Special Issue "Personalized Medicine and Management of COVID-19"

A special issue of Journal of Personalized Medicine (ISSN 2075-4426). This special issue belongs to the section "Epidemiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Weikuan Gu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Orthopedic Surgery and BME-Campbell Clinic, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA
Interests: cancer; bone; genomics; genetics; immunology
Prof. Dr. Lotfi Aleya
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS 6249), Université de Franche-Comté, F-25030 Besançon, France
Interests: medicine; public health; environmental health/ecology; one health; pharmacy; pharmacology; sustainability; medicine; clinical trials; experimental studies
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

COVID-19 poses a major global threat to humankind, inflicting devastating consequences as to public health. Its effect has shown racial, age and sex differences. Understanding its pathological and epidemiological variation along with providing a personalized treatment will greatly reduce its damage and enhance the preparedness for a future pandemic caused by either COVID-19 or other infectious diseases.  

This Special Issue focusses on the personalization of epidemics, disease characterization, treatment and management of COVID-19, with a special emphasis on countries, regions, sex, aging groups and racial differences.

While an abundance of literature on COVID-19 has accumulated, detailed personalized analysis remains incompletely explored.  As the pandemic has so far lasted a year and half, studies with solid experimental and a considerable amount of data, particularly on molecular mechanisms and overall genetics, will provide valuable information for both the general public and the scientific community.

We are looking for papers that provide a novel contribution to optimize the personalization of medicine covering all aspects of COVID-19.  For example, we welcome papers related to personalized and sex difference in pathological classification, diagnosis, treatment, recovering process, and COVID-19-related sequelae along with the variations in disease epidemiological patterns, transmission and management according to countries, regions, sex and races.

Prof. Dr. Weikuan Gu
Prof. Dr. Lotfi Aleya
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Personalized Medicine is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • mechanism
  • genetics
  • treatment
  • infection
  • variation

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
Comparison of Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Younger and Elderly Patients with Severe COVID-19 in Korea: A Retrospective Multicenter Study
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(12), 1258; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11121258 (registering DOI) - 29 Nov 2021
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Abstract
Old age is associated with disease severity and poor prognosis among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases; however, characteristics of elderly patients with severe COVID-19 are limited. We aimed to assess the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19 at tertiary [...] Read more.
Old age is associated with disease severity and poor prognosis among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases; however, characteristics of elderly patients with severe COVID-19 are limited. We aimed to assess the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19 at tertiary care centers in South Korea. This retrospective multicenter study included patients with severe COVID-19 who were admitted at seven hospitals in South Korea from 2 February 2020 to 28 February 2021. The Cox regression analyses were performed to assess factors associated with the in-hospital mortality. Of 488 patients with severe COVID-19, 318 (65.2%) were elderly (≥65 years). The older patient group had more underlying diseases and a higher severity score than the younger patient group. The older patient group had a higher in-hospital mortality rate than the younger patient group (25.5% versus 4.7%, p-value < 0.001). The in-hospital mortality risk factors among patients with severe COVID-19 included age, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score, presence of diabetes and chronic obstructive lung disease, high white blood cell count, low neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet count, do-not-resuscitate order, and treatment with invasive mechanical ventilation. In addition to old age, disease severity and examination results must be considered in treatment decision-making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine and Management of COVID-19)
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Article
Ace2 and Tmprss2 Expressions Are Regulated by Dhx32 and Influence the Gastrointestinal Symptoms Caused by SARS-CoV-2
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(11), 1212; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11111212 - 16 Nov 2021
Viewed by 385
Abstract
Studies showed that the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is one of the most important pathways for SARS-CoV-2 infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As SARS-CoV-2 cellular entry depends on the ACE2 receptor and TMPRSS2 priming of the spike protein, it is important to understand [...] Read more.
Studies showed that the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is one of the most important pathways for SARS-CoV-2 infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As SARS-CoV-2 cellular entry depends on the ACE2 receptor and TMPRSS2 priming of the spike protein, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms through which these two proteins and their cognate transcripts interact and influence the pathogenesis of COVID-19. In this study, we quantified the expression, associations, genetic modulators, and molecular pathways for Tmprss2 and Ace2 mRNA expressions in GI tissues using a systems genetics approach and the expanded family of highly diverse BXD mouse strains. The results showed that both Tmprss2 and Ace2 are highly expressed in GI tissues with significant covariation. We identified a significant expression quantitative trait locus on chromosome 7 that controls the expression of both Tmprss2 and Ace2. Dhx32 was found to be the strongest candidate in this interval. Co-expression network analysis demonstrated that both Tmprss2 and Ace2 were located at the same module that is significantly associated with other GI-related traits. Protein–protein interaction analysis indicated that hub genes in this module are linked to circadian rhythms. Collectively, our data suggested that genes with circadian rhythms of expression may have an impact on COVID-19 disease, with implications related to the timing and treatment of COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine and Management of COVID-19)
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Article
Myocarditis and Pericarditis following COVID-19 Vaccination: Inequalities in Age and Vaccine Types
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(11), 1106; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11111106 - 28 Oct 2021
Viewed by 794
Abstract
An increasing number of myocarditis/pericarditis incidences has been reported after coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) vaccination in adolescents and young adults. This study was designed to investigate the incidence rate of—and risk for—myocarditis and pericarditis following COVID-19 vaccination in the United States according to age [...] Read more.
An increasing number of myocarditis/pericarditis incidences has been reported after coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) vaccination in adolescents and young adults. This study was designed to investigate the incidence rate of—and risk for—myocarditis and pericarditis following COVID-19 vaccination in the United States according to age and vaccine type. This study used the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) from 11 December 2020 to 13 August 2021. A population-based data mining approach was performed based on the reporting odds ratio (ROR). Adverse events of myocarditis and pericarditis following COVID-19 vaccination were rare, with an incidence rate of 5.98 (95% CI = 5.73–6.24) cases per million doses administered. The incidence rate was higher in adolescents and after the administration of the second dose of messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines. Overall, two mRNA vaccines were significantly associated with increased risks for myocarditis/pericarditis (mRNA-1273 (Moderna): ROR = 2.91, 95% CI = 2.21–3.83; BNT162b2 (Pfizer–BioNTech): ROR = 5.37, 95% CI = 4.10–7.04) compared to all other vaccines from VAERS. The viral vector vaccine of Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen) was not associated with signals of myocarditis/pericarditis (ROR = 1.39; 95% CI = 0.99–1.97). This study found increased risks for myocarditis/pericarditis following mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. For patients at high risk for myocarditis/pericarditis or with myocardial injuries, the viral vector vaccine may be an alternative for consideration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine and Management of COVID-19)
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Article
Dementia Risk among Coronavirus Disease Survivors: A Nationwide Cohort Study in South Korea
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(10), 1015; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11101015 - 09 Oct 2021
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Abstract
We aimed to investigate whether coronavirus disease (COVID-19) survivors were at a higher risk of dementia diagnosis compared to controls at 6 months follow-up. Data pertaining to the period between 1 January and 4 June 2020, were extracted from the National Health Insurance [...] Read more.
We aimed to investigate whether coronavirus disease (COVID-19) survivors were at a higher risk of dementia diagnosis compared to controls at 6 months follow-up. Data pertaining to the period between 1 January and 4 June 2020, were extracted from the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS)-COVID-19 database in South Korea. Data on adults (≥20 years old) with no history of dementia, obtained from the NHIS-COVID-19 database, were included in the study. The endpoint of this study was the development of dementia, which was evaluated from 1 January to 1 December 2020. A total of 306,577 adults were included in the analysis, comprising 7133 COVID-19 survivors and 299,444 individuals in the control group. Among the subjects, new-onset dementia diagnosed in 2020 was recorded in 1.2% (3546 of 306,577). In the covariate-adjusted multivariable Cox regression model, the incidence of dementia among COVID-19 survivors was 1.39-fold higher (hazard ratio: 1.39, 95% confidence interval: 1.05–1.85; p = 0.023) than that in the control group. At approximately 6 months of follow-up, COVID-19 survivors were at a higher risk of dementia compared to other populations in South Korea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine and Management of COVID-19)
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Article
Graphical Trajectory Comparison to Identify Errors in Data of COVID-19: A Cross-Country Analysis
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(10), 955; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11100955 - 25 Sep 2021
Viewed by 364
Abstract
Data from the early stage of a novel infectious disease outbreak provide vital information in risk assessment, prediction, and precise disease management. Since the first reported case of COVID-19, the pattern of the novel coronavirus transmission in Wuhan has become the interest of [...] Read more.
Data from the early stage of a novel infectious disease outbreak provide vital information in risk assessment, prediction, and precise disease management. Since the first reported case of COVID-19, the pattern of the novel coronavirus transmission in Wuhan has become the interest of researchers in epidemiology and public health. To thoroughly map the mechanism of viral spreading, we used the patterns of data at the early onset of COVID-19 from seven countries to estimate the time lag between peak days of cases and deaths. This study compared these data with those of Wuhan and estimated the natural history of disease across the infected population and the time lag. The findings suggest that comparative analyses of data from different regions and countries reveal the differences between peaks of cases and deaths caused by COVID-19 and the incomplete and underestimated cases in Wuhan. Different countries may show different patterns of cases peak days, deaths peak days, and peak periods. Error in the early COVID-19 statistics in Brazil was identified. This study provides sound evidence for policymakers to understand the local circumstances in diagnosing the health of a population and propose precise and timely public health interventions to control and prevent infectious diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine and Management of COVID-19)
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Review

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Review
COVID-19 Pandemic: Public Health Risk Assessment and Risk Mitigation Strategies
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(12), 1243; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11121243 (registering DOI) - 23 Nov 2021
Viewed by 197
Abstract
A newly emerged respiratory viral disease called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is also known as pandemic coronavirus disease (COVID-19). This pandemic has resulted an unprecedented global health crisis and devastating impact on several sectors of human lives and economies. Fortunately, the [...] Read more.
A newly emerged respiratory viral disease called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is also known as pandemic coronavirus disease (COVID-19). This pandemic has resulted an unprecedented global health crisis and devastating impact on several sectors of human lives and economies. Fortunately, the average case fatality ratio for SARS-CoV-2 is below 2%, much lower than that estimated for MERS (34%) and SARS (11%). However, COVID-19 has a much higher transmissibility rate, as evident from the constant increase in the count of infections worldwide. This article explores the reasons behind how COVID-19 was able to cause a global pandemic crisis. The current outbreak scenario and causes of rapid global spread are examined using recent developments in the literature, epidemiological features relevant to public health awareness, and critical perspective of risk assessment and mitigation strategies. Effective pandemic risk mitigation measures have been established and amended against COVID-19 diseases, but there is still much scope for upgrading execution and coordination among authorities in terms of organizational leadership’s commitment and diverse range of safety measures, including administrative control measures, engineering control measures, and personal protective equipment (PPE). The significance of containment interventions against the COVID-19 pandemic is now well established; however, there is a need for its effective execution across the globe, and for the improvement of the performance of risk mitigation practices and suppression of future pandemic crises. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine and Management of COVID-19)
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