Recent Studies on Childhood Obesity

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Endocrinology & Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2023) | Viewed by 4955

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Unit of Epidemiology & Population Genetics, Institute of Food Sciences, National Research Council, Avellino, Italy
Interests: nutritional epidemiology and molecular biology; obesity; metabolic diseases; cardiovascular diseases; nutritional epidemiology; gut microbiota; sleep; microRNAs
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Molecular & Cell Biology, Institute of Food Sciences, National Research Council, Avellino, Italy
2. Medical Genetics, Università degli Studi del Sannio, 82100 Benevento, BN, Italy
Interests: molecular and cell biology; obesity; food-related diseases; epigenomics; transcriptomics; microRNAs
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Childhood obesity is a complex and serious health concern that begins before birth and is influenced by environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors, as well as their interactions.

Epidemiological studies have confirmed that overweight and obese children will presumably be obese into adulthood and will most likely develop non-communicable diseases, certain types of cancer, and psychological consequences at a younger age, thus prospectively increasing the risk of premature mortality.

During the last few decades, the prevalence of childhood obesity has dramatically increased. However, recent literature has shown that in most high-income countries, overweight and obesity in children have levelled off, even though it is not possible to establish if this is a permanent phase.

In the present Special Issue, we will examine more closely difficulties in the prevention of childhood obesity and evaluate the current efforts in finding the appropriate strategies to reverse the trends that see high levels of obesity, especially in low- and middle-income countries. We will also point out the need for a better understanding of the factors and the mechanisms influencing the risk and rise of this condition in children. Finally, also thanks to the comprehension of work done at the international level, this will help health professionals to make science-based decisions regarding obesity prevention and population health.

Dr. Fabio Lauria
Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Iacomino
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • childhood
  • obesity
  • overweight
  • body weight
  • abdominal obesity
  • adiposity
  • nutrition
  • diet
  • diabetes
  • cardiovascular diseases
  • metabolic syndrome
  • non-communicable diseases
  • epidemiology
  • sedentary behaviors
  • physical activity
  • sleep disorders
  • prevention

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

9 pages, 266 KiB  
Article
Association between Urinary AGEs and Circulating miRNAs in Children and Adolescents with Overweight and Obesity from the Italian I.Family Cohort: A Pilot Study
by Paola Russo, Fabio Lauria, Ivana Sirangelo, Alfonso Siani and Giuseppe Iacomino
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(16), 5362; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12165362 - 18 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 740
Abstract
Modern dietary habits are linked to high exposure to Advanced Glycation End products (AGEs) mainly due to the dramatic increase in the consumption of highly processed foods in recent years. Body levels of these compounds vary with food intake and are almost interconnected [...] Read more.
Modern dietary habits are linked to high exposure to Advanced Glycation End products (AGEs) mainly due to the dramatic increase in the consumption of highly processed foods in recent years. Body levels of these compounds vary with food intake and are almost interconnected with age and health status, formally embodying indicators of oxidative stress and inflammation in adults. However, the relationship between AGEs and health issues has not been definitively understood in children, and several pediatric investigations have produced conflicting evidence. Besides, despite extensive research, there are no universally accepted analytical techniques for measuring AGE levels in the human body, with several approaches available, each with its advantages and disadvantages. This pilot study aimed to investigate the association between urinary AGEs, measured using spectrofluorimetry-based assays, and circulating microRNAs (c-miRNAs) in a subsample (n = 22) of Italian children participating in the I.Family Study. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical markers, and miRNA profiles were assessed. The first indication of a relationship between urinary AGEs and c-miRNAs in the context of obesity was found. Specifically, four miRNAs, hsa-miR-10b-5p, hsa-miR-501-5p, hsa-miR-874-3p, and hsa-miR-2355-5p were significantly associated with levels of urinary AGEs. The association between AGEs, obesity, inflammation markers, and specific miRNAs highlights the complex interplay between these factors and their potential impact on cellular and tissue homeostasis. The discovery of altered c-miRNAs profiling has the potential to offer innovative methods for assessing early changes in the body’s AGE pool and allow recognition of an increased risk of disease susceptibility, routinely undetected until metabolic complications are identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Studies on Childhood Obesity)
10 pages, 825 KiB  
Article
The Distribution of Autoantibodies by Age Group in Children with Type 1 Diabetes versus Type 2 Diabetes in Southern Vietnam
by Quynh Thi Vu Huynh, Minh Thi Tuyet Trinh, Khang Kim Doan, Ban Tran Ho, Szu-Chuan Shen, Tung Huu Trinh, Thanh Hoa Vo, Nguyen Quoc Khanh Le and Ngan Thi Kim Nguyen
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(4), 1420; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12041420 - 10 Feb 2023
Viewed by 2006
Abstract
Asian children are increasingly being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes (T1D) or type 2 diabetes (T2D), and the presence of coexisting islet autoimmune antibodies complicate diagnosis. Here, we aimed to determine the prevalence of islet cell autoantibodies (ICAs) and glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 [...] Read more.
Asian children are increasingly being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes (T1D) or type 2 diabetes (T2D), and the presence of coexisting islet autoimmune antibodies complicate diagnosis. Here, we aimed to determine the prevalence of islet cell autoantibodies (ICAs) and glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 autoantibodies (GADAs) in children with T1D versus T2D living in Vietnam. This cross-sectional study included 145 pediatric patients aged 10.3 ± 3.6 years, with 53.1% and 46.9% having T1D and T2D, respectively. ICAs were reported in only 3.9% of pediatric T1Ds, which was not significantly different from the 1.5% of those with T2D. Older children with T1D were positive for either ICAs, or ICAs and GADAs (5–9 and 10–15 years), whereas only a small proportion of children aged 0–4 years were positive for GADAs (18%). Notably, 27.9% of children with T2D aged 10–15 were positive for GADAs, and all were classified as overweight (n = 9) or obese (n = 10). GADAs were more commonly observed in T1D patients younger than four years than ICAs, which were more prevalent in older children (5–15 years). Even though few children with T2D carried ICAs and GADAs, finding a better biomarker or an appropriate time to confirm diabetes type may require further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Studies on Childhood Obesity)
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14 pages, 1103 KiB  
Article
Association between Pulmonary Function and Body Composition in Children and Adolescents with and without Obesity
by Mariana Simões Ferreira, Fernando Augusto Lima Marson, Vaneza Lira Waldow Wolf, Mariana Porto Zambon, Maria Ângela Reis de Góes Monteiro Antonio, José Dirceu Ribeiro and Roberto Teixeira Mendes
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(24), 7410; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11247410 - 14 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1244
Abstract
Lung function in children and adolescents with obesity must consider the coexistence of two complex and related phenomena: obesity and growth. The assessment of body composition can identify changes in respiratory dynamics arising, exclusively or jointly, from adiposity and lean body mass. This [...] Read more.
Lung function in children and adolescents with obesity must consider the coexistence of two complex and related phenomena: obesity and growth. The assessment of body composition can identify changes in respiratory dynamics arising, exclusively or jointly, from adiposity and lean body mass. This study aimed to compare pulmonary function and the dysanapsis indices of children and adolescents without asthma, with and without obesity, considering body composition, pubertal development, and physical activity practice. We performed a cross-sectional study with 69 participants, 41 (59.42%) of whom have obesity. All participants carried out spirometry and the assessment of, respectively, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, vital signs, pubertal development, and physical activity practice. In our data, the group with obesity had higher values of forced vital capacity (FVC) and lower values of the ratio between forced expiratory volume in one second and FVC (FEV1/FVC). Analyzing the entire sample, we found a positive correlation between FVC and a negative correlation between FEV1/FVC with fat mass markers. At the same time, inspiratory capacity, expiratory reserve volume, and peak expiratory flow were correlated with lean body mass markers. In addition, participants with obesity presented a lower dysanapsis index. In conclusion, children and adolescents with obesity showed increased FVC and reduced FEV1/FVC. Our findings are possibly related to the increase in fat mass, not to lean body mass. We hypothesize that these findings are associated with the dysanaptic growth pattern, which is higher in obesity, evidenced by the reduction of the dysanapsis index. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Studies on Childhood Obesity)
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