Special Issue "Personalized Medicine and Management of COVID-19"

A special issue of Journal of Personalized Medicine (ISSN 2075-4426). This special issue belongs to the section "Epidemiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 25 April 2023 | Viewed by 36971

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Weikuan Gu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Orthopedic Surgery and BME-Campbell Clinic, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA
Interests: cancer; bone; genomics; genetics; immunology
Prof. Dr. Lotfi Aleya
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS 6249), Université de Franche-Comté, F-25030 Besançon, France
Interests: medicine; public health; environmental health/ecology; one health; pharmacy; pharmacology; sustainability; clinical trials; experimental studies
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

COVID-19 poses a major global threat to humankind, inflicting devastating consequences as to public health. Its effect has shown racial, age and sex differences. Understanding its pathological and epidemiological variation along with providing a personalized treatment will greatly reduce its damage and enhance the preparedness for a future pandemic caused by either COVID-19 or other infectious diseases.  

This Special Issue focusses on the personalization of epidemics, disease characterization, treatment and management of COVID-19, with a special emphasis on countries, regions, sex, aging groups and racial differences.

While an abundance of literature on COVID-19 has accumulated, detailed personalized analysis remains incompletely explored.  As the pandemic has so far lasted a year and half, studies with solid experimental and a considerable amount of data, particularly on molecular mechanisms and overall genetics, will provide valuable information for both the general public and the scientific community.

We are looking for papers that provide a novel contribution to optimize the personalization of medicine covering all aspects of COVID-19.  For example, we welcome papers related to personalized and sex difference in pathological classification, diagnosis, treatment, recovering process, and COVID-19-related sequelae along with the variations in disease epidemiological patterns, transmission and management according to countries, regions, sex and races.

Prof. Dr. Weikuan Gu
Prof. Dr. Lotfi Aleya
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Personalized Medicine is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • mechanism
  • genetics
  • treatment
  • infection
  • variation

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
COVID-19 Vaccines and Myopericarditis: A Nuanced Story
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(8), 1242; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12081242 - 29 Jul 2022
Viewed by 884
Abstract
Vaccination has been a life-saving public health tool in the COVID-19 pandemic, with an estimated 19 [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine and Management of COVID-19)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

Article
Predictors of Anxiety, Depression, and Stress among Female University Nursing Students during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Study in Saudi Arabia
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(11), 1887; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12111887 - 10 Nov 2022
Viewed by 694
Abstract
Background: Students at universities increasingly struggle with mental health issues such as anxiety, depression, and stress. The present prevalence of these diseases may arise in the event of a crisis such as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Aim: To estimate the level [...] Read more.
Background: Students at universities increasingly struggle with mental health issues such as anxiety, depression, and stress. The present prevalence of these diseases may arise in the event of a crisis such as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Aim: To estimate the level of anxiety, depression, and stress in female university nursing students, and to identify predictors for students’ anxiety, depression, and stress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: An online cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using a convenient sample of 115 female university nursing students. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) questionnaire was used to assess symptoms of anxiety, depression, and stress. Multivariate linear regression was used to identify predictors of anxiety, depression, and stress. Results: Stress, anxiety, and depression had prevalence rates of 23.7%, 18.5%, and 34.6%, respectively. Significant anxiety predictors included family support, family salary, being diagnosed with chronic illness, and being exposed to patients with COVID-19. Significant correlations were found between family support, family salary, family history of mental illness, and fear of being infected with COVID-19 and depression in female university nursing students. Students’ levels of stress were predicted by family support. Conclusion: The level of anxiety, depression, and stress among female university nursing students was determined to be moderate. It is advised that university nursing students receive interventions that support their mental health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine and Management of COVID-19)
Article
External Validation of COVID-19 Risk Scores during Three Waves of Pandemic in a German Cohort—A Retrospective Study
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(11), 1775; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12111775 - 28 Oct 2022
Viewed by 509
Abstract
Several risk scores were developed during the COVID-19 pandemic to identify patients at risk for critical illness as a basic step to personalizing medicine even in pandemic circumstances. However, the generalizability of these scores with regard to different populations, clinical settings, healthcare systems, [...] Read more.
Several risk scores were developed during the COVID-19 pandemic to identify patients at risk for critical illness as a basic step to personalizing medicine even in pandemic circumstances. However, the generalizability of these scores with regard to different populations, clinical settings, healthcare systems, and new epidemiological circumstances is unknown. The aim of our study was to compare the predictive validity of qSOFA, CRB65, NEWS, COVID-GRAM, and 4C-Mortality score. In a monocentric retrospective cohort, consecutively hospitalized adults with COVID-19 from February 2020 to June 2021 were included; risk scores at admission were calculated. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and the area under the precision–recall curve were compared using DeLong’s method and a bootstrapping approach. A total of 347 patients were included; 23.6% were admitted to the ICU, and 9.2% died in a hospital. NEWS and 4C-Score performed best for the outcomes ICU admission and in-hospital mortality. The easy-to-use bedside score NEWS has proven to identify patients at risk for critical illness, whereas the more complex COVID-19-specific scores 4C and COVID-GRAM were not superior. Decreasing mortality and ICU-admission rates affected the discriminatory ability of all scores. A further evaluation of risk assessment is needed in view of new and rapidly changing epidemiological evolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine and Management of COVID-19)
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Article
Potential Similarities in Sex Difference in Key Genes and Their Expression, Network, EQTL and Pathways between COVID-19 and Chronic Kidney Disease Based on Mouse Model
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(7), 1190; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12071190 - 21 Jul 2022
Viewed by 746
Abstract
COVID-19 and chronic kidney disease (CKD) share similarity in sex bias and key genes in the disease pathway of sex difference. We investigated the sex difference of molecular pathways of four key players of these two diseases using an existing large set of [...] Read more.
COVID-19 and chronic kidney disease (CKD) share similarity in sex bias and key genes in the disease pathway of sex difference. We investigated the sex difference of molecular pathways of four key players of these two diseases using an existing large set of whole genome expression profiles from the kidneys of female and male mouse models. Our data show that there is little to no correlation at the whole genome expression level between female and male mice among these four genes. There are considerable sex differences among genes in upstream regulation, Ace2 complex interaction, and downstream pathways. Snap25 and Plcb4 may play important roles in the regulation of the expression level of Adam17, Tmprss2, and Cd146 in females. In males, Adh4 is a candidate gene for the regulation of Adam17, while Asl, Auts2, and Rabger1 are candidates for Tmprss2. Within the Ace2 complex, Cd146 directly influences the expression level of Adam17 and Ace2 in the female, while in the male Adam potentially has a stronger influence on Ace2 than that of Tmprss2. Among the top 100 most related genes, only one or two genes from four key genes and 11 from the control B-Actin were found to be the same between sexes. Among the top 10 sets of genes in the downstream pathway of Ace2, only two sets are the same between the sexes. We concluded that these known key genes and novel genes in CKD may play significant roles in the sex difference in the CKD and COVID-19 disease pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine and Management of COVID-19)
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Article
Changes in the Incidence Rates of Gastrointestinal Diseases Due to the COVID-19 Pandemic in South Korea: A Long-Term Perspective
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(7), 1144; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12071144 - 14 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 861
Abstract
We investigated whether the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, in conjunction with public health measures, influenced the incidence of gastrointestinal diseases according to age and sex during the pandemic. Changes in the monthly incidence rates (January 2018 to June 2021) of common gastrointestinal [...] Read more.
We investigated whether the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, in conjunction with public health measures, influenced the incidence of gastrointestinal diseases according to age and sex during the pandemic. Changes in the monthly incidence rates (January 2018 to June 2021) of common gastrointestinal diseases were assessed using data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service by comparing the data of two periods: before COVID-19 (January 2018–February 2020) and during COVID-19 (March 2020–June 2021). The Mann–Whitney U test and Levene’s test were used to compare the differences in the incidences before and during the pandemic. In the pandemic period, compared to in the pre-COVID-19 period, the incidence rates of ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, cholelithiasis, and esophageal reflux significantly increased, whereas those of infective enteritis and irritable bowel syndrome decreased, regardless of age or sex. There were no significant changes in the incidence rates of pancreatitis, acute appendicitis, liver cirrhosis, and hemorrhoids. No seasonal variations in gastrointestinal disease occurrence were observed. In conclusion, the COVID-19 pandemic may have had unprecedented and long-term impacts on the epidemiology of gastrointestinal disease. These changes may indicate a substantial future burden on healthcare resources during the recovery phase of the pandemic and thereafter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine and Management of COVID-19)
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Article
Am I Paid Well Enough to Be Diagnosed with COVID-19? Determinants of Gender Differences in Infection Detection Rate among Polish Working Age Population
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(5), 793; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12050793 - 14 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 934
Abstract
In comparison to Western European countries, Poland had a relatively lower percentage of its population diagnosed with COVID-19. Moreover, even the detected cases were not showing any pattern consistent with the expected chance of infection and were at best only remotely related to [...] Read more.
In comparison to Western European countries, Poland had a relatively lower percentage of its population diagnosed with COVID-19. Moreover, even the detected cases were not showing any pattern consistent with the expected chance of infection and were at best only remotely related to the severity of the illness that is known to increase with age. Instead, the crucial factor in detecting illness was whether the individual was likely to receive adequate compensation for being confined to their home, with employed women being the most likely to be diagnosed. In every Polish sub-region (powiat), in the 25–54 age group, the share of men diagnosed with COVID-19 was lower than that of women, with the missing share ranging from 8% to 36%. Based on the regression model (adjusted R² = 43.9%), there were relevant non-economic factors such as education, vaccination rate and increasing median age that were reducing this gap. However, the key factors, such as the share of population entitled to sick leave derived from employment rate, or the share of the self-employed population who were unlikely to receive adequate compensation, were related to economic incentives. It would seem that gender differences, in reaction to economic stimuli, widened the discrepancies, as the same factors were affecting women as well. While the testing rates in Poland, the lowest of all the EU countries, clearly played a role in creating the environment in which testing was perceived by the general population as somewhat optional, Polish citizens themselves through their actions aggravated the problem further, creating the impression of people receiving inadequate or no compensation for their time of self-isolation. In spite of well-intentioned government efforts to extend compensation to at least some groups, a significant share of the population clearly behaved as if they feared self-isolation more than the actual virus. Therefore, for both compliance and fairness purposes, both the severity of restrictions and the availability of compensation should be reconsidered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine and Management of COVID-19)
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Article
Resistin and IL-15 as Predictors of Invasive Mechanical Ventilation in COVID-19 Pneumonia Irrespective of the Presence of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(3), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030391 - 03 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1483
Abstract
The cytokine signature present in COVID-19 could provide information on the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease and could identify possible prognostic biomarkers and possible therapeutic targets. In this longitudinal work, we studied the clinical and biochemical parameters and circulating cytokine levels of 146 [...] Read more.
The cytokine signature present in COVID-19 could provide information on the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease and could identify possible prognostic biomarkers and possible therapeutic targets. In this longitudinal work, we studied the clinical and biochemical parameters and circulating cytokine levels of 146 patients at the time of admission for COVID-19 and 4–6 weeks later. The main objective of this study was to determine whether basal cytokines could be early prognostic biomarkers of COVID-19, and also to analyze the impact of comorbidities, such as obesity or metabolic syndrome (MS), in the cytokine profile. The levels of most inflammatory cytokines were elevated on admission in relation to the level that was reached 4–6 weeks later, except for IL-1β, which was lower on admission; these levels were irrespective of the presence of obesity or MS since the cytokine storm masks these inflammatory processes. Among the cytokines analyzed, those that correlated with a worse prognosis of COVID-19 were resistin, IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, MCP-1 and TNF-α. Specifically, resistin and IL-15 are the best early predictors of requiring invasive ventilation. Therefore, resistin and IL-15 should be included in the personalized treatment decision algorithm of patients with COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine and Management of COVID-19)
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Article
Comparison of Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Younger and Elderly Patients with Severe COVID-19 in Korea: A Retrospective Multicenter Study
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(12), 1258; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11121258 - 29 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1128
Abstract
Old age is associated with disease severity and poor prognosis among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases; however, characteristics of elderly patients with severe COVID-19 are limited. We aimed to assess the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19 at tertiary [...] Read more.
Old age is associated with disease severity and poor prognosis among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases; however, characteristics of elderly patients with severe COVID-19 are limited. We aimed to assess the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19 at tertiary care centers in South Korea. This retrospective multicenter study included patients with severe COVID-19 who were admitted at seven hospitals in South Korea from 2 February 2020 to 28 February 2021. The Cox regression analyses were performed to assess factors associated with the in-hospital mortality. Of 488 patients with severe COVID-19, 318 (65.2%) were elderly (≥65 years). The older patient group had more underlying diseases and a higher severity score than the younger patient group. The older patient group had a higher in-hospital mortality rate than the younger patient group (25.5% versus 4.7%, p-value < 0.001). The in-hospital mortality risk factors among patients with severe COVID-19 included age, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score, presence of diabetes and chronic obstructive lung disease, high white blood cell count, low neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet count, do-not-resuscitate order, and treatment with invasive mechanical ventilation. In addition to old age, disease severity and examination results must be considered in treatment decision-making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine and Management of COVID-19)
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Article
Ace2 and Tmprss2 Expressions Are Regulated by Dhx32 and Influence the Gastrointestinal Symptoms Caused by SARS-CoV-2
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(11), 1212; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11111212 - 16 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1455
Abstract
Studies showed that the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is one of the most important pathways for SARS-CoV-2 infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As SARS-CoV-2 cellular entry depends on the ACE2 receptor and TMPRSS2 priming of the spike protein, it is important to understand [...] Read more.
Studies showed that the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is one of the most important pathways for SARS-CoV-2 infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As SARS-CoV-2 cellular entry depends on the ACE2 receptor and TMPRSS2 priming of the spike protein, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms through which these two proteins and their cognate transcripts interact and influence the pathogenesis of COVID-19. In this study, we quantified the expression, associations, genetic modulators, and molecular pathways for Tmprss2 and Ace2 mRNA expressions in GI tissues using a systems genetics approach and the expanded family of highly diverse BXD mouse strains. The results showed that both Tmprss2 and Ace2 are highly expressed in GI tissues with significant covariation. We identified a significant expression quantitative trait locus on chromosome 7 that controls the expression of both Tmprss2 and Ace2. Dhx32 was found to be the strongest candidate in this interval. Co-expression network analysis demonstrated that both Tmprss2 and Ace2 were located at the same module that is significantly associated with other GI-related traits. Protein–protein interaction analysis indicated that hub genes in this module are linked to circadian rhythms. Collectively, our data suggested that genes with circadian rhythms of expression may have an impact on COVID-19 disease, with implications related to the timing and treatment of COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine and Management of COVID-19)
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Article
Myocarditis and Pericarditis following COVID-19 Vaccination: Inequalities in Age and Vaccine Types
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(11), 1106; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11111106 - 28 Oct 2021
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 17376
Abstract
An increasing number of myocarditis/pericarditis incidences has been reported after coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) vaccination in adolescents and young adults. This study was designed to investigate the incidence rate of—and risk for—myocarditis and pericarditis following COVID-19 vaccination in the United States according to age [...] Read more.
An increasing number of myocarditis/pericarditis incidences has been reported after coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) vaccination in adolescents and young adults. This study was designed to investigate the incidence rate of—and risk for—myocarditis and pericarditis following COVID-19 vaccination in the United States according to age and vaccine type. This study used the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) from 11 December 2020 to 13 August 2021. A population-based data mining approach was performed based on the reporting odds ratio (ROR). Adverse events of myocarditis and pericarditis following COVID-19 vaccination were rare, with an incidence rate of 5.98 (95% CI = 5.73–6.24) cases per million doses administered. The incidence rate was higher in adolescents and after the administration of the second dose of messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines. Overall, two mRNA vaccines were significantly associated with increased risks for myocarditis/pericarditis (mRNA-1273 (Moderna): ROR = 2.91, 95% CI = 2.21–3.83; BNT162b2 (Pfizer–BioNTech): ROR = 5.37, 95% CI = 4.10–7.04) compared to all other vaccines from VAERS. The viral vector vaccine of Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen) was not associated with signals of myocarditis/pericarditis (ROR = 1.39; 95% CI = 0.99–1.97). This study found increased risks for myocarditis/pericarditis following mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. For patients at high risk for myocarditis/pericarditis or with myocardial injuries, the viral vector vaccine may be an alternative for consideration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine and Management of COVID-19)
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Article
Dementia Risk among Coronavirus Disease Survivors: A Nationwide Cohort Study in South Korea
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(10), 1015; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11101015 - 09 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1540
Abstract
We aimed to investigate whether coronavirus disease (COVID-19) survivors were at a higher risk of dementia diagnosis compared to controls at 6 months follow-up. Data pertaining to the period between 1 January and 4 June 2020, were extracted from the National Health Insurance [...] Read more.
We aimed to investigate whether coronavirus disease (COVID-19) survivors were at a higher risk of dementia diagnosis compared to controls at 6 months follow-up. Data pertaining to the period between 1 January and 4 June 2020, were extracted from the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS)-COVID-19 database in South Korea. Data on adults (≥20 years old) with no history of dementia, obtained from the NHIS-COVID-19 database, were included in the study. The endpoint of this study was the development of dementia, which was evaluated from 1 January to 1 December 2020. A total of 306,577 adults were included in the analysis, comprising 7133 COVID-19 survivors and 299,444 individuals in the control group. Among the subjects, new-onset dementia diagnosed in 2020 was recorded in 1.2% (3546 of 306,577). In the covariate-adjusted multivariable Cox regression model, the incidence of dementia among COVID-19 survivors was 1.39-fold higher (hazard ratio: 1.39, 95% confidence interval: 1.05–1.85; p = 0.023) than that in the control group. At approximately 6 months of follow-up, COVID-19 survivors were at a higher risk of dementia compared to other populations in South Korea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine and Management of COVID-19)
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Article
Graphical Trajectory Comparison to Identify Errors in Data of COVID-19: A Cross-Country Analysis
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(10), 955; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11100955 - 25 Sep 2021
Viewed by 834
Abstract
Data from the early stage of a novel infectious disease outbreak provide vital information in risk assessment, prediction, and precise disease management. Since the first reported case of COVID-19, the pattern of the novel coronavirus transmission in Wuhan has become the interest of [...] Read more.
Data from the early stage of a novel infectious disease outbreak provide vital information in risk assessment, prediction, and precise disease management. Since the first reported case of COVID-19, the pattern of the novel coronavirus transmission in Wuhan has become the interest of researchers in epidemiology and public health. To thoroughly map the mechanism of viral spreading, we used the patterns of data at the early onset of COVID-19 from seven countries to estimate the time lag between peak days of cases and deaths. This study compared these data with those of Wuhan and estimated the natural history of disease across the infected population and the time lag. The findings suggest that comparative analyses of data from different regions and countries reveal the differences between peaks of cases and deaths caused by COVID-19 and the incomplete and underestimated cases in Wuhan. Different countries may show different patterns of cases peak days, deaths peak days, and peak periods. Error in the early COVID-19 statistics in Brazil was identified. This study provides sound evidence for policymakers to understand the local circumstances in diagnosing the health of a population and propose precise and timely public health interventions to control and prevent infectious diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine and Management of COVID-19)
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Review

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Review
Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Mortality Following Hip and Knee Joint Arthroplasty Surgeries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(9), 1441; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12091441 - 31 Aug 2022
Viewed by 610
Abstract
We performed a meta-analysis comparing the mortality rates after hip and knee joint arthroplasty between the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and pre-pandemic periods. The purpose of present study was to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mortality rates after hip and [...] Read more.
We performed a meta-analysis comparing the mortality rates after hip and knee joint arthroplasty between the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and pre-pandemic periods. The purpose of present study was to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mortality rates after hip and knee joint arthroplasty. We systematically searched the MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases for studies published up to 28 March 2022. We included studies which directly compared mortality rates after hip and knee joint arthroplasty between the COVID-19 pandemic and pre-pandemic periods. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the Methodological Index for Nonrandomized Studies (MINORS). We compared the overall mortality rate as the primary outcome. For the subgroup analysis, the mortality rates included were: within 30 days and unrelated to COVID-19; we excluded studies with only elective arthroplasties. Readmission rates following arthroplasties were also compared. We included five studies with 3044 patients, of which 838 patients underwent surgeries during the pandemic period and 2206 patients underwent surgeries in the pre-pandemic period. The mean MINORS score was 15.4/24 (range: 15–16). The overall mortality rate showed no significant differences between the pandemic and pre-pandemic periods (OR, 2.71; 95% CI, 0.78–9.35; p = 0.12; I2 = 19%). No differences were observed in mortality following arthroplasties within 30 days and unrelated to COVID-19 nor in the readmission rates. Mortality, after excluding studies with only elective arthroplasty, presented significant differences between the COVID-19 pandemic and pre-pandemic periods (OR, 3.80; 95% CI, 1.18–12.28; p = 0.03, I2 = 0%). The limitation of the present study was that elective arthroplasty and urgent arthroplasty were not completely differentiated. The overall mortality rate in the COVID-19 pandemic period following hip and knee arthroplasty did not show a significant increase. This finding could help to maintain the practice of elective arthroplasty during a pandemic situation in the future (PROSPERO–CRD42022335471). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine and Management of COVID-19)
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Review
Recapping the Features of SARS-CoV-2 and Its Main Variants: Status and Future Paths
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(6), 995; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12060995 - 18 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1260
Abstract
Over the two years that we have been experiencing the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, our challenges have been the race to develop vaccines and the difficulties in fighting against new variants due to the rapid ability of the virus to [...] Read more.
Over the two years that we have been experiencing the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, our challenges have been the race to develop vaccines and the difficulties in fighting against new variants due to the rapid ability of the virus to evolve. In this sense, different organizations have identified and classified the different variants that have been emerging, distinguishing between variants of concern (VOC), variants of interest (VOI), or variants under monitoring (VUM). The following review aims to describe the latest updates focusing on VOC and already de-escalated variants, as well as to describe the impact these have had on the global situation. Understanding the intrinsic properties of SARS-CoV-2 and its interaction with the immune system and vaccination is essential to make out the underlying mechanisms that have led to the appearance of these variants, helping to determine the next steps for better public management of this pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine and Management of COVID-19)
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Review
COVID-19 and Venous Thromboembolism: From Pathological Mechanisms to Clinical Management
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(12), 1328; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11121328 - 08 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1965
Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is becoming a global pandemic, is caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. In COVID-19, thrombotic events occur frequently, mainly venous thromboembolism (VTE), which is closely related to disease severity and clinical prognosis. Compared with historical controls, the occurrence of VTE [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is becoming a global pandemic, is caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. In COVID-19, thrombotic events occur frequently, mainly venous thromboembolism (VTE), which is closely related to disease severity and clinical prognosis. Compared with historical controls, the occurrence of VTE in hospitalized and critical COVID-19 patients is incredibly high. However, the pathophysiology of thrombosis and the best strategies for thrombosis prevention in COVID-19 remain unclear, thus needing further exploration. Virchow’s triad elements have been proposed as important risk factors for thrombotic diseases. Therefore, the three factors outlined by Virchow can also be applied to the formation of venous thrombosis in the COVID-19 setting. A thorough understanding of the complex interactions in these processes is important in the search for effective treatments for COVID-19. In this work, we focus on the pathological mechanisms of VTE in COVID-19 from the aspects of endothelial dysfunction, hypercoagulability, abnormal blood flow. We also discuss the treatment of VTE as well as the ongoing clinical trials of heparin anticoagulant therapy. In addition, according to the pathophysiological mechanism of COVID-19-associated thrombosis, we extended the range of antithrombotic drugs including antiplatelet drugs, antifibrinolytic drugs, and anti-inflammatory drugs, hoping to find effective drug therapy and improve the prognosis of VTE in COVID-19 patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine and Management of COVID-19)
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Review
COVID-19 Pandemic: Public Health Risk Assessment and Risk Mitigation Strategies
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(12), 1243; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11121243 - 23 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1661
Abstract
A newly emerged respiratory viral disease called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is also known as pandemic coronavirus disease (COVID-19). This pandemic has resulted an unprecedented global health crisis and devastating impact on several sectors of human lives and economies. Fortunately, the [...] Read more.
A newly emerged respiratory viral disease called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is also known as pandemic coronavirus disease (COVID-19). This pandemic has resulted an unprecedented global health crisis and devastating impact on several sectors of human lives and economies. Fortunately, the average case fatality ratio for SARS-CoV-2 is below 2%, much lower than that estimated for MERS (34%) and SARS (11%). However, COVID-19 has a much higher transmissibility rate, as evident from the constant increase in the count of infections worldwide. This article explores the reasons behind how COVID-19 was able to cause a global pandemic crisis. The current outbreak scenario and causes of rapid global spread are examined using recent developments in the literature, epidemiological features relevant to public health awareness, and critical perspective of risk assessment and mitigation strategies. Effective pandemic risk mitigation measures have been established and amended against COVID-19 diseases, but there is still much scope for upgrading execution and coordination among authorities in terms of organizational leadership’s commitment and diverse range of safety measures, including administrative control measures, engineering control measures, and personal protective equipment (PPE). The significance of containment interventions against the COVID-19 pandemic is now well established; however, there is a need for its effective execution across the globe, and for the improvement of the performance of risk mitigation practices and suppression of future pandemic crises. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine and Management of COVID-19)
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Commentary
Challenges in the Management of Post-COVID-19 Pulmonary Fibrosis for the Latin American Population
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(9), 1393; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12091393 - 27 Aug 2022
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Abstract
This commentary aims to highlight some of the major issues (with possible solutions) that the Latin American region is currently dealing with in managing post-COVID-19 pulmonary fibrosis. Overall, there is little evidence for successful long-term COVID-19 follow-up treatment. The lack of knowledge regarding [...] Read more.
This commentary aims to highlight some of the major issues (with possible solutions) that the Latin American region is currently dealing with in managing post-COVID-19 pulmonary fibrosis. Overall, there is little evidence for successful long-term COVID-19 follow-up treatment. The lack of knowledge regarding proper treatment is exacerbated in Latin America by a general lack of resources devoted to healthcare, and a lack of availability and access to multidisciplinary teams. The discussion suggests that better infrastructure (primarily multicenter cohorts of COVID-19 survivors) and well-designed studies are required to develop scientific knowledge to improve treatment for the increasing prevalence of pulmonary fibrosis in Latin America. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine and Management of COVID-19)
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