Digital Workflows and Material Sciences in Dental Medicine

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Dentistry, Oral Surgery and Oral Medicine".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2021) | Viewed by 77276

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Guest Editor
Head of eHealth in Reconstructive Dentistry, Clinic of Reconstructive Dentistry, Center for Dental Medicine, University of Zurich, 8006 Zürich, Switzerland
Interests: reconstructive dentistry; prosthodontics; implant dentistry; digital technology; dental materials; augmented/virtual reality; artificial intelligence; big data & eHealth; public health; translational research
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The trend of digitalization is an omnipresent phenomenon today—in social life and in the dental community. Advancement in digital technology has fostered research into new dental materials for the use of these workflows, particularly in the field of prosthodontics and oral implantology.

CAD/CAM technology has been a game changer for the production of tooth-borne and implant-supported (monolithic) reconstructions: from optical scanning, to on-screen designing, and rapid prototyping using milling or 3D printing. In this context, the continuous development and speedy progress in digital workflows and dental materials ensure new opportunities in dentistry.

The objective of this Special Issue is to provide an update on the current knowledge with state-of-the-art theory and practical information on digital workflows to determine the uptake of technological innovations in dental materials science. In addition, emphasis is placed on identifying future research needs to manage the continuous increase in digitalization in combination with dental materials and to accomplish their clinical translation.

This Special Issue welcomes all types of studies and reviews considering the perspectives of the various stakeholders with regard to digital dentistry and dental materials.

Prof. Dr. Tim Joda
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Dentistry
  • Prosthodontics
  • Implant dentistry
  • Digital technology
  • Dental materials
  • Rapid prototyping
  • CAD/CAM technology
  • Optical scanning
  • 3D printing
  • Translational research

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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10 pages, 1350 KiB  
Article
A Double-Blind Crossover RCT Analyzing Technical and Clinical Performance of Monolithic ZrO2 Implant Fixed Dental Prostheses (iFDP) in Three Different Digital Workflows
by Aiste Gintaute, Karin Weber, Nicola U. Zitzmann, Urs Brägger, Marco Ferrari and Tim Joda
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(12), 2661; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10122661 - 16 Jun 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2086
Abstract
This double-blind randomized controlled trial with a crossover design analyzed the technical and clinical performance of three-unit monolithic ZrO2 implant-fixed dental prostheses (iFDPs), prepared using two complete digital workflows (Test-1, Test-2) and one mixed analog–digital workflow (Control). Each of the 20 study [...] Read more.
This double-blind randomized controlled trial with a crossover design analyzed the technical and clinical performance of three-unit monolithic ZrO2 implant-fixed dental prostheses (iFDPs), prepared using two complete digital workflows (Test-1, Test-2) and one mixed analog–digital workflow (Control). Each of the 20 study patients received three iFDPs, resulting in 60 restorations for analysis. The quality of the restorations was assessed by analyzing laboratory cross-mounting and calculating the chairside adjustment time required during fitting. All iFDPs could be produced successfully with all three workflows. The highest cross-mounting success rate was observed for the original pairing iFDP/model of the Control group. Overall, 60% of iFDPs prepared with Test-1 workflow did not require chairside adjustment compared with 50% for Test-2 and 30% for Controls. The mean total chairside adjustment time, as the sum of interproximal, pontic, and occlusal corrections was 2.59 ± 2.51 min (Control), 2.88 ± 2.86 min (Test-1), and 3.87 ± 3.02 min (Test-2). All tested workflows were feasible for treatment with iFDPs in posterior sites on a soft tissue level type implant system. For clinical routine, it has to be considered that chairside adjustments may be necessary, at least in every second patient, independent on the workflow used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Workflows and Material Sciences in Dental Medicine)
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15 pages, 5927 KiB  
Article
Adapting the Pore Size of Individual, 3D-Printed CPC Scaffolds in Maxillofacial Surgery
by David Muallah, Philipp Sembdner, Stefan Holtzhausen, Heike Meissner, André Hutsky, Daniel Ellmann, Antje Assmann, Matthias C. Schulz, Günter Lauer and Lysann M. Kroschwald
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(12), 2654; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10122654 - 16 Jun 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2125
Abstract
Three dimensional (3D) printing allows additive manufacturing of patient specific scaffolds with varying pore size and geometry. Such porous scaffolds, made of 3D-printable bone-like calcium phosphate cement (CPC), are suitable for bone augmentation due to their benefit for osteogenesis. Their pores allow blood-, [...] Read more.
Three dimensional (3D) printing allows additive manufacturing of patient specific scaffolds with varying pore size and geometry. Such porous scaffolds, made of 3D-printable bone-like calcium phosphate cement (CPC), are suitable for bone augmentation due to their benefit for osteogenesis. Their pores allow blood-, bone- and stem cells to migrate, colonize and finally integrate into the adjacent tissue. Furthermore, the pore size affects the scaffold’s stability. Since scaffolds in maxillofacial surgery have to withstand high forces within the jaw, adequate mechanical properties are of high clinical importance. Although many studies have investigated CPC for bone augmentation, the ideal porosity for specific indications has not been defined yet. We investigated 3D printed CPC cubes with increasing pore sizes and different printing orientations regarding cell migration and mechanical properties in comparison to commercially available bone substitutes. Furthermore, by investigating clinical cases, the scaffolds’ designs were adapted to resemble the in vivo conditions as accurately as possible. Our findings suggest that the pore size of CPC scaffolds for bone augmentation in maxillofacial surgery necessarily needs to be adapted to the surgical site. Scaffolds for sites that are not exposed to high forces, such as the sinus floor, should be printed with a pore size of 750 µm to benefit from enhanced cell infiltration. In contrast, for areas exposed to high pressures, such as the lateral mandible, scaffolds should be manufactured with a pore size of 490 µm to guarantee adequate cell migration and in order to withstand the high forces during the chewing process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Workflows and Material Sciences in Dental Medicine)
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12 pages, 4643 KiB  
Article
Accuracy of Three-Dimensional (3D) Printed Dental Digital Models Generated with Three Types of Resin Polymers by Extra-Oral Optical Scanning
by Eugen S. Bud, Vlad I. Bocanet, Mircea H. Muntean, Alexandru Vlasa, Sorana M. Bucur, Mariana Păcurar, Bogdan R. Dragomir, Cristian D. Olteanu and Anamaria Bud
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(9), 1908; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10091908 - 28 Apr 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2302
Abstract
Digital impression devices are used alternatively to conventional impression techniques and materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the precision of extraoral digitalization of three types of photosensitive resin polymers used for 3D printing with the aid of a digital extraoral [...] Read more.
Digital impression devices are used alternatively to conventional impression techniques and materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the precision of extraoral digitalization of three types of photosensitive resin polymers used for 3D printing with the aid of a digital extraoral optical scanner. The alignment of the scans was performed by a standard best-fit alignment. Trueness and precision were used to evaluate the models. The trueness was evaluated by using bias as a measure and the standard deviation was used to evaluate the precision. After assessing the normality of the distributions, an independent Kruskal–Wallis test was used to compare the trueness and precision across the material groups. The Mann–Whitney test was used as a post-hoc test for significant differences. The result of the analysis showed significant differences (U = 66, z = −2.337, p = 0.019) in trueness of mesiodistal distances. Upon visual inspection of the models, defects were noticed on two out of nine of the models printed with a photosensitive polymer. The defects were presented as cavities caused by air bubbles and were also reflected in the scans. Mean precision did not vary too much between these three photosensitive polymer resins, therefore, the selection of 3D printing materials should be based on the trueness and the required precision of the clinical purpose of the model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Workflows and Material Sciences in Dental Medicine)
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12 pages, 3560 KiB  
Article
Stereolithography vs. Direct Light Processing for Rapid Manufacturing of Complete Denture Bases: An In Vitro Accuracy Analysis
by Alexey Unkovskiy, Franziska Schmidt, Florian Beuer, Ping Li, Sebastian Spintzyk and Pablo Kraemer Fernandez
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(5), 1070; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10051070 - 4 Mar 2021
Cited by 59 | Viewed by 4541
Abstract
The topical literature lacks any comparison between stereolithography (SLA) and direct light processing (DLP) printing methods with regard to the accuracy of complete denture base fabrication, thereby utilizing materials certified for this purpose. In order to investigate this aspect, 15 denture bases were [...] Read more.
The topical literature lacks any comparison between stereolithography (SLA) and direct light processing (DLP) printing methods with regard to the accuracy of complete denture base fabrication, thereby utilizing materials certified for this purpose. In order to investigate this aspect, 15 denture bases were printed with SLA and DLP methods using three build angles: 0°, 45° and 90°. The dentures were digitalized using a laboratory scanner (D2000, 3Shape) and analyzed in analyzing software (Geomagic Control X, 3D systems). Differences between 3D datasets were measured using the root mean square (RMS) value for trueness and precision and mean and maximum deviations were obtained for each denture base. The data were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple comparison test. A heat map was generated to display the locations of the deviations within the intaglio surface. The overall tendency indicated that SLA denture bases had significantly higher trueness for most build angles compared to DLP (p < 0.001). The 90° build angle may provide the best trueness for both SLA and DLP. With regard to precision, statistically significant differences were found in the build angles only. Higher precision was revealed in the DLP angle of 0° in comparison to the 45° and 90° angles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Workflows and Material Sciences in Dental Medicine)
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10 pages, 2393 KiB  
Article
Analysis of The Reproducibility of Subgingival Vertical Margins Using Intraoral Optical Scanning (IOS): A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial
by Edoardo Ferrari Cagidiaco, Fernando Zarone, Nicola Discepoli, Tim Joda and Marco Ferrari
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(5), 941; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10050941 - 1 Mar 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2599
Abstract
Background: The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the capability of an IOS (Intra Oral Scanner) device, used in standardized conditions, to detect margins of abutments prepared with knife-edge finishing line located at three different levels in relation to the [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the capability of an IOS (Intra Oral Scanner) device, used in standardized conditions, to detect margins of abutments prepared with knife-edge finishing line located at three different levels in relation to the gingival sulcus. Methods: sixty abutment teeth for treatment with full crowns were selected and randomly divided in three groups accordingly to the depth of the finishing line: Group A: supragingival margin; Group B: 0.5–1.0 mm into the sulcus; Group C: 1.5–2.0 mm into the sulcus. Temporary crowns were placed for two weeks and then digital impressions (Aadva IOS 100, GC, Japan) were made of each abutment. As controls, analog impressions were taken, poured, and scanned using a laboratory scanner (Aadva lab scanner, GC, Japan). Two standard tessellation language (STL) files were generated for each abutment, subsequently processed, and superimposed by Exocad software (Exocad GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany), applying the “best-fit“ algorithm in order to align the scan of the conventional with the digital impressions. The distances between each preparation margin and the adjacent gingival tissue were measured. Four measures were taken, two interproximally and buccally, for a total of six measures of each abutment considering three modes of impressions. The data were statistically evaluated using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for each site and the Bonferroni test. Results: there was no difference between the two kinds of impression in Group A in both sites, in Group B a difference of 0.483 mm and 0.682 mm at interproximal and buccal sites, respectively, and in Group C 0.750 mm and 0.964 mm at interproximal and buccal sites, respectively. The analysis performed on a site level (mesial/distal/vestibular) for the depth of both vertical preparations revealed significant differences (p < 0.0001). After a post hoc analysis (Bonferroni), vestibular sites of the shallow vertical preparations resulted in significantly lower values compared to the other sites prepared deeply. Conclusions: the results showed that the location of the margin is an important factor in making a precise and complete impression when IOS (Intra Oral Scanner) is used. Moreover, deep preparation into the sulcus is not recommended for IOS (Intra Oral Scanner) impressions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Workflows and Material Sciences in Dental Medicine)
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11 pages, 2301 KiB  
Article
Marginal and Internal Fit of Ceramic Restorations Fabricated Using Digital Scanning and Conventional Impressions: A Clinical Study
by Jeong-Hyeon Lee, Keunbada Son and Kyu-Bok Lee
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(12), 4035; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9124035 - 14 Dec 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4123
Abstract
This clinical study was designed with the aim of fabricating four ceramic crowns using the conventional method and digital methods with three different intraoral scanners and evaluate the marginal and internal fit as well as clinician satisfaction. We enrolled 20 subjects who required [...] Read more.
This clinical study was designed with the aim of fabricating four ceramic crowns using the conventional method and digital methods with three different intraoral scanners and evaluate the marginal and internal fit as well as clinician satisfaction. We enrolled 20 subjects who required ceramic crowns in the upper or lower molar or the premolar. Impressions were obtained using digital scans, with conventional impressions (polyvinyl siloxane and desktop scanner) and three different intraoral scanners (EZIS PO, i500, and CS3600). Four lithium disilicate glass-ceramic crowns were fabricated for each patient. In the oral cavity, the proximal and occlusal adjustments were performed, and the marginal fit and internal fit were evaluated using the silicone replica technique. The clinician satisfaction score of the four crowns was evaluated as per the evaluations of the proximal and occlusal contacts made during the adjustment process and the marginal and internal fit. For statistical analysis, the differences among the groups were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD test as a post-test; Pearson correlation analysis was used for analyzing the correlations (α = 0.05). There was a significant difference in the marginal and internal fit of the ceramic crowns fabricated using three intraoral scanner types and one desktop scanner type (p < 0.001); there was a significant difference in the clinician satisfaction scores (p = 0.04). The clinician satisfaction score and marginal fit were significantly correlated (absolute marginal discrepancy and marginal gap) (p < 0.05). An impression technique should be considered for fabricating a ceramic crown with excellent goodness-of-fit. Further, higher clinician satisfaction could be obtained by reproducing the excellent goodness-of-fit using the intraoral scanning method as compared to the conventional method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Workflows and Material Sciences in Dental Medicine)
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8 pages, 628 KiB  
Article
Influence of Preparation Design, Marginal Gingiva Location, and Tooth Morphology on the Accuracy of Digital Impressions for Full-Crown Restorations: An In Vitro Investigation
by Selina A. Bernauer, Johannes Müller, Nicola U. Zitzmann and Tim Joda
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(12), 3984; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9123984 - 9 Dec 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3844
Abstract
(1) Background: Intraoral optical scanning (IOS) has gained increased importance in prosthodontics. The aim of this in vitro study was to analyze the IOS accuracy for treatment with full crowns, considering possible influencing factors. (2) Methods: Two tooth morphologies, each with four different [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Intraoral optical scanning (IOS) has gained increased importance in prosthodontics. The aim of this in vitro study was to analyze the IOS accuracy for treatment with full crowns, considering possible influencing factors. (2) Methods: Two tooth morphologies, each with four different finish-line designs for tooth preparation and epi- or supragingival locations, were digitally designed, 3D-printed, and post-processed for 16 sample abutment teeth. Specimens were digitized using a laboratory scanner to generate reference STLs (Standard Tessellation Language), and were secondary-scanned with two IOS systems five times each in a complete-arch model scenario (Trios 3 Pod, Primescan AC). For accuracy, a best-fit algorithm (Final Surface) was used to analyze deviations of the abutment teeth based on 160 IOS-STLs compared to the reference STLs (16 preparations × 2 IOS-systems × 5 scans per tooth). (3) Results: Analysis revealed homogenous findings with high accuracy for intra- and inter-group comparisons for both IOS systems, with mean values of 80% quantiles from 20 ± 2 μm to 50 ± 5 μm. Supragingival finishing lines demonstrated significantly higher accuracy than epigingival margins when comparing each preparation (p < 0.05), whereas tangential preparations exhibited similar results independent of the gingival location. Morphology of anterior versus posterior teeth showed slightly better results in favor of molars in combination with shoulder preparations only. (4) Conclusion: The clinical challenge for the treatment with full crowns following digital impressions is the location of the prospective restoration margin related to the distance to the gingiva. However, the overall accuracy for all abutment teeth was very high; thus, the factors tested are unlikely to have a strong clinical impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Workflows and Material Sciences in Dental Medicine)
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13 pages, 9171 KiB  
Article
Efficacy of Plasma-Polymerized Allylamine Coating of Zirconia after Five Years
by Nadja Rohr, Katja Fricke, Claudia Bergemann, J Barbara Nebe and Jens Fischer
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 2776; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092776 - 27 Aug 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1885
Abstract
Plasma-polymerized allylamine (PPAAm) coatings of titanium enhance the cell behavior of osteoblasts. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate a PPAAm nanolayer on zirconia after a storage period of 5 years. Zirconia specimens were directly coated with PPAAm (ZA0) or stored [...] Read more.
Plasma-polymerized allylamine (PPAAm) coatings of titanium enhance the cell behavior of osteoblasts. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate a PPAAm nanolayer on zirconia after a storage period of 5 years. Zirconia specimens were directly coated with PPAAm (ZA0) or stored in aseptic packages at room temperature for 5 years (ZA5). Uncoated zirconia specimens (Zmt) and the micro-structured endosseous surface of a zirconia implant (Z14) served as controls. The elemental compositions of the PPAAm coatings were characterized and the viability, spreading and gene expression of human osteoblastic cells (MG-63) were assessed. The presence of amino groups in the PPAAm layer was significantly decreased after 5 years due to oxidation processes. Cell viability after 24 h was significantly higher on uncoated specimens (Zmt) than on all other surfaces. Cell spreading after 20 min was significantly higher for Zmt = ZA0 > ZA5 > Z14, while, after 24 h, spreading also varied significantly between Zmt > ZA0 > ZA5 > Z14. The expression of the mRNA differentiation markers collagen I and osteocalcin was upregulated on untreated surfaces Z14 and Zmt when compared to the PPAAm specimens. Due to the high biocompatibility of zirconia itself, a PPAAm coating may not additionally improve cell behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Workflows and Material Sciences in Dental Medicine)
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18 pages, 3933 KiB  
Article
Congruence between Meshes and Library Files of Implant Scanbodies: An In Vitro Study Comparing Five Intraoral Scanners
by Francesco Mangano, Henriette Lerner, Bidzina Margiani, Ivan Solop, Nadezhda Latuta and Oleg Admakin
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(7), 2174; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9072174 - 9 Jul 2020
Cited by 41 | Viewed by 8696
Abstract
Purpose. To compare the reliability of five different intraoral scanners (IOSs) in the capture of implant scanbodies (SBs) and to verify the dimensional congruence between the meshes (MEs) of the SBs and the corresponding library file (LF). Methods. A gypsum cast of a [...] Read more.
Purpose. To compare the reliability of five different intraoral scanners (IOSs) in the capture of implant scanbodies (SBs) and to verify the dimensional congruence between the meshes (MEs) of the SBs and the corresponding library file (LF). Methods. A gypsum cast of a fully edentulous maxilla with six implant analogues and SBs screwed on was scanned with five different IOSs (PRIMESCAN®, CS 3700®, MEDIT i-500®, ITERO ELEMENTS 5D®, and Emerald S®). Ten scans were taken for each IOS. The resulting MEs were imported to reverse engineering software for 3D analysis, consisting of the superimposition of the SB LF onto each SB ME. Then, a quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the deviations between MEs and LF was performed. A careful statistical analysis was performed. Results. PRIMESCAN® showed the highest congruence between SB MEs and LF, with the lowest mean absolute deviation (25.5 ± 5.0 μm), immediately followed by CS 3700® (27.0 ± 4.3 μm); the difference between them was not significant (p = 0.1235). PRIMESCAN® showed a significantly higher congruence than MEDIT i-500® (29.8 ± 4.8 μm, p < 0.0001), ITERO ELEMENTS 5D® (34.2 ± 9.3 μm, p < 0.0001), and Emerald S® (38.3 ± 7.8 μm, p < 0.0001). CS 3700® had a significantly higher congruence than MEDIT i-500® (p = 0.0004), ITERO ELEMENTS 5D® (p < 0.0001), and Emerald S® (p < 0.0001). Significant differences were also found between MEDIT i-500® and ITERO ELEMENTS 5D® (p < 0.0001), MEDIT i-500® and Emerald S® (p < 0.0001), and ITERO ELEMENTS 5D® and Emerald S® (p < 0.0001). Significant differences were found among different SBs when scanned with the same IOS. The deviations of the IOSs showed different directions and patterns. With PRIMESCAN®, ITERO ELEMENTS 5D®, and Emerald S®, the MEs were included inside the LF; with CS 3700®, the LF was included in the MEs. MEDIT i-500® showed interpolation between the MEs and LF, with no clear direction for the deviation. Conclusions. Statistically different levels of congruence were found between the SB MEs and the corresponding LF when using different IOSs. Significant differences were also found between different SBs when scanned with the same IOS. Finally, the qualitative evaluation revealed different directions and patterns for the five IOSs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Workflows and Material Sciences in Dental Medicine)
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7 pages, 1026 KiB  
Article
Impact of Aging on the Accuracy of 3D-Printed Dental Models: An In Vitro Investigation
by Tim Joda, Lea Matthisson and Nicola U. Zitzmann
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1436; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051436 - 12 May 2020
Cited by 41 | Viewed by 4338
Abstract
The aim of this in vitro study was to analyze the impact of model aging on the accuracy of 3D-printed dental models. A maxillary full-arch reference model with prepared teeth for a three-unit fixed dental prosthesis was scanned ten times with an intraoral [...] Read more.
The aim of this in vitro study was to analyze the impact of model aging on the accuracy of 3D-printed dental models. A maxillary full-arch reference model with prepared teeth for a three-unit fixed dental prosthesis was scanned ten times with an intraoral scanner (3Shape TRIOS Pod) and ten models were 3D printed (Straumann P-Series). All models were stored under constant conditions and digitized with a desktop scanner after 1 day; 1 week; and 2, 3, and 4 weeks. For accuracy, a best-fit algorithm was used to analyze the deviations of the abutment teeth (GFaI e.V Final Surface®). Wilcoxon Rank Sum Tests were used for comparisons with the level of significance set at α = 0.05. Deviation analysis of the tested models showed homogenous intragroup distance calculations at each timepoint. The most accurate result was for 1 day of aging (3.3 ± 1.3 µm). A continuous decrease in accuracy was observed with each aging stage from day 1 to week 4. A time-dependent difference was statistically significant after 3 weeks (p = 0.0008) and 4 weeks (p < 0.0001). Based on these findings, dental models should not be used longer than 3 to 4 weeks after 3D printing for the fabrication of definitive prosthetic reconstructions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Workflows and Material Sciences in Dental Medicine)
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Review

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24 pages, 7139 KiB  
Review
3D Printing in Digital Prosthetic Dentistry: An Overview of Recent Developments in Additive Manufacturing
by Josef Schweiger, Daniel Edelhoff and Jan-Frederik Güth
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(9), 2010; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10092010 - 7 May 2021
Cited by 122 | Viewed by 18018
Abstract
Popular media now often present 3D printing as a widely employed technology for the production of dental prostheses. This article aims to show, based on factual information, to what extent 3D printing can be used in dental laboratories and dental practices at present. [...] Read more.
Popular media now often present 3D printing as a widely employed technology for the production of dental prostheses. This article aims to show, based on factual information, to what extent 3D printing can be used in dental laboratories and dental practices at present. It attempts to present a rational evaluation of todays´ applications of 3D printing technology in the context of dental restorations. In addition, the article discusses future perspectives and examines the ongoing viability of traditional dental laboratory services and manufacturing processes. It also shows which expertise is needed for the digital additive manufacturing of dental restorations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Workflows and Material Sciences in Dental Medicine)
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13 pages, 736 KiB  
Review
Dental Caries Diagnosis and Detection Using Neural Networks: A Systematic Review
by María Prados-Privado, Javier García Villalón, Carlos Hugo Martínez-Martínez, Carlos Ivorra and Juan Carlos Prados-Frutos
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(11), 3579; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113579 - 6 Nov 2020
Cited by 57 | Viewed by 9649
Abstract
Dental caries is the most prevalent dental disease worldwide, and neural networks and artificial intelligence are increasingly being used in the field of dentistry. This systematic review aims to identify the state of the art of neural networks in caries detection and diagnosis. [...] Read more.
Dental caries is the most prevalent dental disease worldwide, and neural networks and artificial intelligence are increasingly being used in the field of dentistry. This systematic review aims to identify the state of the art of neural networks in caries detection and diagnosis. A search was conducted in PubMed, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Xplore, and ScienceDirect. Data extraction was performed independently by two reviewers. The quality of the selected studies was assessed using the Cochrane Handbook tool. Thirteen studies were included. Most of the included studies employed periapical, near-infrared light transillumination, and bitewing radiography. The image databases ranged from 87 to 3000 images, with a mean of 669 images. Seven of the included studies labeled the dental caries in each image by experienced dentists. Not all of the studies detailed how caries was defined, and not all detailed the type of carious lesion detected. Each study included in this review used a different neural network and different outcome metrics. All this variability complicates the conclusions that can be made about the reliability or not of a neural network to detect and diagnose caries. A comparison between neural network and dentist results is also necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Workflows and Material Sciences in Dental Medicine)
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18 pages, 787 KiB  
Review
Accuracy of 3-Dimensionally Printed Full-Arch Dental Models: A Systematic Review
by Yasaman Etemad-Shahidi, Omel Baneen Qallandar, Jessica Evenden, Frank Alifui-Segbaya and Khaled Elsayed Ahmed
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(10), 3357; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103357 - 20 Oct 2020
Cited by 101 | Viewed by 6541
Abstract
The use of additive manufacturing in dentistry has exponentially increased with dental model construction being the most common use of the technology. Henceforth, identifying the accuracy of additively manufactured dental models is critical. The objective of this study was to systematically review the [...] Read more.
The use of additive manufacturing in dentistry has exponentially increased with dental model construction being the most common use of the technology. Henceforth, identifying the accuracy of additively manufactured dental models is critical. The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature and evaluate the accuracy of full-arch dental models manufactured using different 3D printing technologies. Seven databases were searched, and 2209 articles initially identified of which twenty-eight studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria were analysed. A meta-analysis was not possible due to unclear reporting and heterogeneity of studies. Stereolithography (SLA) was the most investigated technology, followed by digital light processing (DLP). Accuracy of 3D printed models varied widely between <100 to >500 μm with the majority of models deemed of clinically acceptable accuracy. The smallest (3.3 μm) and largest (579 μm) mean errors were produced by SLA printers. For DLP, majority of investigated printers (n = 6/8) produced models with <100 μm accuracy. Manufacturing parameters, including layer thickness, base design, postprocessing and storage, significantly influenced the model’s accuracy. Majority of studies supported the use of 3D printed dental models. Nonetheless, models deemed clinically acceptable for orthodontic purposes may not necessarily be acceptable for the prosthodontic workflow or applications requiring high accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Workflows and Material Sciences in Dental Medicine)
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25 pages, 6819 KiB  
Review
Clinical Performance of Partial and Full-Coverage Fixed Dental Restorations Fabricated from Hybrid Polymer and Ceramic CAD/CAM Materials: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Nadin Al-Haj Husain, Mutlu Özcan, Pedro Molinero-Mourelle and Tim Joda
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(7), 2107; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9072107 - 4 Jul 2020
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 4936
Abstract
The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the clinical performance of tooth-borne partial and full-coverage fixed dental prosthesis fabricated using hybrid polymer and ceramic CAD/CAM materials regarding their biologic, technical and esthetical outcomes. PICOS search strategy was applied using [...] Read more.
The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the clinical performance of tooth-borne partial and full-coverage fixed dental prosthesis fabricated using hybrid polymer and ceramic CAD/CAM materials regarding their biologic, technical and esthetical outcomes. PICOS search strategy was applied using MEDLINE and were searched for RCTs and case control studies by two reviewers using MeSH Terms. Bias risk was evaluated using the Cochrane collaboration tool and Newcastle–Ottawa assessment scale. A meta-analysis was conducted to calculate the mean long-term survival difference of both materials at two different periods (≤24, ≥36 months(m)). Mean differences in biologic, technical and esthetical complications of partial vs. full crown reconstructions were analyzed using software package R (p < 0.05). 28 studies included in the systematic review and 25 studies in the meta-analysis. The overall survival rate was 99% (0.95–1.00, ≤24 m) and dropped to 95% (0.87–0.98, ≥36 m), while the overall success ratio was 88% (0.54–0.98; ≤24 m) vs. 77% (0.62–0.88; ≥36 m). No significance, neither for the follow-up time points, nor for biologic, technical and esthetical (88% vs. 77%; 90% vs. 74%; 96% vs. 95%) outcomes was overserved. A significance was found for the technical/clinical performance between full 93% (0.88–0.96) and partial 64% (0.34–0.86) crowns. The biologic success rate of partial crowns with 69% (0.42–0.87) was lower, but not significant compared to 91% (0.79–0.97) of full crowns. The esthetical success rate of partial crowns with 90% (0.65–0.98) was lower, but not significant compared to 99% (0.92–1.00) of full crowns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Workflows and Material Sciences in Dental Medicine)
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