Selected Papers from the JSOPB 2020—Cell and Organ Biology

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Clinical Laboratory Medicine".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2021) | Viewed by 11366

Special Issue Editors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is a collection of selected papers from the 46th Japanese Society for Organ Preservation and Biology (JSOPB) (http://jognbio.umin.jp/). Journal of Clinical Medicine (JCM) provides an opportunity to publish the selected data that were presented at the annual meeting.

JSOPB was founded in 1974 for the study of organ preservation and developed widely in the 1990s with the participation of researchers in various fields of medicine, pharmacology, engineering, veterinary medicine, and basic science. Currently, the JSOPB has more than 700 members and is run under the direction of Prof. Takashi Kenmochi, the president of the JSOPB.

Excellent presentations conducted at the 46th annual meeting of the JSOPB held 13–14 November 2020, in Fukushima, Japan, under the supervision of Prof. Eiji Kobayashi (Department of Organ Fabrication, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan), were selected and given an opportunity to be published in this Special Issue of JCM.

One of the extremely important missions of the annual meeting of the JSOPB is to exchange new research outcomes and create new therapeutic concepts. With this in mind, the aim of the present Special Issue is the following:

  • Molecular and cellular biology of organ preservation and transplantation
  • Biology of pharmacology
  • Organ/tissue engineering
  • Stem cell therapy
  • Stem cell biology

Prof. Dr. Takashi Kenmochi
Prof. Dr. Hirofumi Noguchi
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Organ preservation
  • Transplantation
  • Pharmacology
  • Engineering
  • Molecular biology
  • Cellular biology
  • Stem cell therapy

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 1660 KiB  
Article
The Phenolic Antioxidant 3,5-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzyl Alcohol (DHMBA) Prevents Enterocyte Cell Death under Oxygen-Dissolving Cold Conditions through Polyphyletic Antioxidant Actions
by Moto Fukai, Takuya Nakayabu, Shintaro Ohtani, Kengo Shibata, Shingo Shimada, Soudai Sakamoto, Hirotoshi Fuda, Takayuki Furukawa, Mitsugu Watanabe, Shu-Ping Hui, Hitoshi Chiba, Tsuyoshi Shimamura and Akinobu Taketomi
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(9), 1972; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10091972 - 4 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2240
Abstract
Cold preservation in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution is not enough to maintain the viability of the small intestine, due to the oxidative stress. The novel phenolic antioxidant 3,5-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzyl alcohol (DHMBA) has dual properties to reduce oxidative stress, radical scavenging, and antioxidant protein [...] Read more.
Cold preservation in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution is not enough to maintain the viability of the small intestine, due to the oxidative stress. The novel phenolic antioxidant 3,5-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzyl alcohol (DHMBA) has dual properties to reduce oxidative stress, radical scavenging, and antioxidant protein induction, in other cells. This study was designed to determine whether DHMBA reduces cold preservation injury of enterocytes, and to identify the effector site. Enterocytes were subjected to 48-h cold preservation under atmosphere in UW solution (±DHMBA), and then returned to normal culture to replicate reperfusion of the small intestine after cold preservation. At the end of cold preservation (ECP) and at 1, 3, 6, and 72 h after rewarming (R1h, R3h, R6h, and R72h), we evaluated cell function and the injury mechanism. The results showed that DHMBA protected mitochondrial function mainly during cold preservation, and suppressed cell death after rewarming, as shown by the MTT, ATP, mitochondrial membrane potential, LDH, and lipid peroxidation assays, together with enhanced survival signals (PI3K, Akt, p70S6K) and induction of antioxidant proteins (HO-1, NQO-1, TRX-1). We found that DHMBA mitigates the cold-induced injury of enterocytes by protecting the mitochondria through direct and indirect antioxidative activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the JSOPB 2020—Cell and Organ Biology)
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13 pages, 593 KiB  
Article
Individual Lymphocyte Sensitivity to Steroids as a Reliable Biomarker for Clinical Outcome after Steroid Withdrawal in Japanese Renal Transplantation
by Masaaki Okihara, Hironori Takeuchi, Yukiko Kikuchi, Isao Akashi, Yu Kihara, Osamu Konno, Hitoshi Iwamoto, Takashi Oda, Sachiko Tanaka, Sakae Unezaki and Toshihiko Hirano
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(8), 1670; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10081670 - 13 Apr 2021
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Abstract
Recently, steroid reduction/withdrawal regimens have been attempted to minimize the side effects of steroids in renal transplantation. However, some recipients have experienced an increase/resumption of steroid administrations and acute graft rejection (AR). Therefore, we investigated the relationship between the individual lymphocyte sensitivity to [...] Read more.
Recently, steroid reduction/withdrawal regimens have been attempted to minimize the side effects of steroids in renal transplantation. However, some recipients have experienced an increase/resumption of steroid administrations and acute graft rejection (AR). Therefore, we investigated the relationship between the individual lymphocyte sensitivity to steroids and the clinical outcome after steroid reduction/withdrawal. We cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from 24 recipients with concanavalin A (Con A) in the presence of methylprednisolone (MPSL) or cortisol (COR) for four days, and the 50% of PBMC proliferation (IC50) values and the PBMC sensitivity to steroids were calculated. Regarding the experience of steroid increase/resumption and incidence of AR within one year of steroid reduction/withdrawal, the IC50 values of these drugs before transplantation in the clinical event group were significantly higher than those in the event-free group. The cumulative incidence of steroid increase/resumption and AR in the PBMC high-sensitivity groups to these drugs before transplantation were significantly lower than those in the low-sensitivity groups. These observations suggested that an individual’s lymphocyte sensitivity to steroids could be a reliable biomarker to predict the clinical outcome after steroid reduction/withdrawal and to select the patients whose dose of steroids can be decreased and/or withdrawn after transplantation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the JSOPB 2020—Cell and Organ Biology)
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11 pages, 3634 KiB  
Article
The Liver Surface Is an Attractive Transplant Site for Pancreatic Islet Transplantation
by Akiko Inagaki, Takehiro Imura, Yasuhiro Nakamura, Kazuo Ohashi and Masafumi Goto
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(4), 724; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10040724 - 12 Feb 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1840
Abstract
In the current clinical islet transplantation, intraportal transplantation is regarded as the gold-standard procedure. However, in this procedure, 50 to 70% of the transplanted islets are immediately damaged due to a strong innate immune response based on islet–blood contact. We investigated the transplant [...] Read more.
In the current clinical islet transplantation, intraportal transplantation is regarded as the gold-standard procedure. However, in this procedure, 50 to 70% of the transplanted islets are immediately damaged due to a strong innate immune response based on islet–blood contact. We investigated the transplant efficiency of a novel method of liver surface transplantation using a syngeneic keratinocyte sheet to avoid islet–blood contact. To examine the influence of the keratinocyte sheet, substantial amounts of syngeneic islets (8 IEQs/g) were transplanted on the liver surface of diabetic rats, while marginal amounts of islets (4 IEQs/g) were transplanted via intraportal transplantation to compare the transplant efficiency. Blood glucose, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance, immunohistochemistry, and in vivo imaging findings of the cell sheet were evaluated. The study showed that islet transplantation to the liver surface immediately followed by a syngeneic keratinocyte sheet covering was effective for curing diabetic rats, while no rats were cured in the group without the cell sheet. Notably, islet grafts transplanted via this approach appeared to penetrate into the liver parenchyma. However, the transplant efficiency did not reach that of intraportal transplantation. Further refinements of this approach by introducing mesothelial or fibroblast cell sheets in combination with a preferable scaffold for islet grafts may help to improve the transplant efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the JSOPB 2020—Cell and Organ Biology)
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12 pages, 2439 KiB  
Article
Gene Expression in Pancreatic Cancer-Like Cells and Induced Pancreatic Stem Cells Generated by Transient Overexpression of Reprogramming Factors
by Chika Miyagi-Shiohira, Issei Saitoh, Masami Watanabe and Hirofumi Noguchi
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(3), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10030454 - 25 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2158
Abstract
We previously reported that transient overexpression of reprogramming factors can be used to generate induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, induced tissue-specific stem (iTS) cells, and fibroblast-like (iF) cells from pancreatic tissue. iF cells have tumorigenic ability and behave similarly to pancreatic cancer cells. [...] Read more.
We previously reported that transient overexpression of reprogramming factors can be used to generate induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, induced tissue-specific stem (iTS) cells, and fibroblast-like (iF) cells from pancreatic tissue. iF cells have tumorigenic ability and behave similarly to pancreatic cancer cells. In this study, we analyzed gene expression in iF cells and iTS-P cells (iTS cells from pancreatic tissue) via microarray analysis and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The expression levels of the Mybl2 and Lyn genes, which are reported to be oncogenes, were significantly higher in iF cells than in iTS-P cells. The expression level of Nestin, which is expressed in not only pancreatic progenitor cells but also pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, was also higher in iF cells than in iTS-P cells. Itgb6 and Fgf13, which are involved in the pathogenesis of diseases such as cancer, exhibited higher expression levels in iF cells than in iTS-P cells. Unexpectedly, the expression levels of genes related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), except Bmp4, were lower in iF cells than in iTS-P cells. These data suggest that the Mybl2, Lyn, Nestin, Itgb6, and Fgf13 genes could be important biomarkers to distinguish iTS-P cells from iF cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the JSOPB 2020—Cell and Organ Biology)
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Review

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10 pages, 1954 KiB  
Review
Pancreatic Islet Purification from Large Mammals and Humans Using a COBE 2991 Cell Processor versus Large Plastic Bottles
by Hirofumi Noguchi
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10010010 - 23 Dec 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2367
Abstract
The islet purification step in clinical islet isolation is important for minimizing the risks associated with intraportal infusion. Continuous density gradient with a COBE 2991 cell processor is commonly used for clinical islet purification. However, the high shear force involved in the purification [...] Read more.
The islet purification step in clinical islet isolation is important for minimizing the risks associated with intraportal infusion. Continuous density gradient with a COBE 2991 cell processor is commonly used for clinical islet purification. However, the high shear force involved in the purification method using the COBE 2991 cell processor causes mechanical damage to the islets. We and other groups have shown human/porcine islet purification using large cylindrical plastic bottles. Shear stress can be minimized or eliminated using large cylindrical plastic bottles because the bottles do not have a narrow segment and no centrifugation is required during tissue loading and the collection processes of islet purification. This review describes current advances in islet purification from large mammals and humans using a COBE 2991 cell processor versus large cylindrical plastic bottles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the JSOPB 2020—Cell and Organ Biology)
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