Special Issue "Bioinspired Materials for Medical and Biotechnological Applications"

A special issue of Journal of Functional Biomaterials (ISSN 2079-4983).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 December 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. John G. Hardy
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Elzbieta Pamula
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow MP, Poland
Interests: biodegradable polymers; scaffolds for tissue engineering; polymeric micro- and nanoparticles as drug delivery systems; hydrogels; biocomposites; nanomedicine
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Timothy E.L. Douglas
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Engineering Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YW, UK
2. Materials Science Institute, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YW, UK
Interests: composite biomaterials; mineralized hydrogels; combining the positive characteristics of the mineral phase (mechanical strength, ability to support bone regeneration) with the positive characteristics of the hydrogel phase
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Marloes Peeters
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear NE1 7RU, UK
Interests: molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs); sensors; electrochemistry; polymer synthesis; sustainable healthcare; thermal analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nature is a practically inexhaustible source of inspiration for the design of synthetic materials. Hence, “bio-inspired materials” is a practically limitless field. In this Special Issue, we will focus on applications in medicine and biotechnology, where materials interact with biological systems, tissues, cells, and microorganisms to invoke the required response in a specific application. For example, we usually do not need microorganism growth in medicine, but we often need it in biotechnology. Characteristics of bio-inspired materials which are relevant for their performance may include, but are not limited to, topographical, chemical, mechanical, and electrical properties. Due to the wide scope of bio-inspired materials, contributions relating to biomaterials, tissue engineering, and biomimetics are also welcome.

Dr. John G. Hardy
Prof. Dr. Elzbieta Pamula
Dr. Timothy E.L. Douglas
Dr. Marloes Peeters
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Functional Biomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biomimetics
  • biocomposites
  • bioinspired
  • biotechnology
  • biomaterials
  • tissue engineering

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
Electron Beam-Treated Enzymatically Mineralized Gelatin Hydrogels for Bone Tissue Engineering
J. Funct. Biomater. 2021, 12(4), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb12040057 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 423
Abstract
Biological hydrogels are highly promising materials for bone tissue engineering (BTE) due to their high biocompatibility and biomimetic characteristics. However, for advanced and customized BTE, precise tools for material stabilization and tuning material properties are desired while optimal mineralisation must be ensured. Therefore, [...] Read more.
Biological hydrogels are highly promising materials for bone tissue engineering (BTE) due to their high biocompatibility and biomimetic characteristics. However, for advanced and customized BTE, precise tools for material stabilization and tuning material properties are desired while optimal mineralisation must be ensured. Therefore, reagent-free crosslinking techniques such as high energy electron beam treatment promise effective material modifications without formation of cytotoxic by-products. In the case of the hydrogel gelatin, electron beam crosslinking further induces thermal stability enabling biomedical application at physiological temperatures. In the case of enzymatic mineralisation, induced by Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) and mediated by Calcium Glycerophosphate (CaGP), it is necessary to investigate if electron beam treatment before mineralisation has an influence on the enzymatic activity and thus affects the mineralisation process. The presented study investigates electron beam-treated gelatin hydrogels with previously incorporated ALP and successive mineralisation via incubation in a medium containing CaGP. It could be shown that electron beam treatment optimally maintains enzymatic activity of ALP which allows mineralisation. Furthermore, the precise tuning of material properties such as increasing compressive modulus is possible. This study characterizes the mineralised hydrogels in terms of mineral formation and demonstrates the formation of CaP in dependence of ALP concentration and electron dose. Furthermore, investigations of uniaxial compression stability indicate increased compression moduli for mineralised electron beam-treated gelatin hydrogels. In summary, electron beam-treated mineralized gelatin hydrogels reveal good cytocompatibility for MG-63 osteoblast like cells indicating a high potential for BTE applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioinspired Materials for Medical and Biotechnological Applications)
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Article
Physico-Chemical Properties and Biocompatibility of Thermosensitive Chitosan Lactate and Chitosan Chloride Hydrogels Developed for Tissue Engineering Application
J. Funct. Biomater. 2021, 12(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb12020037 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 731
Abstract
Recently, the modification of the initial structure of biopolymers, mainly chitosan, has been gaining importance with a view to obtain functional forms with increased practicality and specific properties enabling their use in tissue engineering. Therefore, in this article, the properties (structural and biological) [...] Read more.
Recently, the modification of the initial structure of biopolymers, mainly chitosan, has been gaining importance with a view to obtain functional forms with increased practicality and specific properties enabling their use in tissue engineering. Therefore, in this article, the properties (structural and biological) of thermosensitive hydrogels obtained from chitosan lactate/chloride and two types of crosslinking agents (β-glycerol phosphate disodium salt pentahydrate and uridine 5′-monophosphate disodium salt) are discussed. The aim of the research is to identify changes in the structure of the biomaterials during conditioning in water. Structural investigations were carried out by FTIR spectroscopy. The crystallinity of gels was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The biocompatibility (evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity) of chitosan hydrogels was investigated by contact with human colon adenocarcinoma cell line for 48 h. The cytotoxicity was verified based on the colorimetric resazurin assay, and the genotoxicity was checked by the comet assay (percentage of DNA in the comet tail). The conducted research showed that the analyzed types of chitosan hydrogels are non-cytotoxic and non-genotoxic materials. The good biocompatibility of chitosan hydrogels surfaces makes them interesting scaffolds with clinical potential in tissue regeneration engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioinspired Materials for Medical and Biotechnological Applications)
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Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Polymer-Based Coatings Modified with Bioactive Ceramic and Bovine Serum Albumin
J. Funct. Biomater. 2021, 12(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb12020021 - 30 Mar 2021
Viewed by 818
Abstract
This study involves the synthesis of hydroxyapatite and describes the preparation and characterization of polymer coatings based on poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate and poly(ethylene glycol) and modified with bovine serum albumin and hydroxyapatite. Hydroxyapatite was obtained by wet chemical synthesis and characterized by X-ray [...] Read more.
This study involves the synthesis of hydroxyapatite and describes the preparation and characterization of polymer coatings based on poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate and poly(ethylene glycol) and modified with bovine serum albumin and hydroxyapatite. Hydroxyapatite was obtained by wet chemical synthesis and characterized by X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy, and its Ca/P molar ratio was determined (1.69 ± 0.08). The ceramic and bovine serum albumin were used in the preparation of composite materials with the polymeric matrix. The chemical composition of coatings was characterized with FTIR spectroscopy, and their morphology was recorded with SEM imaging. Moreover, the measurements of surface roughness parameters and stereometric research were performed. The prepared coatings were subjected to in vitro studies in simulated body fluid and artificial saliva. Changes in chemical composition and morphology after immersion were examined with FTIR spectroscopy and SEM imaging. Based on the conducted research, it can be stated that applied modifiers promote the biomineralization process. The roughness analysis confirmed prepared materials were characterized by the micrometer-scale topography. The materials morphology and roughness, and the morphology of the newly formed apatite deposit, were dependent on the type of the used modifier, and the artificial fluid used in in vitro studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioinspired Materials for Medical and Biotechnological Applications)
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Article
MTMS-Based Aerogel Constructs for Immobilization of Plant Hairy Roots: Effects on Proliferation of Rindera graeca Biomass and Extracellular Secretion of Naphthoquinones
J. Funct. Biomater. 2021, 12(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb12010019 - 05 Mar 2021
Viewed by 694
Abstract
Unique biosynthetic abilities revealed by plants determine in vitro cultures of hairy roots as a suitable source of pharmaceutically relevant bioactive compounds. The basic aim of the study was to examine the applicability of aerogel composed of methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) for immobilization of Rindera [...] Read more.
Unique biosynthetic abilities revealed by plants determine in vitro cultures of hairy roots as a suitable source of pharmaceutically relevant bioactive compounds. The basic aim of the study was to examine the applicability of aerogel composed of methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) for immobilization of Rindera graeca hairy roots by identifying quantitative effects of biomass proliferation and naphthoquinones extracellular secretion in the aerogel-supported culture system. R. graeca hairy roots were simultaneously cultured for 28-days, as (i) nonimmobilized biomass (reference system), (ii) biomass immobilized on macroporous polyurethane foam (PUF), (iii) biomass with disintegrated MTMS aerogel, (iv) biomass immobilized on polypropylene (PP) fibers (as control), and (v) biomass immobilized on monolithic PP-reinforced MTMS aerogel. MTMS aerogel exhibited high level of biocompatibility toward R. graeca hairy roots which grew into the structure of monolithic aerogel-based constructs. Monolithic MTMS-based constructs significantly promoted the proliferation of hairy roots, resulting in 55% higher fresh mass than the reference system. The highest level of naphthoquinones productivity, i.e., 653 µg gDW−1, was noted for PUF-supported culture system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioinspired Materials for Medical and Biotechnological Applications)
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Article
Long-Term Assessment of the In Vitro Corrosion Resistance of Biomimetic ACP Coatings Electrodeposited from an Acetate Bath
J. Funct. Biomater. 2021, 12(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb12010012 - 07 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 819
Abstract
Calcium phosphate coatings are able to improve the osseointegration process due to their chemical composition, which is similar to that of bone tissues. In this work, to increase the long-term corrosion resistance and to improve the osseointegration process of commercially pure titanium Grade [...] Read more.
Calcium phosphate coatings are able to improve the osseointegration process due to their chemical composition, which is similar to that of bone tissues. In this work, to increase the long-term corrosion resistance and to improve the osseointegration process of commercially pure titanium Grade 4 (CpTi G4), biomimetic amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) coatings were electrodeposited for the first time from an acetate bath with a pH level of 7.0 and a Ca:P ratio of 1.67. ACP coatings were obtained on CpTi G4 substrate subjected to sandblasting and autoclaving using electrochemically assisted deposition at a potential of −3 V relative to the open circuit potential for 30 min at room temperature. SEM, EDS, 2D roughness profiles, amplitude-sensitive eddy current method, and Kelvin scanning probe were used for the surface characterization of the biomaterial under study. In vitro corrosion resistance tests were conducted for 21 days in artificial saliva using open circuit potential, polarization curves, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The passive-transpassive behavior was revealed for the obtained ACP coatings. The long-term corrosion resistance test showed a deterioration of the protective properties for CpTi G4 uncoated and coated with ACP with immersion time. The mechanism and kinetics of the pitting corrosion on the CpTi G4|TiO2|ACP coating system are discussed in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioinspired Materials for Medical and Biotechnological Applications)
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Review

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Review
Advances in Fabricating the Electrospun Biopolymer-Based Biomaterials
J. Funct. Biomater. 2021, 12(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb12020026 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 997
Abstract
Biopolymers formed into a fibrous morphology through electrospinning are of increasing interest in the field of biomedicine due to their intrinsic biocompatibility and biodegradability and their ability to be biomimetic to various fibrous structures present in animal tissues. However, their mechanical properties are [...] Read more.
Biopolymers formed into a fibrous morphology through electrospinning are of increasing interest in the field of biomedicine due to their intrinsic biocompatibility and biodegradability and their ability to be biomimetic to various fibrous structures present in animal tissues. However, their mechanical properties are often unsatisfactory and their processing may be troublesome. Thus, extensive research interest is focused on improving these qualities. This review article presents the selection of the recent advances in techniques aimed to improve the electrospinnability of various biopolymers (polysaccharides, polynucleotides, peptides, and phospholipids). The electrospinning of single materials, and the variety of co-polymers, with and without additives, is covered. Additionally, various crosslinking strategies are presented. Examples of cytocompatibility, biocompatibility, and antimicrobial properties are analyzed. Special attention is given to whey protein isolate as an example of a novel, promising, green material with good potential in the field of biomedicine. This review ends with a brief summary and outlook for the biomedical applicability of electrospinnable biopolymers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioinspired Materials for Medical and Biotechnological Applications)
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