life, and one part of the deformation causes the damage and the other part causes the viscoelastic deformation. The fatigue life decreases with the increase of the PDR. The average PDR in the second stage is taken as the PV, and the fatigue life decreases in a power law with the increase of the PV. The average relative error of the fatigue life predicted by the fatigue equation to the test fatigue life is 5.77%. The fatigue equation based on PV can well predict the fatigue life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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15 pages, 4120 KiB  
Article
Performance Evaluation and Improving Mechanisms of Diatomite-Modified Asphalt Mixture
by Chao Yang, Jun Xie, Xiaojun Zhou, Quantao Liu and Ling Pang
Materials 2018, 11(5), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050686 - 27 Apr 2018
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 4104
Abstract
Diatomite is an inorganic natural resource in large reserve. This study consists of two phases to evaluate the effects of diatomite on asphalt mixtures. In the first phase, we characterized the diatomite in terms of mineralogical properties, chemical compositions, particle size distribution, mesoporous [...] Read more.
Diatomite is an inorganic natural resource in large reserve. This study consists of two phases to evaluate the effects of diatomite on asphalt mixtures. In the first phase, we characterized the diatomite in terms of mineralogical properties, chemical compositions, particle size distribution, mesoporous distribution, morphology, and IR spectra. In the second phase, road performances, referring to the permanent deformation, crack, fatigue, and moisture resistance, of asphalt mixtures with diatomite were investigated. The characterization of diatomite exhibits that it is a porous material with high SiO2 content and large specific surface area. It contributes to asphalt absorption and therefore leads to bonding enhancement between asphalt and aggregate. However, physical absorption instead of chemical reaction occurs according to the results of FTIR. The resistance of asphalt mixtures with diatomite to permanent deformation and moisture are superior to those of the control mixtures. But, the addition of diatomite does not help to improve the crack and fatigue resistance of asphalt mixture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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20 pages, 7940 KiB  
Article
Application of Recycled Ceramic Aggregates for the Production of Mineral-Asphalt Mixtures
by Wojciech Andrzejuk, Danuta Barnat-Hunek, Rafat Siddique, Bartosz Zegardło and Grzegorz Łagód
Materials 2018, 11(5), 658; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050658 - 24 Apr 2018
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4364
Abstract
This paper describes a method of designing and producing innovative mineral–asphalt mixtures, which utilize waste aggregate from the recycling of sanitary ceramics. The work presents the basic properties of the ceramic material, the investigation concerning the microstructure of the aggregate obtained from the [...] Read more.
This paper describes a method of designing and producing innovative mineral–asphalt mixtures, which utilize waste aggregate from the recycling of sanitary ceramics. The work presents the basic properties of the ceramic material, the investigation concerning the microstructure of the aggregate obtained from the grinding of waste, and a comparison with the images obtained for the aggregates usually employed in mineral–asphalt mixtures. The mixtures were designed for the application in the wearing course. Four series of mixtures were prepared. In the first and second, the ceramic aggregate constituted a partial substitute for dolomite, whereas in the third, we substituted granodiorite, and the fourth series contained only dolomite. The mixtures were examined for the content of soluble binder, the bulk density of samples, the presence of voids, the space filled with binder, and the susceptibility to water and frost corrosion. The obtained results were compared with the standard requirements. The microstructure as well as the contact zone in the considered mineral–asphalt mixtures are presented based on research conducted by means of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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15 pages, 7492 KiB  
Article
Microfluidic Synthesis of Ca-Alginate Microcapsules for Self-Healing of Bituminous Binder
by Benan Shu, Shaopeng Wu, Lijie Dong, Qing Wang and Quantao Liu
Materials 2018, 11(4), 630; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11040630 - 19 Apr 2018
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 5553
Abstract
This work aims to develop an original alginate micro-emulsion combining with droplets microfluidic method to produce multinuclear Ca-alginate microcapsules containing rejuvenator for the self-healing of bituminous binder. The sizes of the Ca-alginate microcapsules could be easily controlled by tuning flow rates of the [...] Read more.
This work aims to develop an original alginate micro-emulsion combining with droplets microfluidic method to produce multinuclear Ca-alginate microcapsules containing rejuvenator for the self-healing of bituminous binder. The sizes of the Ca-alginate microcapsules could be easily controlled by tuning flow rates of the continuous and dispersed phases. The addition of a surfactant Tween80 not only improved the stability of the emulsion, but it also effectively reduced the size of the microcapsules. Size predictive mathematical model of the microcapsules was proposed through the analysis of fluid force. Optical microscope and remote Fourier infrared test confirmed the multinuclear structure of Ca-alginate microcapsules. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the microcapsules coated with nearly 40% rejuvenator and they remained intact during the preparation of bitumen specimen at 135 °C. Micro self-healing process of bituminous binder with multinuclear Ca-alginate microcapsules containing rejuvenator was monitored and showed enhanced self-healing performance. Tensile stress-recovery test revealed that the recovery rate increased by 32.08% (in the case of 5% microcapsules), which meant that the Ca-alginate microcapsules containing rejuvenator could effectively enhance the self-healing property of bituminous binder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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