Special Issue "Properties of Amorphous Materials and Nanomaterials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Advanced Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Marcin Nabialek
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physics, Faculty of Production Engineering and Materials Technology; Częstochowa University of Technology, Czestochowa, Poland
Interests: amorphous materials; nanoscience; properties; magnetism; titanium alloys; biomaterials; methods of production of supercooled materials; foundry engineering; new technology; nanomaterials; annealing methods; materials science; physics; chemical engineering; engineering
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of Materials, “Properties of Amorphous Materials and Nanomaterials”, will be focused on unusual materials; namely ‘amorphous’ and ‘nanocrystalline’ materials. These types of materials are omnipresent in our lives. Everybody has heard of the words ‘amorphous’, or ‘nanocrystalline’. What makes these materials so unique that intensive research is undertaken into their design and manufacture? The reason is their exceptional properties, which are superior in comparison to their crystalline counterparts. Amorphous materials are usually the precursor for nanocrystalline material, and they often exhibit superior properties, too. The production of nanomaterial is difficult and requires well-designed process parameters. Currently, composite materials that are based on amorphous and nanocrystalline materials are very popular. Materials that are made in this way feature a major benefit—they can be easily formed, and, in many cases, their shape is the deciding factor with regard to applications. Undoubtedly, further developments in the field of materials science will be related to materials with better and better properties. Therefore, particular attention should be given to amorphous and nanocrystalline materials, and the composite materials based on them.

The objective of the current issue is to present the latest achievements from the field of amorphous, nanocrystalline, and amorphous-nanocrystalline composite materials. These materials feature in the mainstream of worldwide research in the field of metallic and composite materials. Their appropriate applications could positively affect the natural environment and decrease the depletion of natural resources. Materials with greater longevity are sought after by industry and they are the engine of the progress of civilization. Materials science, supported by physics and chemistry, could supply these materials. I am inviting you to publish the results of your research related to the subject of this issue.

Prof. Marcin Nabialek
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Amorphous materials
  • Nanomaterials
  • New technology
  • Unique properties
  • Special properties
  • High durability
  • Magnetic properties
  • Soft magnetic materials
  • Hard magnetic materials
  • Annealing process
  • Improvement of properties
  • Crystalline face
  • Crystalline grain

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Structural and Magnetic Studies of Bulk Nanocomposite Magnets Derived from Rapidly Solidified Pr-(Fe,Co)-(Zr,Nb)-B Alloy
Materials 2020, 13(7), 1515; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13071515 (registering DOI) - 26 Mar 2020
Abstract
In the present study, the phase constitution, microstructure and magnetic properties of the nanocrystalline magnets, derived from fully amorphous or partially crystalline samples by annealing, were analyzed and compared. The melt-spun ribbons (with a thickness of ~30 µm) and suction-cast 0.5 mm and [...] Read more.
In the present study, the phase constitution, microstructure and magnetic properties of the nanocrystalline magnets, derived from fully amorphous or partially crystalline samples by annealing, were analyzed and compared. The melt-spun ribbons (with a thickness of ~30 µm) and suction-cast 0.5 mm and 1 mm thick plates of the Pr9Fe50Co13Zr1Nb4B23 alloy were soft magnetic in the as-cast state. In order to modify their magnetic properties, the annealing process was carried out at various temperatures from 923K to 1033K for 5 min. The Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction patterns combined with the partial or no known crystal structures (PONKCS) method allowed one to quantify the component phases and calculate their crystalline grain sizes. It was shown that the volume fraction of constituent phases and their crystallite sizes for the samples annealed at a particular temperature, dependent on the rapid solidification conditions, and thus a presence or absence of the crystallization nuclei in the as-cast state. Additionally, a thermomagnetic analysis was used as a complementary method to confirm the phase constitution. The hysteresis loops have shown that most of the samples exhibit a remanence enhancement typical for the soft/hard magnetic nanocomposite. Moreover, for the plates annealed at the lowest temperatures, the highest coercivities up to ~1150 kA/m were measured. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Properties of Amorphous Materials and Nanomaterials)
Open AccessArticle
Melting and Recrystallization of Copper Nanoparticles Prepared by Microwave-Assisted Reduction in the Presence of Triethylenetetramine
Materials 2020, 13(7), 1507; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13071507 (registering DOI) - 26 Mar 2020
Abstract
The small sized copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs), prepared in the presence of triethylene tetramine (TETA) and assisted with microwave irradiation, have an extremely low melting temperature. Melting of the small sizezd Cu-NPs can be triggered by the heat generated from the e-beam irradiation during [...] Read more.
The small sized copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs), prepared in the presence of triethylene tetramine (TETA) and assisted with microwave irradiation, have an extremely low melting temperature. Melting of the small sizezd Cu-NPs can be triggered by the heat generated from the e-beam irradiation during SEM and TEM image construction. The dispersed Cu atoms around the agglomerated big Cu particles can undergo recrystallization immediately due to the strong driving force of the huge temperature difference to normal melting temperature (Tm = 1085 °C). Some of the Cu-NPs with bigger sizes also recrystallize and agglomerate into dense, big particles. According to X-ray diffraction patterns, these particles can agglomerate into compact, ordered Cu crystals in less than five minutes at 60 °C. The melting and recrystallization related endothermic and exothermic phase transitions of Cu-NPs can be found from differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) thermograms and optical microscopic pictures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Properties of Amorphous Materials and Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
The Process of Magnetizing FeNbYHfB Bulk Amorphous Alloys in Strong Magnetic Fields
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1367; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061367 - 18 Mar 2020
Abstract
The structure of amorphous alloys still has not been described satisfactorily due to the lack of direct methods for observing structural defects. The magnetizing process of amorphous alloys is closely related to its disordered structure. The sensitivity of the magnetization vector to any [...] Read more.
The structure of amorphous alloys still has not been described satisfactorily due to the lack of direct methods for observing structural defects. The magnetizing process of amorphous alloys is closely related to its disordered structure. The sensitivity of the magnetization vector to any heterogeneity allows indirect assessment of the structure of amorphous ferromagnetic alloys. In strong magnetic fields, the magnetization process involves the rotation of a magnetization vector around point and line defects. Based on analysis of primary magnetization curves, it is possible to identify the type of these defects. This paper presents the results of research into the magnetization process of amorphous alloys that are based on iron, in the areas called the approach to ferromagnetic saturation and the Holstein–Primakoff para-process. The structure of a range of specially produced materials was examined using X-ray diffraction. Primary magnetization curves were measured over the range of 0 to 2 T. The process of magnetizing all of the tested alloys was associated with the presence of linear defects, satisfying the relationship Ddi p < 1H. It was found that the addition of yttrium, at the expense of hafnium, impedes the magnetization process. The alloy with an atomic content of Y = 10% was characterized by the highest saturation magnetization value and the lowest value of the Dspf parameter, which may indicate the occurrence of antiferromagnetic ordering in certain regions of this alloy sample. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Properties of Amorphous Materials and Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Study of Si and Ge Atoms Termination Using H-Dilution in SiGe:H Alloys Deposited by Radio Frequency (13.56 MHz) Plasma Discharge at Low Temperature
Materials 2020, 13(5), 1045; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13051045 - 26 Feb 2020
Abstract
In this work, we present the study of the atomic composition in amorphous SiXGeY:HZ films deposited by radio frequency (RF—13.56 MHz) plasma discharge at low deposition temperature. A study and control of Si and Ge atoms termination using [...] Read more.
In this work, we present the study of the atomic composition in amorphous SiXGeY:HZ films deposited by radio frequency (RF—13.56 MHz) plasma discharge at low deposition temperature. A study and control of Si and Ge atoms termination using H-dilution in SiGe:H alloys deposited by RF plasma discharge was conducted and we made a comparison with low-frequency plasma discharge studies. Solid contents of the main elements and contaminants were determined by SIMS technique. It was found that for low dilution rates from RH = 9 to 30, the germanium content in the solid phase strongly depends on the hydrogen dilution and varies from Y = 0.49 to 0.68. On the other hand, with a higher presence of hydrogen in the mixture, the germanium content does not change and remains close to the value of Y = 0.69. The coefficient of Ge preferential incorporation depended on RH and varied from PGe = 0.8 to 4.3. Also, the termination of Si and Ge atoms with hydrogen was studied using FTIR spectroscopy. Preferential termination of Si atoms was observed in the films deposited with low RH < 20, while preferential termination of Ge atoms was found in the films deposited with high RH > 40. In the range of 20 < RH < 40, hydrogen created chemical bonds with both Si and Ge atoms without preference. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Properties of Amorphous Materials and Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Graphene Oxide Modified with Organic Amine on the Aging Resistance, Rolling Loss and Wet-Skid Resistance of Solution Polymerized Styrene-Butadiene Rubber
Materials 2020, 13(5), 1025; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13051025 - 25 Feb 2020
Abstract
Graphene oxide (GO) was modified by p-phenylenediamine (PPD), aiming at improving the wet-skid resistance and reduce the rolling loss of solution polymerized styrene-butadiene rubber (SSBR). PPD with amino groups enabled GO to obtain anti-aging function. The structure of modified GO (PPD-GO) was characterized [...] Read more.
Graphene oxide (GO) was modified by p-phenylenediamine (PPD), aiming at improving the wet-skid resistance and reduce the rolling loss of solution polymerized styrene-butadiene rubber (SSBR). PPD with amino groups enabled GO to obtain anti-aging function. The structure of modified GO (PPD-GO) was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Mechanical tests showed that the mechanical properties of SSBR before and after aging were improved by adding PPD-GO. The results of thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimeter synchronization analysis (TGA-DSC) indicated that SSBR/PPD-GO obtained good thermo-oxidative stability. The dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) of SSBR composites showed that the mechanical loss factor (tanδ) peak moved to high temperature with the content of PPD-GO. The tanδ values of SSBR composites showed that it had a good effect on improving the wet-skid resistance and reducing the rolling loss of SSBR by adjusting the content of PPD-GO. In particular, with the addition of 4 phr GO, SSBR was effectively improved in mechanical properties, aging resistance, wet-skid resistance and low rolling loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Properties of Amorphous Materials and Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
The Magnetisation Process of Bulk Amorphous Alloys: Fe36+xCo36−xY8B20, Where: x = 0, 3, 7, or 12
Materials 2020, 13(4), 846; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13040846 - 13 Feb 2020
Abstract
Amorphous Fe- and Co-based alloys possess so-called soft magnetic properties. Due to the high sensitivity of the magnetisation vector to any inhomogeneities occurring in these alloys, it is possible to assess indirectly structural defects. This paper presents the results of research on the [...] Read more.
Amorphous Fe- and Co-based alloys possess so-called soft magnetic properties. Due to the high sensitivity of the magnetisation vector to any inhomogeneities occurring in these alloys, it is possible to assess indirectly structural defects. This paper presents the results of research on the structure and magnetic properties of bulk amorphous alloys with a high content of Fe and Co. The magnetic properties of the produced alloys were tested using a Faraday magnetic balance and a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Analysis of the magnetisation process in the region known as the approach to ferromagnetic saturation was carried out in accordance with Kronmüller’s theorem. Magnetisation in magnetic fields of greater than the effective anisotropy field (Holstein-Primakoff para-process) was also studied. For the studied alloys, it was found that an increase in Fe content causesan increase in saturation magnetisation, and decreases in the values of the coercive field and thespin-wave stiffness parameter, Dspf. A relationship was observed between the width of the amorphous halo and the value of the coercive field. However, no significant links were found between either the presence of structural defects and the properties of these materials, or between the Co content and the value of the coercive field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Properties of Amorphous Materials and Nanomaterials)
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