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Electronic Packaging Materials and Technology Applications

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Electronic Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2024 | Viewed by 4335

Special Issue Editors

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 407, Taiwan
Interests: electronic packaging; solder joint; twinned cu film; transient liquid phase bonding; metal-metal direct bonding; 3dic interconnection; power device packaging; low-temperature alloys; high-entropy alloys; materials characterization; reliability issue

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Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan
Interests: electronic packaging; electroplating; solar cell; solder joint; metal bonding; low-temperature alloy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In light of the escalating demand for advanced electronic devices, the domains of 2.5D/3DIC packaging, power device packaging, and low-temperature application packaging have acquired significant attention. These packaging techniques find application in cutting-edge electronic products such as smart devices, electric vehicles, solar energy converters, 5G equipment, and flexible electronics. Consequently, the development of packaging materials, processes, and applications holds critical importance in addressing human well-being, energy concerns, advanced communication equipment, and biomedical products.

We hereby introduce a Special Issue on "Electronic Packaging Materials and Technology Applications". Our collection contains a wide spectrum of research issues, including electronic packaging, solder joint, twinned Cu film, transient liquid phase bonding, metal-metal direct bonding, 3DIC interconnection, power device packaging, low-temperature alloys, materials characterization, and reliability issues—all relevant to advanced packaging technology. We eagerly anticipate the support and contributions of experts in these fields.

Dr. Yu-An Shen
Prof. Dr. Chih-Ming Chen
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • packaging process
  • 2.5D/3DIC packaging
  • power electronic packaging
  • low-temperature application packaging
  • packaging materials
  • solder joint
  • electroplated film for electronic packaging
  • transient liquid phase bonding
  • metal&ndash
  • metal direct bonding
  • reliability analysis in electronic packaging

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

11 pages, 6106 KiB  
Communication
Improvement of Solder Joint Shear Strength under Formic Acid Atmosphere at A Low Temperature
by Siliang He, Jian Jiang, Yu-An Shen, Lanqing Mo, Yuhao Bi, Junke Wu and Chan Guo
Materials 2024, 17(5), 1055; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17051055 - 25 Feb 2024
Viewed by 640
Abstract
With the continuous reduction of chip size, fluxless soldering has brought attention to high-density, three-dimensional packaging. Although fluxless soldering technology with formic acid (FA) atmosphere has been presented, few studies have examined the effect of the Pt catalytic, preheating time, and soldering pad [...] Read more.
With the continuous reduction of chip size, fluxless soldering has brought attention to high-density, three-dimensional packaging. Although fluxless soldering technology with formic acid (FA) atmosphere has been presented, few studies have examined the effect of the Pt catalytic, preheating time, and soldering pad on FA soldering for the Sn-58Bi solder. The results have shown that the Pt catalytic can promote oxidation–reduction and the formation of a large pore in the Sn-58Bi/Cu solder joint, which causes a decrease in shear strength. ENIG (electroless nickel immersion gold) improves soldering strength. The shear strength of Sn-58Bi/ENIG increases under the Pt catalytic FA atmosphere process due to the isolation of the Au layer on ENIG. The Au layer protects metal from corrosion and provides a good contact surface for the Sn-58Bi solder. The shear strength of the Sn-58Bi/ENIG joints under a Pt catalytic atmosphere improved by 44.7% compared to using a Cu pad. These findings reveal the improvement of the shear strength of solder joints bonded at low temperatures under the FA atmosphere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Packaging Materials and Technology Applications)
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16 pages, 5341 KiB  
Article
Composition-Tunable Properties of Cu(Ag) Alloy for Hybrid Bonding Applications
by Sarabjot Singh and Kathleen Dunn
Materials 2023, 16(23), 7481; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16237481 - 2 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1084
Abstract
In the present study, the properties of Cu(Ag) alloy films were studied to evaluate their potential use as an alternate material for interconnection in hybrid bonding. Thin alloy films of Cu(Ag) were deposited by pulsed electrochemical deposition (PED) using a sulfuric acid-based bath, [...] Read more.
In the present study, the properties of Cu(Ag) alloy films were studied to evaluate their potential use as an alternate material for interconnection in hybrid bonding. Thin alloy films of Cu(Ag) were deposited by pulsed electrochemical deposition (PED) using a sulfuric acid-based bath, rotating disk electrode, and hot entry. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was used to measure the silver content of the films, with us finding that it decreases with increasing duty cycle. Thereafter, bright field scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) imaging in combination with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was used to visualize the thin film microstructure and to confirm the uniform distribution of silver throughout the film, with no bands being seen despite the pulsed nature of the deposition. Film resistance was measured by a four-point probe to quantify the impact of Ag content on resistivity, with us finding the expected linear relationship with the Ag content in the film. Furthermore, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the films was measured using X-ray diffraction, and modulus and hardness were measured via nanoindentation, revealing linear dependences on the Ag content as well. Notably, the addition of 1.25 atom% Ag resulted in a significant increase in the CTE from 17.9 to 19.3 ppm/K, Young’s modulus from 111 to 161 GPa, and film hardness from 1.70 to 3.99 GPa. These simple relationships offer a range of properties tunable via the duty cycle of the pulsed plating, making Cu(Ag) a promising candidate for engineering wafer-to-wafer metal interconnections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Packaging Materials and Technology Applications)
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14 pages, 5580 KiB  
Article
Phase Equilibria of the Ag-Al-Au Ternary System and Interfacial Reactions in the Au-xAg/Al Couples at 450 °C
by Mavindra Ramadhani, Andromeda Dwi Laksono, Chien-Lung Liang, Chiao-Yi Yang, Kuo-Jung Chen, Yee-Wen Yen and Hsien-Ming Hsiao
Materials 2023, 16(22), 7196; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16227196 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1159
Abstract
The phase equilibria of the Ag-Al-Au ternary system and the solid-state reaction couple for the Au-xAg/Al system were investigated isothermally at 450 °C. By investigating the Ag-Al-Au ternary system and its isothermal section, this study aims to provide a clearer understanding [...] Read more.
The phase equilibria of the Ag-Al-Au ternary system and the solid-state reaction couple for the Au-xAg/Al system were investigated isothermally at 450 °C. By investigating the Ag-Al-Au ternary system and its isothermal section, this study aims to provide a clearer understanding of the phase stability and interfacial reactions between different phases. This information is crucial for designing materials and processes in electronic packaging, with the potential to reduce costs and improve reliability. There were seven single-phase regions, thirteen two-phase regions, and six three-phase regions, with no ternary intermetallic compound (IMC) formed in the isothermal section of the Ag-Al-Au ternary system. When the Au-25 wt.% Ag/Al couple was aged at 450 °C for 240–1500 h, the AuAl2, Au2Al, and Au4Al phases formed at the interface. When the Ag contents increased to 50 and 75 wt.%, the Ag2Al, AuAl2, and Au4Al phases formed at the interface. When the aging time increased from 240 h to 1500 h, the total IMC thickness in all Au-xAg/Al couples became thicker, but the types of IMCs formed at the interface did not change. The total IMC thickness also increased with the increase in the Ag content. When the Ag content was greater than 25 wt.%, the Au2Al phase was converted into the Ag2Al phase. The IMC growth mechanism in all of the couples followed a reaction-controlled process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Packaging Materials and Technology Applications)
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Graphical abstract

12 pages, 5360 KiB  
Article
Thermomechanical Properties of Zeta (Ag3In) Phase
by Xunda Liu, Hiroaki Tatsumi, Zhi Jin, Zhong Chen and Hiroshi Nishikawa
Materials 2023, 16(22), 7115; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16227115 - 10 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 686
Abstract
The thermomechanical properties of materials within die-attach joints play an essential role in assessing the reliability of high-power modules. Ag-In transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding serves as an alternative method for die attachment. However, relevant material data for the ζ (Ag3In) [...] Read more.
The thermomechanical properties of materials within die-attach joints play an essential role in assessing the reliability of high-power modules. Ag-In transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding serves as an alternative method for die attachment. However, relevant material data for the ζ (Ag3In) phase, one of the Ag-In intermetallic compound (IMC) products of TLP bonding, are limited. This paper proposes an approach to fabricate a densified and pure bulk sample of the ζ (Ag3In) phase. The thermomechanical properties of the ζ (Ag3In) phase were subsequently investigated at elevated temperatures and compared to those of other IMCs frequently observed in die-attach joints. As the temperature increased from 30 °C to 200 °C, the hardness of the ζ (Ag3In) phase decreased linearly from 1.78 GPa to 1.46 GPa. Similarly, the Young’s modulus also decreased linearly from 82.3 GPa to 66.5 GPa. These properties rank among the lowest levels compared to those of other IMCs. The average coefficient of thermal expansion within the temperature range of 70 °C to 250 °C was approximately 18.63 ± 0.61 μm/m/°C, placing the ζ (Ag3In) phase at a moderate level. When considering its potential for mitigating thermal stress, these combined properties render the ζ (Ag3In) phase an appropriate material choice for die-attach joints compared to other IMCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Packaging Materials and Technology Applications)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Suppressed effect of alkanethiol self-assembly monolayers on the electrochemical migration of fine-pitch nano-sized Ag interconnects prepared by direct-printing technology
Authors: Chia-Hung Tsou; Wan-Hsuan Lin; Chien-Cheng Chiang; Fan-Yi Ouyang
Affiliation: Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30013
Abstract: This paper proposes a method to modify the surface of Ag nanoparticles by introducing self-assembly monolayers (SAMs) to suppress the electrochemical migration (ECM) of fine-pitch Ag interconnects in the humid and biased environment for electronic devices. SAMs on surfaces of Ag nanoparticles are pretreated by immersion in 10 mM 1-dodecanethiol ethanolic solution at different times. The samples with surface treatment exhibit 3 ~ 5 times better ECM resistance than as-printed ones, and the sample immersed for 18 h of thiolate surface treatment exhibits the best ECM performance. It was found that Ag-SR bonding of chelating complexes was formed on the Ag surface after surface treatment. Because the neutral charge of the Ag-SR pair is more difficult to be driven by the electric field in the aqueous electrolyte, the surface-treated samples possess a lower solubility in the electrolyte and a higher activation energy of migration than as-printed ones and thus further improve the ECM resistance of Ag.

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