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Advanced Biomaterials for Medical Applications

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 May 2023) | Viewed by 54462

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Silesian University of Technology, Konarskiego 18a Str., 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
Interests: materials engineering; polymer materials; polymer matrix composites; biomaterials; biodegradable materials; injection molding

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The growing pressure on today’s engineers for creative engineering design is commonplace. Along with growing social expectations for more perfect and reliable products, this fosters an environment for the interdisciplinary approach to structural, material, and technological design. When receiving a specific task to meet a clearly defined need, today’s engineer must pay attention to the shape of the element as well as to how the product will be made, thus determining the functional and operational properties of the finished product.

Modern biomaterials are entirely in line with this trend. The need for continuous development and a multilevel approach to the problems of modern medicine requires the use of advanced engineering materials.

Contemporary biomaterials combine many features, both material and functional, which must precisely meet specific needs. Obtaining this type of material and giving it the appropriate features requires the solving of numerous tasks and much research, all of which can be shared in this Special Issue. Aiming to highlight this concept, this Special Issue will focus on advanced biomaterials their modification, production, and research.

I kindly invite you to submit a manuscript for this Special Issue. Full papers, communications, and reviews are all welcome.

Dr. Agnieszka J. Nowak
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biomaterials
  • composites
  • polymers
  • ceramics
  • metals
  • nanomaterials
  • biomaterial design
  • biomaterial manufacturing
  • biomaterial modification
  • biomaterial applications
  • implants
  • prostheses
  • scaffold
  • soft materials
  • bioprinting

Published Papers (21 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 10568 KiB  
Article
Static and Fatigue Mechanical Performance of Abutments Materials for Dental Restorations
by Luigi Bruno, Luigi Canullo, Yaniv Mayer, Todd Schoenbaum, Francesco Giuzio and Carmine Maletta
Materials 2023, 16(10), 3713; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16103713 - 13 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1306
Abstract
The choice of the proper restorative material is essential for the long-term success of implant-supported rehabilitations. This study aimed to analyze and compare the mechanical properties of four different types of commercial abutment materials for implant-supported restorations. These materials included: lithium disilicate (A), [...] Read more.
The choice of the proper restorative material is essential for the long-term success of implant-supported rehabilitations. This study aimed to analyze and compare the mechanical properties of four different types of commercial abutment materials for implant-supported restorations. These materials included: lithium disilicate (A), translucent zirconia (B), fiber-reinforced polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) (C), and ceramic-reinforced polyether ether ketone (PEEK) (D). Tests were carried out under combined bending–compression conditions, which involved applying a compressive force tilted with respect to the abutment axis. Static and fatigue tests were performed on two different geometries for each material, and the results were analyzed according to ISO standard 14801:2016. Monotonic loads were applied to measure static strength, whereas alternating loads with a frequency of 10 Hz and a runout of 5 × 106 cycles were applied for fatigue life estimation, corresponding to five years of clinical service. Fatigue tests were carried out with a load ratio of 0.1 and at least four load levels for each material, and the peak value of the load levels was reduced accordingly in subsequent levels. The results showed that the static and fatigue strengths of Type A and Type B materials were better than those of Type C and Type D. Moreover, the fiber-reinforced polymer material, Type C, showed marked material–geometry coupling. The study revealed that the final properties of the restoration depended on manufacturing techniques and the operator’s experience. The findings of this study can be used to inform clinicians’ choice of restorative materials for implant-supported rehabilitation, considering factors such as esthetics, mechanical properties, and cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biomaterials for Medical Applications)
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10 pages, 8687 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Activity and Cytotoxicity of Prepolymer Allyl 2-cyanoacrylate and 2-Octyl Cyanoacrylate Mixture Adhesives for Topical Wound Closure
by Soyeon Oh, Dae-Hyun Hahm and Yong-Bok Choi
Materials 2023, 16(9), 3427; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16093427 - 27 Apr 2023
Viewed by 978
Abstract
The development of a new skin adhesive that can be used inside and outside the body, which prevents infection and has fewer scars and less side effects, is currently attracting attention from the scientific community. To improve biocompatibility, prepolymer allyl 2-cyanoacrylate (PAC) and [...] Read more.
The development of a new skin adhesive that can be used inside and outside the body, which prevents infection and has fewer scars and less side effects, is currently attracting attention from the scientific community. To improve biocompatibility, prepolymer allyl 2-cyanoacrylate (PAC) and 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (OC) were mixed in various proportions and tested for their therapeutic potential as skin adhesives. A series of skin adhesive samples prepared by mixing PAC, OC, and additives with % (w/w) ratios of 100:0:0, 0:100:0, 70:0:30, 40:30:30, and 30:40:30 were tested to determine their antimicrobial activity, cell cytotoxicity, and formaldehyde release. The additives include myristic acid and dibutyl sebacate as plasticizers and butylated hydroxyanisole as an antioxidant. It was observed that the samples containing 70% PAC (PAC7) or 40% PAC (PAC4) with 30% additives had the highest antimicrobial activities against various microbial cells and no cytotoxicity regarding in vitro fibroblast cell growth. In addition, these formulations of adhesive samples released formaldehyde within the levels permitted for medical devices. Taken together, the mixture of PAC and OC as a topical skin adhesive for wound closure was found to be biocompatible, mechanically stable and safe, as well as effective for wound healing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biomaterials for Medical Applications)
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18 pages, 22358 KiB  
Article
Nano-Hybrid Ag@LCCs Systems with Potential Wound-Healing Properties
by Carmelo Corsaro, Marcello Condorelli, Antonio Speciale, Francesco Cimino, Giuseppe Forte, Francesco Barreca, Salvatore Spadaro, Claudia Muscarà, Manuela D’Arrigo, Giovanni Toscano, Luisa D’Urso, Giuseppe Compagnini, Fortunato Neri, Antonina Saija and Enza Fazio
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2435; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062435 - 18 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1335
Abstract
The synthesis of contaminant-free silver@linear carbon chains (Ag@LCCs) nanohybrid systems, at different Ag/LCCs ratios, by pulsed laser ablation was studied. The ablation products were first characterized by several diagnostic techniques: conventional UV–Vis optical absorption and micro-Raman spectroscopies, as well as scanning electron microscopy, [...] Read more.
The synthesis of contaminant-free silver@linear carbon chains (Ag@LCCs) nanohybrid systems, at different Ag/LCCs ratios, by pulsed laser ablation was studied. The ablation products were first characterized by several diagnostic techniques: conventional UV–Vis optical absorption and micro-Raman spectroscopies, as well as scanning electron microscopy, operating in transmission mode. The experimental evidence was confirmed by the theoretical simulations’ data. Furthermore, to gain a deeper insight into the factors influencing metal@LCCs biological responses in relation to their physical properties, in this work, we investigated the bioproperties of the Ag@LCCs nanosystems towards a wound-healing activity. We found that Ag@LCC nanohybrids maintain good antibacterial properties and possess a better capability, in comparison with Ag NPs, of interacting with mammalian cells, allowing us to hypothesize that mainly the Ag@LCCs 3:1 might be suitable for topical application in wound healing, independent of (or in addition to) the antibacterial effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biomaterials for Medical Applications)
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11 pages, 2356 KiB  
Article
Antibacterial Activity of Copper Particles Embedded in Knitted Fabrics
by Remigijus Ivanauskas, Asta Bronusiene, Algimantas Ivanauskas, Antanas Šarkinas and Ingrida Ancutiene
Materials 2022, 15(20), 7147; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15207147 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1316
Abstract
The composition and antibacterial properties of copper particles synthesized by a very simple reduction method were studied. For the preparation of particles in knitted fabrics, copper(II) sulfate was used as a precursor and ascorbic acid as a reducing natural agent. X-ray diffraction analysis [...] Read more.
The composition and antibacterial properties of copper particles synthesized by a very simple reduction method were studied. For the preparation of particles in knitted fabrics, copper(II) sulfate was used as a precursor and ascorbic acid as a reducing natural agent. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the crystalline nature of the obtained particles. The round or oval particles and their agglomerates in knitted fabrics consisted of copper with traces of copper(I) oxide—cuprite. The element maps and energy dispersive X-ray spectra showed a high content of copper in the samples. The samples of wool and cotton knitted fabrics with copper particles had excellent antibacterial activity against gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterial strains. The maximum zones of inhibition were 19.3 mm for S. aureus and 18.3 mm for E. coli using wool knitted fabric and 14.7 mm and 15.3 mm using cotton knitted fabric, respectively. The obtained results showed that the modified wool and cotton fabrics are suitable for use as inserts in reusable masks due to their noticeable and long-term activity against pathogenic bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biomaterials for Medical Applications)
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15 pages, 5202 KiB  
Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Calcium Carbonate Obtained from Green Mussel and Crab Shells as a Biomaterials Candidate
by Rifky Ismail, Tezara Cionita, Wong Ling Shing, Deni Fajar Fitriyana, Januar Parlaungan Siregar, Athanasius Priharyoto Bayuseno, Fariz Wisda Nugraha, Rilo Chandra Muhamadin, Ramli Junid and Nor Azam Endot
Materials 2022, 15(16), 5712; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15165712 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 5073
Abstract
Green mussel and crab shells are natural sources of CaCO3, which is widely used as a bioceramic for biomedical applications, although they are commonly disposed of in landfills. The improper disposal of green mussel and crab shells can cause environmental pollution, [...] Read more.
Green mussel and crab shells are natural sources of CaCO3, which is widely used as a bioceramic for biomedical applications, although they are commonly disposed of in landfills. The improper disposal of green mussel and crab shells can cause environmental pollution, reducing the quality of life in the community. Many studies have reported the preparation of CaCO3 from green mussels and crab shells. However, there are limited studies comparing the characteristics, including the crystal phase obtained, weight percentage (%) of crystal, crystal size, crystal system, and elemental composition of CaCO3 from green mussel shells, crab shells, and commercial CaCO3. The objective of this research was to compare the calcium carbonate properties formed from green mussel (PMS) and crab (PCS) shells to commercial CaCO3. Green mussel and crab shells were crushed to powder and were calcined at 900 °C for 5 h. Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC) was synthesized from calcined green mussel and crab shells using a solution of 2M HNO3, NH4OH, and CO2 gas. The effect of setting parameters on the synthesized product was analyzed using XRD and SEM-EDX methods. This study shows that the chemical composition of PMS is nearly identical to that of commercial CaCO3, where no contaminants were identified. In contrast, PCS has N components other than Ca, C, and O. Furthermore, the predominance of the vaterite crystal phases in PMS and PCS, with respective weight percentages of 91.2% and 98.9%, provides a benefit for biomaterial applications. The crystallite sizes of vaterite in PMS, PCS, and calcite in commercial CaCO3 are 34 nm, 21 nm, and 15 nm, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biomaterials for Medical Applications)
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15 pages, 3259 KiB  
Article
Tribocorrosion Behavior of NiTi Biomedical Alloy Processed by an Additive Manufacturing Laser Beam Directed Energy Deposition Technique
by Mihaela Buciumeanu, Allen Bagheri, Filipe Samuel Silva, Bruno Henriques, Andrés F. Lasagni and Nima Shamsaei
Materials 2022, 15(2), 691; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15020691 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2689
Abstract
The purpose of the present study was to experimentally assess the synergistic effects of wear and corrosion on NiTi alloy in comparison with Ti-6Al-4V alloy, the most extensively used titanium alloy in biomedical applications. Both alloys were processed by an additive manufacturing laser [...] Read more.
The purpose of the present study was to experimentally assess the synergistic effects of wear and corrosion on NiTi alloy in comparison with Ti-6Al-4V alloy, the most extensively used titanium alloy in biomedical applications. Both alloys were processed by an additive manufacturing laser beam directed energy deposition (LB-DED) technique, namely laser engineered net shaping (LENS), and analyzed via tribocorrosion tests by using the ball-on-plate configuration. The tests were carried out in phosphate buffered saline solution at 37 °C under open circuit potential (OCP) to simulate the body environment and temperature. The synergistic effect of wear and corrosion was found to result in an improved wear resistance in both materials. It was also observed that, for the process parameters used, the LB-DED NiTi alloy exhibits a lower tendency to corrosion as compared to the LB-DED Ti-6Al-4V alloy. It is expected that, during the service life as an implant, the NiTi alloy is less susceptible to the metallic ions release when compared with the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biomaterials for Medical Applications)
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19 pages, 28086 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Effects of Si Addition to a New TiMoZrTa System
by Mihaela-Claudia Spataru, Florina Daniela Cojocaru, Andrei Victor Sandu, Carmen Solcan, Ioana Alexandra Duceac, Madalina Simona Baltatu, Ionelia Voiculescu, Victor Geanta and Petrica Vizureanu
Materials 2021, 14(24), 7610; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14247610 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2178
Abstract
Ti-based alloys are widely used in medical applications. When implant devices are used to reconstruct disordered bone, prevent bone resorption and enhance good bone remodeling, the Young’s modulus of implants should be close to that of the bone. To satisfy this requirement, many [...] Read more.
Ti-based alloys are widely used in medical applications. When implant devices are used to reconstruct disordered bone, prevent bone resorption and enhance good bone remodeling, the Young’s modulus of implants should be close to that of the bone. To satisfy this requirement, many titanium alloys with different biocompatible elements (Zr, Ta, Mo, Si etc.) interact well with adjacent bone tissues, promoting an adequate osseointegration. Four new different alloys were obtained and investigated regarding their microstructure, mechanical, chemical and biological behavior (in vitro and in vivo evaluation), as follows: Ti20Mo7Zr15Ta, Ti20Mo7Zr15Ta0.5Si, Ti20Mo7Zr15Ta0.75Si and Ti20Mo7Zr15TaSi. 60 days after implantation, both in control and experimental rabbits, at the level of implantation gap and into the periimplant area were found the mesenchymal stem cells which differentiate into osteoblasts, then osteocytes and osteoclasts which are involved in the new bone synthesis and remodeling, the periimplant fibrous capsule being continued by newly spongy bone tissue, showing a good osseointegration of alloys. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay confirmed the in vitro cytocompatibility of the prepared alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biomaterials for Medical Applications)
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13 pages, 4568 KiB  
Article
The Effect of the Corrosion Medium on Silane Coatings Deposited on Titanium Grade 2 and Titanium Alloy Ti13Nb13Zr
by Oliwia Kierat, Agata Dudek and Lidia Adamczyk
Materials 2021, 14(21), 6350; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216350 - 24 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1502
Abstract
The present paper focuses on the fabrication of coatings based on vinyltrimethoxysilane and the influence of various corrosion media on the coatings produced. Coatings were deposited on two substrate materials, namely, titanium Grade 2 and titanium alloy Ti13Nb13Zr, by immersion in a solution [...] Read more.
The present paper focuses on the fabrication of coatings based on vinyltrimethoxysilane and the influence of various corrosion media on the coatings produced. Coatings were deposited on two substrate materials, namely, titanium Grade 2 and titanium alloy Ti13Nb13Zr, by immersion in a solution containing vinyltrimethoxysilane, anhydrous ethyl alcohol, acetic acid and distilled water. The obtained coatings were characterized in terms of surface morphology, adhesion to the substrate and corrosion resistance. As corrosion solutions, four different simulated physiological fluids, which differed in the contents of individual ions, and a 1 mol dm−3 NaBr solution were used. The chloride ions contained in the simulated physiological fluids did not lead to pitting corrosion of titanium Grade 2 and titanium alloy Ti13Nb13Zr. This investigation shows that titanium undergoes pitting corrosion in a bromide ion medium. It is demonstrated that the investigated coatings slow down corrosion processes in all corrosion media examined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biomaterials for Medical Applications)
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15 pages, 3670 KiB  
Article
Influence of the Halloysite Nanotube (HNT) Addition on Selected Mechanical and Biological Properties of Thermoplastic Polyurethane
by Maciej Mrówka, Małgorzata Szymiczek, Tomasz Machoczek and Mirosława Pawlyta
Materials 2021, 14(13), 3625; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14133625 - 29 Jun 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2049
Abstract
Halloysite nanotube (HNT) additions to the thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) system were thoroughly evaluated in this study. The resultant composites have been designed for future personalized intervertebral disc implant applications, which requires additional technology to obtain the appropriate geometry unique to each patient. These [...] Read more.
Halloysite nanotube (HNT) additions to the thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) system were thoroughly evaluated in this study. The resultant composites have been designed for future personalized intervertebral disc implant applications, which requires additional technology to obtain the appropriate geometry unique to each patient. These requirements can be fulfilled using 3D printing. In this work, a technology was developed to produce filaments for fused deposition modeling (FDM). Nanocomposites were prepared using variable HNT content (1, 2, and 3 wt.%). The nanostructure of the resultant composites was confirmed using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Mechanical tests were used to measure the tensile modulus, stress, and elongation the composites and TPU matrix. Nanocomposites with 2% HNT content were able to withstand 26% increased stress and 50% increased elongation compared to pure TPU before fracturing in addition to a 13% reduction in the friction coefficient. A MTT cytotoxicity assay confirmed the cytotoxicity of all tested materials against human epidermal keratinocyte cells (HaCaT). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biomaterials for Medical Applications)
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19 pages, 9971 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Behavior of Bi-Layer and Dispersion Coatings Composed of Several Nanostructures on Ti13Nb13Zr Alloy
by Dorota Rogala-Wielgus, Beata Majkowska-Marzec, Andrzej Zieliński, Michał Bartmański and Bartosz Bartosewicz
Materials 2021, 14(11), 2905; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14112905 - 28 May 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2291
Abstract
Titanium implants are commonly used because of several advantages, but their surface modification is necessary to enhance bioactivity. Recently, their surface coatings were developed to induce local antibacterial properties. The aim of this research was to investigate and compare mechanical properties of three [...] Read more.
Titanium implants are commonly used because of several advantages, but their surface modification is necessary to enhance bioactivity. Recently, their surface coatings were developed to induce local antibacterial properties. The aim of this research was to investigate and compare mechanical properties of three coatings: multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), bi-layer composed of an inner MWCNTs layer and an outer TiO2 layer, and dispersion coatings comprised of simultaneously deposited MWCNTs and nanoCu, each electrophoretically deposited on the Ti13Nb13Zr alloy. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray electron diffraction spectroscopy, and nanoindentation technique were applied to study topography, chemical composition, hardness, plastic and elastic properties. The results demonstrate that the addition of nanocopper or titanium dioxide to MWCNTs coating increases hardness, lowers Young’s modulus, improves plastic and elastic properties, wear resistance under deflection, and plastic deformation resistance. The results can be attributed to different properties, structure and geometry of applied particles, various deposition techniques, and the possible appearance of porous structures. These innovative coatings of simultaneously high strength and elasticity are promising to apply for deposition on long-term titanium implants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biomaterials for Medical Applications)
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12 pages, 1313 KiB  
Article
Hemolysis of Human Erythrocytes by Argovit™ AgNPs from Healthy and Diabetic Donors: An In Vitro Study
by Roberto Luna-Vázquez-Gómez, María Evarista Arellano-García, Juan Carlos García-Ramos, Patricia Radilla-Chávez, David Sergio Salas-Vargas, Francisco Casillas-Figueroa, Balam Ruiz-Ruiz, Nina Bogdanchikova and Alexey Pestryakov
Materials 2021, 14(11), 2792; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14112792 - 24 May 2021
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 4166
Abstract
The use of nanomaterials is becoming increasingly widespread, leading to substantial research focused on nanomedicine. Nevertheless, the lack of complete toxicity profiles limits nanomaterials’ uses, despite their remarkable diagnostic and therapeutic results on in vitro and in vivo models. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), particularly [...] Read more.
The use of nanomaterials is becoming increasingly widespread, leading to substantial research focused on nanomedicine. Nevertheless, the lack of complete toxicity profiles limits nanomaterials’ uses, despite their remarkable diagnostic and therapeutic results on in vitro and in vivo models. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), particularly Argovit™, have shown microbicidal, virucidal, and antitumoral effects. Among the first-line toxicity tests is the hemolysis assay. Here, the hemolytic effect of Argovit™ AgNPs on erythrocytes from one healthy donor (HDE) and one diabetic donor (DDE) is evaluated by the hemolysis assay against AgNO3. The results showed that Argovit™, in concentrations ≤24 µg/mL of metallic silver, did not show a hemolytic effect on the HDE or DDE. On the contrary, AgNO3 at the same concentration of silver ions produces more than 10% hemolysis in both the erythrocyte types. In all the experimental conditions assessed, the DDE was shown to be more prone to hemolysis than the HDE elicited by Ag+ ions or AgNPs, but much more evident with Ag+ ions. The results show that Argovit™ is the least hemolytic compared with the other twenty-two AgNP formulations previously reported, probably due to the polymer mass used to stabilize the Argovit™ formulation. The results obtained provide relevant information that contributes to obtaining a comprehensive toxicological profile to design safe and effective AgNP formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biomaterials for Medical Applications)
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20 pages, 21959 KiB  
Article
Gelatin reduced Graphene Oxide Nanosheets as Kartogenin Nanocarrier Induces Rat ADSCs Chondrogenic Differentiation Combining with Autophagy Modification
by Delong Jiao, Jing Wang, Wenting Yu, Ning Zhang, Ke Zhang and Yuxing Bai
Materials 2021, 14(5), 1053; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14051053 - 24 Feb 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2428
Abstract
Biocompatible reduced graphene oxide (rGO) could deliver drugs for synergistically stimulating stem cells directed differentiation with influences on specific cellular activities. Here, we prepared a biodegradable gelatin reduced graphene oxide (rGO@Ge) to evaluate its functions in promoting rat adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells [...] Read more.
Biocompatible reduced graphene oxide (rGO) could deliver drugs for synergistically stimulating stem cells directed differentiation with influences on specific cellular activities. Here, we prepared a biodegradable gelatin reduced graphene oxide (rGO@Ge) to evaluate its functions in promoting rat adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) chondrogenic differentiation through delivering kartogenin (KGN) into the stem cell efficiently. The optimum KGN concentration (approximately 1 μM) that promoted the proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of ADSCs was clarified by a series of experiments, including immunofluorescent (IF) staining (Sox-9, Col II), alcian blue (Ab) staining, toluidine blue (Tb) staining and real-time quantitative PCR analysis of the chondrogenic markers. Meanwhile, the biocompatibility of rGO@Ge was evaluated to clearly define the nonhazardous concentration range, and the drug loading and releasing properties of rGO@Ge were tested with KGN for its further application in inducing ADSCs chondrogenic differentiation. Furthermore, the mechanism of rGO@Ge entering ADSCs was investigated by the different inhibitors that are involved in the endocytosis of the nanocarrier, and the degradation of the rGO@Ge in ADSCs was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The synergistic promoting effect of rGO@Ge nanocarrier on ADSCs chondrogenesis with KGN was also studied by the IF, Ab, Tb stainings and PCR analysis of the chondrogenic markers. Finally, the intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and autophagy induced by KGN/rGO@Ge complex composites were tested in details for clarification on the correlation between the autophagy and chondrogenesis in ADSCs induced by rGO@Ge. All the results show that rGO@Ge as a biocompatible nanocarrier can deliver KGN into ADSCs for exerting a pro-chondrogenic effect and assist the drug to promote ADSCs chondrogenesis synergistically through modification of the autophagy in vitro, which promised its further application in repairing cartilage defect in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biomaterials for Medical Applications)
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13 pages, 5731 KiB  
Article
Laser Superficial Fusion of Gold Nanoparticles with PEEK Polymer for Cardiovascular Application
by Oktawian Bialas, Mateusz Lis, Anna Woźniak and Marcin Adamiak
Materials 2021, 14(4), 971; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14040971 - 18 Feb 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2651
Abstract
This paper analyses the possibility of obtaining surface-infused nano gold particles with the polyether ether ketone (PEEK) using picosecond laser treatment. To fuse particles into polymer, the raw surface of PEEK was sputtered with 99.99% Au and micromachined by an A-355 laser device [...] Read more.
This paper analyses the possibility of obtaining surface-infused nano gold particles with the polyether ether ketone (PEEK) using picosecond laser treatment. To fuse particles into polymer, the raw surface of PEEK was sputtered with 99.99% Au and micromachined by an A-355 laser device for gold particle size reduction. Biomimetic pattern and parameters optimization were key properties of the design for biomedical application. The structures were investigated by employing surface topography in the presence of micron and sub-micron features. The energy of the laser beam stating the presence of polymer bond thermalisation with remelting due to high temperature was also taken into the account. The process was suited to avoid intensive surface modification that could compromise the mechanical properties of fragile cardiovascular devices. The initial material analysis was conducted by power–depth dependence using confocal microscopy. The evaluation of gold particle size reduction was performed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), secondary electron (SE) and quadrant backscatter electron detector (QBSD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The visibility of the constituted coating was checked by a commercial grade X-ray that is commonly used in hospitals. Attempts to reduce deposited gold coating to the size of Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) and to fuse them into the groove using a laser beam have been successfully completed. The relationship between the laser power and the characteristics of the particles remaining in the laser irradiation area has been established. A significant increase in quantity was achieved using laser power with a minimum power of 15 mW. The obtained results allowed for the continuation of the pilot study for augmented research and material properties analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biomaterials for Medical Applications)
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17 pages, 3352 KiB  
Article
Biological Safety Evaluation and Surface Modification of Biocompatible Ti–15Zr–4Nb Alloy
by Yoshimitsu Okazaki and Shin-ichi Katsuda
Materials 2021, 14(4), 731; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14040731 - 04 Feb 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2256
Abstract
We performed biological safety evaluation tests of three Ti–Zr alloys under accelerated extraction condition. We also conducted histopathological analysis of long-term implantation of pure V, Al, Ni, Zr, Nb, and Ta metals as well as Ni–Ti and high-V-containing Ti–15V–3Al–3Sn alloys in rats. The [...] Read more.
We performed biological safety evaluation tests of three Ti–Zr alloys under accelerated extraction condition. We also conducted histopathological analysis of long-term implantation of pure V, Al, Ni, Zr, Nb, and Ta metals as well as Ni–Ti and high-V-containing Ti–15V–3Al–3Sn alloys in rats. The effect of the dental implant (screw) shape on morphometrical parameters was investigated using rabbits. Moreover, we examined the maximum pullout properties of grit-blasted Ti–Zr alloys after their implantation in rabbits. The biological safety evaluation tests of three Ti–Zr alloys (Ti–15Zr–4Nb, Ti–15Zr–4Nb–1Ta, and Ti–15Zr–4Nb–4Ta) showed no adverse (negative) effects of either normal or accelerated extraction. No bone was formed around the pure V and Ni implants. The Al, Zr, Nb, and Ni–Ti implants were surrounded by new bone. The new bone formed around Ti–Ni and high-V-containing Ti alloys tended to be thinner than that formed around Ti–Zr and Ti–6Al–4V alloys. The rate of bone formation on the threaded portion in the Ti–15Zr–4Nb–4Ta dental implant was the same as that on a smooth surface. The maximum pullout loads of the grit- and shot-blasted Ti–Zr alloys increased linearly with implantation period in rabbits. The pullout load of grit-blasted Ti–Zr alloy rods was higher than that of shot-blasted ones. The surface roughness (Ra) and area ratio of residual Al2O3 particles of the Ti–15Zr–4Nb alloy surface grit-blasted with Al2O3 particles were the same as those of the grit-blasted Alloclassic stem surface. It was clarified that the grit-blasted Ti–15Zr–4Nb alloy could be used for artificial hip joint stems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biomaterials for Medical Applications)
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21 pages, 33034 KiB  
Article
Development of Bacterial Cellulose Biocomposites Combined with Starch and Collagen and Evaluation of Their Properties
by Silmar Baptista Nunes, Katharine Valéria Saraiva Hodel, Giulia da Costa Sacramento, Pollyana da Silva Melo, Fernando Luiz Pellegrini Pessoa, Josiane Dantas Viana Barbosa, Roberto Badaró and Bruna Aparecida Souza Machado
Materials 2021, 14(2), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14020458 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2914
Abstract
One of the major benefits of biomedicine is the use of biocomposites as wound dressings to help improve the treatment of injuries. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to develop and characterize biocomposites based on bacterial cellulose (BC) with different concentrations [...] Read more.
One of the major benefits of biomedicine is the use of biocomposites as wound dressings to help improve the treatment of injuries. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to develop and characterize biocomposites based on bacterial cellulose (BC) with different concentrations of collagen and starch and characterize their thermal, morphological, mechanical, physical, and barrier properties. In total, nine samples were produced with fixed amounts of glycerol and BC and variations in the amount of collagen and starch. The water activity (0.400–0.480), water solubility (12.94–69.7%), moisture (10.75–20.60%), thickness (0.04–0.11 mm), water vapor permeability (5.59–14.06 × 10−8 g·mm/m2·h·Pa), grammage (8.91–39.58 g·cm−2), opacity (8.37–36.67 Abs 600 nm·mm−1), elongation (4.81–169.54%), and tensile strength (0.99–16.32 MPa) were evaluated and defined. In addition, scanning electron microscopy showed that adding biopolymers in the cellulose matrix made the surface compact, which also influenced the visual appearance. Thus, the performance of the biocomposites was directly influenced by their composition. The performance of the different samples obtained resulted in them having different potentials for application considering the injury type. This provides a solution for the ineffectiveness of traditional dressings, which is one of the great problems of the biomedical sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biomaterials for Medical Applications)
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15 pages, 4941 KiB  
Article
Effect of Nitrided and Nitrocarburised Austenite on Pitting and Crevice Corrosion Resistance of 316 LVM Steel Implants
by Anita Kajzer, Magdalena Ceglarska, Nika Sura, Wojciech Kajzer, Tomasz Borowski, Michał Tarnowski and Zbigniew Pilecki
Materials 2020, 13(23), 5484; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13235484 - 01 Dec 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1964
Abstract
Harmful lesions occur in the body around multielement stabilisers made of AISI 316 LVM (Low Vacuum Melted) steel, caused by products of pitting, fretting or crevice corrosion. Preventing the effect is possible by modifying the surface of the steel implants. Therefore, the goal [...] Read more.
Harmful lesions occur in the body around multielement stabilisers made of AISI 316 LVM (Low Vacuum Melted) steel, caused by products of pitting, fretting or crevice corrosion. Preventing the effect is possible by modifying the surface of the steel implants. Therefore, the goal of the paper is the comparison of the mechanical and physiochemical properties of plates for treating deformations of the anterior chest wall made of AISI 316 LVM steel, subjected to diffusion and sterilisation processes and exposed to Ringer’s solution. The surface of the implants was subjected to electrochemical polishing, chemical passivation and, in order to modify their properties, nitrocarburised and nitrided diffusion layers were created on selected stabilisers under glow discharge conditions with the use of an active screen at a temperature of 420 °C, over 60 min. The conducted studies involved the examination of the microstructure of the formed layers, surface roughness testing, analysis of contact angles and surface free energy, examination of resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion and examination of nanohardness. On the basis of the results of the conducted studies, it was established that the most advantageous set of properties after sterilisation and exposure to Ringer’s solution was displayed by implants with a formed diffusion nitrocarburised layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biomaterials for Medical Applications)
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16 pages, 8415 KiB  
Article
Chitosan-Based Thermo-Sensitive Hydrogel Loading Oyster Peptides for Hemostasis Application
by Dongying Zhang, Zhang Hu, Lingyu Zhang, Sitong Lu, Fengyan Liang and Sidong Li
Materials 2020, 13(21), 5038; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13215038 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 3416
Abstract
Uncontrolled massive hemorrhage is one of the principal causes of death in trauma emergencies. By using catechol-modified chitosan (CS-C) as the matrix material and β glycerol phosphate (β-GP) as a thermo-sensitive agent, chitosan-based thermo-sensitive hydrogel loading oyster peptides (CS-C/OP/β-GP) were prepared at physiological [...] Read more.
Uncontrolled massive hemorrhage is one of the principal causes of death in trauma emergencies. By using catechol-modified chitosan (CS-C) as the matrix material and β glycerol phosphate (β-GP) as a thermo-sensitive agent, chitosan-based thermo-sensitive hydrogel loading oyster peptides (CS-C/OP/β-GP) were prepared at physiological temperature. The hemostatic performance of CS-C/OP/β-GP hydrogel was tested in vivo and in vitro, and its biological safety was evaluated. The results showed that the in vitro coagulation time and blood coagulation index of CS-C/OP/β-GP hydrogel were better than those of a commercial gelatin sponge. Notably, compared with the gelatin sponge, CS-C/OP/β-GP hydrogel showed that the platelet adhesion and erythrocyte adsorption rates were 38.98% and 95.87% higher, respectively. Additionally, the hemostasis time in mouse liver injury was shortened by 19.5%, and the mass of blood loss in the mouse tail amputation model was reduced by 18.9%. The safety evaluation results demonstrated that CS-C/OP/β-GP had no cytotoxicity to L929 cells, and the hemolysis rates were less than 5% within 1 mg/mL, suggesting good biocompatibility. In conclusion, our results indicate that CS-C/OP/β-GP is expected to be a promising dressing in the field of medical hemostasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biomaterials for Medical Applications)
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Review

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30 pages, 6335 KiB  
Review
Resorbable Biomaterials Used for 3D Scaffolds in Tissue Engineering: A Review
by Sara Vach Agocsova, Martina Culenova, Ivana Birova, Leona Omanikova, Barbora Moncmanova, Lubos Danisovic, Stanislav Ziaran, Dusan Bakos and Pavol Alexy
Materials 2023, 16(12), 4267; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16124267 - 08 Jun 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1724
Abstract
This article provides a thorough overview of the available resorbable biomaterials appropriate for producing replacements for damaged tissues. In addition, their various properties and application possibilities are discussed as well. Biomaterials are fundamental components in tissue engineering (TE) of scaffolds and play a [...] Read more.
This article provides a thorough overview of the available resorbable biomaterials appropriate for producing replacements for damaged tissues. In addition, their various properties and application possibilities are discussed as well. Biomaterials are fundamental components in tissue engineering (TE) of scaffolds and play a critical role. They need to exhibit biocompatibility, bioactivity, biodegradability, and non-toxicity, to ensure their ability to function effectively with an appropriate host response. With ongoing research and advancements in biomaterials for medical implants, the objective of this review is to explore recently developed implantable scaffold materials for various tissues. The categorization of biomaterials in this paper includes fossil-based materials (e.g., PCL, PVA, PU, PEG, and PPF), natural or bio-based materials (e.g., HA, PLA, PHB, PHBV, chitosan, fibrin, collagen, starch, and hydrogels), and hybrid biomaterials (e.g., PCL/PLA, PCL/PEG, PLA/PEG, PLA/PHB PCL/collagen, PCL/chitosan, PCL/starch, and PLA/bioceramics). The application of these biomaterials in both hard and soft TE is considered, with a particular focus on their physicochemical, mechanical, and biological properties. Furthermore, the interactions between scaffolds and the host immune system in the context of scaffold-driven tissue regeneration are discussed. Additionally, the article briefly mentions the concept of in situ TE, which leverages the self-renewal capacities of affected tissues and highlights the crucial role played by biopolymer-based scaffolds in this strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biomaterials for Medical Applications)
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17 pages, 5211 KiB  
Review
A Review of Anodized TiNbSn Alloys for Improvement in Layer Quality and Application to Orthopedic Implants
by Yu Mori, Naoya Masahashi and Toshimi Aizawa
Materials 2022, 15(15), 5116; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15155116 - 22 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2369
Abstract
Titanium alloys are useful for application in orthopedic implants. However, complications, such as prosthetic infections and aseptic loosening, often occur after orthopedic devices are implanted. Therefore, innovation in surface modification techniques is essential to develop orthopedic materials with optimal properties at the biomaterial–bone [...] Read more.
Titanium alloys are useful for application in orthopedic implants. However, complications, such as prosthetic infections and aseptic loosening, often occur after orthopedic devices are implanted. Therefore, innovation in surface modification techniques is essential to develop orthopedic materials with optimal properties at the biomaterial–bone interface. In this review, we present recent research on the improvement in the osteoconductivity and antibacterial effect of the Ti-33.6% Nb-4% Sn (TiNbSn) alloy by anodic oxidation and other related studies. TiNbSn alloys are excellent new titanium alloys with a low Young’s modulus, high tensile strength, and with gradient functional properties such as a thermally adjustable Young’s modulus and strength. Titanium dioxide (TiO2), when obtained by the anodic oxidation of a TiNbSn alloy, improves bone affinity and provides antibacterial performance owing to its photocatalytic activity. The safety of TiO2 and its strong bonding with metal materials make its method of preparation a promising alternative to conventional methods for improving the surface quality of orthopedic implants. Implementing anodization technology for TiNbSn alloys may alleviate orthopedic surgery-related complications, such as loosening, stress shielding, and infection after arthroplasty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biomaterials for Medical Applications)
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20 pages, 4972 KiB  
Review
A Review on Biomaterials for Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology: From Past to Present
by Grzegorz Szczęsny, Mateusz Kopec, Denis J. Politis, Zbigniew L. Kowalewski, Adam Łazarski and Tomasz Szolc
Materials 2022, 15(10), 3622; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15103622 - 18 May 2022
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 3990
Abstract
The principal features essential for the success of an orthopaedic implant are its shape, dimensional accuracy, and adequate mechanical properties. Unlike other manufactured products, chemical stability and toxicity are of increased importance due to the need for biocompatibility over an implants life which [...] Read more.
The principal features essential for the success of an orthopaedic implant are its shape, dimensional accuracy, and adequate mechanical properties. Unlike other manufactured products, chemical stability and toxicity are of increased importance due to the need for biocompatibility over an implants life which could span several years. Thus, the combination of mechanical and biological properties determines the clinical usefulness of biomaterials in orthopaedic and musculoskeletal trauma surgery. Materials commonly used for these applications include stainless steel, cobalt-chromium and titanium alloys, ceramics, polyethylene, and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement. This study reviews the properties of commonly used materials and the advantages and disadvantages of each, with special emphasis on the sensitivity, toxicity, irritancy, and possible mutagenic and teratogenic capabilities. In addition, the production and final finishing processes of implants are discussed. Finally, potential directions for future implant development are discussed, with an emphasis on developing advanced personalised implants, according to a patient’s stature and physical requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biomaterials for Medical Applications)
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23 pages, 1193 KiB  
Review
Current Advances in the Regeneration of Degenerated Articular Cartilage: A Literature Review on Tissue Engineering and Its Recent Clinical Translation
by Farah Daou, Andrea Cochis, Massimiliano Leigheb and Lia Rimondini
Materials 2022, 15(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010031 - 21 Dec 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4074
Abstract
Functional ability is the basis of healthy aging. Articular cartilage degeneration is amongst the most prevalent degenerative conditions that cause adverse impacts on the quality of life; moreover, it represents a key predisposing factor to osteoarthritis (OA). Both the poor capacity of articular [...] Read more.
Functional ability is the basis of healthy aging. Articular cartilage degeneration is amongst the most prevalent degenerative conditions that cause adverse impacts on the quality of life; moreover, it represents a key predisposing factor to osteoarthritis (OA). Both the poor capacity of articular cartilage for self-repair and the unsatisfactory outcomes of available clinical interventions make innovative tissue engineering a promising therapeutic strategy for articular cartilage repair. Significant progress was made in this field; however, a marked heterogeneity in the applied biomaterials, biofabrication, and assessments is nowadays evident by the huge number of research studies published to date. Accordingly, this literature review assimilates the most recent advances in cell-based and cell-free tissue engineering of articular cartilage and also focuses on the assessments performed via various in vitro studies, ex vivo models, preclinical in vivo animal models, and clinical studies in order to provide a broad overview of the latest findings and clinical translation in the context of degenerated articular cartilage and OA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biomaterials for Medical Applications)
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