Nutrients and Dietary Supplements in Health and Disease

A special issue of Life (ISSN 2075-1729). This special issue belongs to the section "Physiology and Pathology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (22 December 2023) | Viewed by 28131

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Bromatology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Warsaw, Banacha 1, 02-097 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: dietary supplements; nutrition; metabolism; nutritional and metabolic diseases

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Guest Editor
Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Pharmacy, DoE Department of Excellence 2018-2022, University of Siena, via Aldo Moro 2, 53100 Siena, Italy
Interests: drug discovery; natural products; bioactive molecules; functional foods; nutraceuticals; in vitro biological tests; carriers for bioactive molecules; bioactivity
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nutrients and dietary supplements, no matter what form they are administered in, can have positive effects on both maintaining health, as well as in the prevention and treatment of many diseases. It is extremely important to understand their new mechanisms of action and to expand the knowledge about them. The task surrounding dietary supplementation is not the treatment of diseases, but supplementing the diet with deficient nutrients and bioactive compounds. However, consuming them might also have an adversary effect on health. It is related to their quality, the effects of their actions, and the interactions with other substances.

Therefore, there exists a need for scientific studies on the effect of nutrients and dietary supplements on the human body.

In this Special Issue, we invite manuscripts on broadly understood topics related to the impact of nutrients and dietary supplements on human health.

Dr. Agnieszka Stawarska
Prof. Dr. Stefania Lamponi
Guest Editors

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Life is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • dietary supplements
  • nutrients
  • health promotion
  • nutritional diseases
  • mechanism of action
  • quality of supplements

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 3318 KiB  
Article
Effects of an L-Leucine-Rich Diet on Liver and Kidneys in a Doxorubicin Toxicity Model
by Poliana Rodrigues Alves Duarte, Rodrigo Rodrigues Franco, Danielle Diniz Vilela, Douglas Carvalho Caixeta, Adriele Vieira de Souza, Simone Ramos Deconte, Clesnan Mendes-Rodrigues, Thiago Montes Fidale, Foued Salmen Espindola, Renata Roland Teixeira and Elmiro Santos Resende
Life 2023, 13(9), 1823; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13091823 - 29 Aug 2023
Viewed by 3408
Abstract
Supplements and diets containing L-leucine, a branched-chain amino acid, have been considered beneficial for controlling oxidative stress and maintaining cardiac tissue in toxicity models using doxorubicin, a drug widely used in cancer treatment. However, there is a lack of studies in the literature [...] Read more.
Supplements and diets containing L-leucine, a branched-chain amino acid, have been considered beneficial for controlling oxidative stress and maintaining cardiac tissue in toxicity models using doxorubicin, a drug widely used in cancer treatment. However, there is a lack of studies in the literature that assess the effects of this diet on other organs and tissues, such as the liver and kidneys. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of a leucine-rich diet on the liver and kidneys of healthy rats submitted to the doxorubicin toxicity model by analyzing biomarkers of oxidative stress and histological parameters. The animals were divided into four groups: naive, doxorubicin, L-leucine, and doxorubicin + L-leucine, and the diet was standardized with 5% L-leucine and a dose of 7.5 mg/kg of doxorubicin. We evaluated tissue injury parameters and biomarkers of oxidative stress, including enzymes, antioxidant profile, and oxidized molecules, in the liver and kidneys. Although some studies have indicated benefits of a diet rich in L-leucine for the muscle tissue of animals that received doxorubicin, our results showed that the liver was the most affected organ by the L-leucine-rich diet since the diet reduced its antioxidant defenses and increased the deposit of collagen and fat in the hepatic tissue. In the kidneys, the main alteration was the reduction in the number of glomeruli. These results contribute to the scientific literature and encourage further studies to evaluate the effects of an L-leucine-rich diet or its supplementation, alone or combined with doxorubicin using an animal model of cancer. Therefore, our study concludes that the leucine-rich diet itself was harmful and, when co-administered with doxorubicin, was not able to maintain the antioxidant defenses and tissue structure of the evaluated organs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Dietary Supplements in Health and Disease)
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13 pages, 1282 KiB  
Article
Postprandial Inflammatory and Metabolic Responses Induced by Authentic Mytilinis Cheese: A Preliminary, Crossover, Nutritional Intervention in Healthy Adults
by Olga Papagianni, Angeliki Voutsa, Olga Katira, Panagiota Potsaki, Kalliopi Almpounioti, Konstantina Tzitziri, Dimitrios Skalkos and Antonios E. Koutelidakis
Life 2023, 13(4), 923; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13040923 - 31 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1169
Abstract
Several Mediterranean traditional cheeses may present a beneficial effect on postprandial metabolic and inflammatory modulation due to the presence of bioactive components. The objective of the present preliminary nutritional intervention was the investigation of the postprandial metabolic responses after the intake of traditional [...] Read more.
Several Mediterranean traditional cheeses may present a beneficial effect on postprandial metabolic and inflammatory modulation due to the presence of bioactive components. The objective of the present preliminary nutritional intervention was the investigation of the postprandial metabolic responses after the intake of traditional Authentic Mytilinis cheese in olive oil with herbs, compared to the corresponding responses after consumption of Italian Parmesan cheese, in healthy participants. A pilot crossover, randomized, single-blinded, intervention clinical trial was conducted in 10 healthy men and women subjects, aged 18–30 years, after random allocation into the control and the intervention groups. The participants received a high-fat carbohydrate meal containing either Authentic Mytilinis cheese (the authentic nonrefrigerated recipe) or Italian Parmesan PDO cheese. After a washout week, the participants consumed the same meals conversely. Differences in the postprandial responses of glucose, triglycerides, uric acid and serum total, HDL and LDL cholesterol levels, as well as of the plasma total antioxidant capacity according to the FRAP method, were determined between groups for fasting, 30 min, 1.5 h, and 3 h after meal intake. The results suggested that meals did not significantly affect postprandial metabolic and inflammatory responses. However, Authentic L Mytilinis cheese resulted in a lower increase of LDL cholesterol (p > 0.05) and induced a significant decrease of serum triglycerides (p < 0.05) in the last 1.5 h after a meal, compared to Italian Parmesan cheese. Further investigation with large prospective studies is necessary to validate the current findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Dietary Supplements in Health and Disease)
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15 pages, 750 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Nutrition, Lifestyle Habits and Laboratory Parameters in Hypertensive Patients with/without Cognitive Dysfunction
by Kinga-Ilona Nyulas, Márta Germán-Salló, Zita Fazakas, Zoltán Preg, Tünde Pál, Sándor Pál, Robert Gabriel Tripon, Margit Judit Cseh, Zsuzsánna Simon-Szabó, Emil Marian Arbănași and Enikő Nemes-Nagy
Life 2023, 13(2), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13020311 - 22 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1888
Abstract
(1) Background: Cognitive dysfunction is a major concern in hypertensive patients. Lifestyle habits and nutrition influence laboratory parameters, with an impact on clinical course. The objective of the study was to evaluate nutrition and lifestyle habits in hypertensive patients with/without cognitive dysfunction and [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Cognitive dysfunction is a major concern in hypertensive patients. Lifestyle habits and nutrition influence laboratory parameters, with an impact on clinical course. The objective of the study was to evaluate nutrition and lifestyle habits in hypertensive patients with/without cognitive dysfunction and establish correlations to laboratory parameters. Material and Methods: 50 patients admitted to the Cardiovascular Rehabilitation Clinic in Târgu Mureș were enrolled in this study between March–June 2021. We evaluated their cognitive function, and they filled in a questionnaire about lifestyle and nutrition. Biochemical blood tests were performed using a Konelab Prime 60i analyzer. IBM-SPSS22 and GraphPad InStat3 were used for statistics. Results: Mean age of hypertensive patients (n = 50) was 70.42 ± 4.82 (SD) years, half of them had cognitive dysfunction. Zinc deficiency was present in 74% of the subjects. The subgroup with cognitive dysfunction had significantly higher BMI (p = 0.009) and microalbuminuria (p = 0.0479), as well as significantly lower magnesium intake (p = 0.032) and cholesterol intake (p = 0.022), compared to those with normal cognitive status. Conclusions: Nutrition is in a close relationship with laboratory parameters; significant differences (microalbuminuria, cholesterol intake, BMI, etc.) are present between hypertensive patients with/without cognitive dysfunction. A healthy diet is important for the maintenance of metabolic balance, the achievement of optimal body weight, and the prevention of complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Dietary Supplements in Health and Disease)
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12 pages, 515 KiB  
Article
Dietary Supplements with Proline—A Comprehensive Assessment of Their Quality
by Krzysztof Adam Stępień, Weronika Krawczyk and Joanna Giebułtowicz
Life 2023, 13(2), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13020263 - 18 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1460
Abstract
Dietary supplements are food products commonly used worldwide to obtain nutritional and physiological effects. They can contain a wide variety of active substances and can be administered for health and disease. Their use can be beneficial if justified, and their quality is adequate. [...] Read more.
Dietary supplements are food products commonly used worldwide to obtain nutritional and physiological effects. They can contain a wide variety of active substances and can be administered for health and disease. Their use can be beneficial if justified, and their quality is adequate. Unfortunately, data on the quality of supplements is scarce. As part of this work, we assess the quality of seven dietary supplements containing proline. The preparations were produced in the EU and the USA. The quality assessment consisted of the detection of potential impurities, the determination of the content of the main ingredient, and the release of proline. The technique used to analyse impurities and proline (Pro) content was liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. We detected five contaminants. The main ingredient content was in the range of 73–121% in capsules and 103–156% in tablets. Five of the seven analysed dietary supplements released below 80% Pro (for each tablet/capsule at pH 1.2). One of the supplements may be inactive because a very low release of Pro was reported. The results, we hope, will increase consumer awareness of the quality of these preparations and result in a change in the regulations governing the marketing of these preparations, at least by making release testing mandatory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Dietary Supplements in Health and Disease)
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13 pages, 520 KiB  
Article
Fatty Acid Composition of Pseudocereals and Seeds Used as Functional Food Ingredients
by Małgorzata Czerwonka and Agnieszka Białek
Life 2023, 13(1), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13010217 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2251
Abstract
In recent times, the popularity of seeds, other than cereals, in the diet has systematically grown. The fat contained in these products significantly affects their energy value as well as their biological and physicochemical properties, including their susceptibility to oxidation. The objective of [...] Read more.
In recent times, the popularity of seeds, other than cereals, in the diet has systematically grown. The fat contained in these products significantly affects their energy value as well as their biological and physicochemical properties, including their susceptibility to oxidation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the fat concentration and fatty acid (FA) composition of popular non-spice seeds used in food as a substitute for cereals or a functional additive. The research material consisted of thirteen groups of seeds derived from the following plants: amaranth, blue poppy, buckwheat, chia, flax, hemp, canihua, milk thistle, pumpkin, plantago, quinoa, sesame, and sunflower. The fat contents and fatty acid profiles differed significantly between the tested products and were dependent on the plant species. In all products, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, 40–80% of total FAs) dominated. Linoleic acid was the main FAs in most tested seeds. The exceptions were chia and flax seeds, which were characterized by very high contents of α-linolenic acid, respectively, 62.0 and 51.4% of the total FAs. The share of monounsaturated FAs (mainly oleic acid) in the total FAs content was between 6 and 40%. All tested seeds (especially flax, chia, and hemp) have favorable values for their indexes of atherogenicity and thrombogenicity as well as the hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Dietary Supplements in Health and Disease)
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Review

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15 pages, 3051 KiB  
Review
Quercetin and Ferroptosis
by Alfredo Cruz-Gregorio and Ana Karina Aranda-Rivera
Life 2023, 13(8), 1730; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13081730 - 11 Aug 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2219
Abstract
Quercetin is a flavonoid present in apples, onions, tea, red wines, and berries, and it has shown different beneficial effects, such as providing cardiovascular protection, possessing anti-inflammatory properties, and demonstrating anticancer activity, among others. These diseases are related to oxidizing molecules such as [...] Read more.
Quercetin is a flavonoid present in apples, onions, tea, red wines, and berries, and it has shown different beneficial effects, such as providing cardiovascular protection, possessing anti-inflammatory properties, and demonstrating anticancer activity, among others. These diseases are related to oxidizing molecules such as ROS because these species react and induce the oxidation of cellular biomolecules, such as proteins, lipids, DNA, or carbohydrates, which alters cellular homeostasis. Regarding lipids, the oxidation of these molecules induces lipid hydroperoxides which, if not decreased, particularly by GPX4, produce highly reactive aldehydes such as 4HNE and MDA. These oxidative conditions induce ferroptosis, a type of cell death associated with oxidation that differs from other types of cell death, such as apoptosis, necrosis, or autophagy. The induction of ferroptosis is desired in some diseases, such as cancer, but in others, such as cardiovascular diseases, this type of cell death is not wanted. The possible effects of quercetin associated with reducing or inducing ferroptosis have not been reviewed. Thus, this review focuses on the ability of quercetin to produce ferroptosis in diseases such as cancer as a treatment option and, conversely, on its role in deactivating ferroptosis to alleviate diseases such as cardiovascular diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Dietary Supplements in Health and Disease)
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13 pages, 1204 KiB  
Review
Methods to Improve the Solubility of Curcumin from Turmeric
by Julia Górnicka, Martyna Mika, Oliwia Wróblewska, Paweł Siudem and Katarzyna Paradowska
Life 2023, 13(1), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13010207 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 11605
Abstract
Turmeric is a strong-taste component of spices characteristic of Indian cuisine. It is obtained from the turmeric rhizome (Curcumae longae rhizoma) and has been used for thousands of years not only for culinary purposes, but also for medicinal purposes. It contains [...] Read more.
Turmeric is a strong-taste component of spices characteristic of Indian cuisine. It is obtained from the turmeric rhizome (Curcumae longae rhizoma) and has been used for thousands of years not only for culinary purposes, but also for medicinal purposes. It contains a group of organic compounds called curcuminoids. Curcumin is the main representative of this group of compounds which is also most frequently studied. In recent years, bioactive curcuminoids (including curcumin in the first place) have become more and more popular due to a wide spectrum of their biological activity. The anticancer, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antiaging effects of curcumin have been confirmed by numerous in vitro and in vivo studies, as well as in clinical trials. However, an obstacle to simple, clinical application of curcumin is its poor bioavailability (which is due to its hydrophobic nature) and its very weak water solubility. Therefore, many scientists are working on improving the solubility of curcumin in water, which is the topic of the present article. Attempts have been made to combine curcumin with nanoparticles (polysaccharide or silica). Nanosuspensions or complexes with cyclodextrins are also considered. A promising direction is the search for new polymorphic varieties as well as obtaining cocrystals with curcumin which are characterized by better water solubility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Dietary Supplements in Health and Disease)
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Other

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11 pages, 1736 KiB  
Case Report
Vitamin B1 Deficiency and Perimyocarditis Fulminans: A Case Study of Shoshin Syndrome in a Woman Following an Unbalanced Dietary Pattern Followed by a Literature Review
by Justyna Rohun, Karolina Dorniak, Krzysztof Młodziński, Witold Bachorski, Marcin Gruchała, Grzegorz Raczak and Ludmiła Daniłowicz-Szymanowicz
Life 2023, 13(1), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13010205 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2537
Abstract
(1) Background: vitamin B1 level depletion, known as a beriberi syndrome, can lead to severe cardiovascular complications, from which perimyocarditis fulminans is one of the most severe. (2) Methods: this is a retrospective case study that includes an adult patient with clinical presentations [...] Read more.
(1) Background: vitamin B1 level depletion, known as a beriberi syndrome, can lead to severe cardiovascular complications, from which perimyocarditis fulminans is one of the most severe. (2) Methods: this is a retrospective case study that includes an adult patient with clinical presentations of acute heart failure (HF) symptoms following perimyocarditis on the grounds of thiamine deficiency. (3) Results: A 49-year-old woman presented with acute HF symptoms due to perimyocarditis. The patient suddenly developed refractory cardiogenic shock with metabolic acidosis requiring maximal medical management, including an intra-aortic balloon pump and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Due to additional peripheral polyneuropathy, beriberi disease was suspected after excluding other possible causes of the patient’s condition. After administration of vitamin B1, clinical improvement in the patient’s condition and the resolution of metabolic abnormalities were observed, which ultimately confirmed the diagnosis of Shoshin syndrome caused by the implementation of a gluten-free diet without indications for its adherence. (4) Conclusions: Fulminant beriberi disease, although considered rare, is a life-threatening condition and should always be included in the differential diagnosis of critically ill patients, notably those with malnutrition. An unbalanced diet can be detrimental and have severe consequences, i.e., perimyocarditis fulminans. However, treatment with thiamine can significantly improve the patient’s cardiac function and restore hemodynamic and metabolic parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Dietary Supplements in Health and Disease)
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