Insects in Mountain Ecosystems

A topical collection in Insects (ISSN 2075-4450). This collection belongs to the section "Insect Ecology, Diversity and Conservation".

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Editors


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Collection Editor
Department of Biologia, Ecologia, Scienze della Terra, Università della Calabria, 87036 Rende, Italy
Interests: species diversity; alpine ecology; climate change; carabid beetles
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Collection Editor
Section of Invertebrate Zoology and Hydrobiology, MUSE-Science Museum of Trento, Trento, Italy
Interests: insect ecology; alpine ecology; high-altitude habitats
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

The broad-scale features of mountain ecosystems are tied to the morphology of the relief because temperature variation with elevation is one of the main factors driving the adaptation of living organisms to mountain environments. Moreover the same elevation gradient at different latitudes and accompanied by local abiotic features, e.g., bedrock, soil, and climate, may trigger a particular set of evolution drivers, leading to the colonization of restricted mountain ranges by peculiar biota.

These and other features make mountains the ideal place to study altitude-for-latitude ecosystem variations, or even altitude-for-succession (i.e., time) gradients. Vegetation and soil layers are dominated by complex communities of invertebrates, even in the extreme environments of high altitudes, where the last chance of survival is given to species contracting their geographical range as a consequence of climate change.

Studies of mountain insects have focused on several subjects, including abundance relationships among species as well as zoogeography, phenotypic plasticity, man-made disturbance.

This Topical Collection will broadly address studies on insects in mountain ecosystems across all relevant disciplines, and, in this context, submissions in the form of reviews and original basic or applied research are welcome.

Dr. Roberto Pizzolotto
Dr. Mauro Gobbi
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • mountain ecosystems
  • extreme environments
  • zoogeography
  • altitudinal gradient

Published Papers (24 papers)

2024

Jump to: 2023, 2022, 2021, 2020

21 pages, 5347 KiB  
Article
Biodiversity and Spatiotemporal Variations of Mecoptera in Thailand: Influences of Elevation and Climatic Factors
by Theerapan Dokjan, Wesley J. Bicha, Piyawan Suttiprapan, Bajaree Chuttong, Chun-I. Chiu, Kittipat Aupalee, Atiporn Saeung, Chayanit Sulin and Wichai Srisuka
Insects 2024, 15(3), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects15030151 - 23 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1045
Abstract
Ecological analyses of the small and lesser-known insect order Mecoptera in Thailand are presented. Specimens were collected monthly over a period of 12 consecutive months, using both Malaise and pan traps, from 29 sampling sites located in 18 national parks throughout Thailand. A [...] Read more.
Ecological analyses of the small and lesser-known insect order Mecoptera in Thailand are presented. Specimens were collected monthly over a period of 12 consecutive months, using both Malaise and pan traps, from 29 sampling sites located in 18 national parks throughout Thailand. A total of 21 species in four genera were identified from 797 specimens, including Panorpa (1 species), Neopanorpa (18 species), Bittacus (1 species), and Terrobittacus (1 species), with the latter genus representing a new genus record to Thailand. Neopanorpa harmandi, N. siamensis, N. byersi, and N. malaisei were the most abundant species, representing 27.4%, 11.3%, 10.3% and 8.8% of the total specimens, respectively. The species with the highest frequency, as indicated by the high percentage of species occurrence (%SO), was N. siamensis (51%), followed by N. byersi (34%), N. harmandi (34%), N. spatulata (27%), and N. inchoata (27%). Eleven species (52%) exhibited specific regional occurrences. N. tuberosa and N. siamensis had the widest distribution, being found in almost all regions except for western and southern regions for the first and second species, respectively. The seasonal species richness of Mecoptera was high during the rainy season in the northern, northeastern, central, eastern, and western regions, with the highest richness observed in July (15 species), followed by the hot (10 species) and cold seasons (7 species), while there was no significant difference in species richness between seasons in the southern region. Multiple regression models revealed a negative association between species richness and abundance of Mecoptera with both elevation and temperature, and a positive association between rainfall and species evenness. It is predicted that climatic changes will have a detrimental effect on the mecopteran community. The results of this study enhance the understanding of the ecological aspects of Mecoptera, offering crucial insights into its biodiversity and distribution, which are vital for conservation and forest management. Full article
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15 pages, 9733 KiB  
Article
Vegetation Affects the Responses of Canopy Spider Communities to Elevation Gradients on Changbai Mountain, China
by Pengfeng Wu, Lingxu Xiang, Qiang Zhao, Shuyan Cui, Abid Ali, Donghui Wu and Guo Zheng
Insects 2024, 15(3), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects15030154 - 24 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1585
Abstract
Forest canopies, an essential part of forest ecosystems, are among the most highly threatened terrestrial habitats. Mountains provide ideal conditions for studying the variation in community structure with elevations. Spiders are one of the most abundant predators of arthropods in terrestrial ecosystems and [...] Read more.
Forest canopies, an essential part of forest ecosystems, are among the most highly threatened terrestrial habitats. Mountains provide ideal conditions for studying the variation in community structure with elevations. Spiders are one of the most abundant predators of arthropods in terrestrial ecosystems and can have extremely important collective effects on forest ecosystems. How the diversity and composition of canopy spider communities respond to elevation changes in temperate forests remains poorly understood. In this study, we collected canopy spiders from four elevation sites (800 m, 1100 m, 1400 m, and 1700 m) on Changbai Mountain using the fogging method in August 2016. With the methods of ANOVA analysis, transformation-based redundancy analysis, and random forest analysis, we explored the responses of canopy spider communities to elevation. In total, 8826 spiders comprising 81 species were identified and the most abundant families were Thomisidae, Clubionidae, Linyphiidae, and Theridiidae (77.29% of total individuals). Species richness decreased whereas evenness increased with increasing elevation, indicating that elevation has an important impact on community structure. The pattern of absolute abundance was hump shaped with increasing elevation. We found that the community compositions at the three taxonomic levels (species, family, and guild) along the elevation gradient were obviously altered and the variation in community composition was higher at low-elevation sites than at high-elevation sites. There were 19 common species (23.46%) among the four elevations. Regression and RDA results showed that vegetation variables contributed to the variation in the diversity and composition of canopy spiders. Furthermore, the influence of factors would be weakened with the taxonomic level increasing. Therefore, our findings greatly highlight the important role of vegetation in the diversity and composition of canopy spiders and the influence is closely related to the taxonomic level. Full article
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17 pages, 7809 KiB  
Article
Changes in the Range of Four Advantageous Grasshopper Habitats in the Hexi Corridor under Future Climate Conditions
by Donghong Li, Huilin Gan, Xiaopeng Li, Huili Zhou, Hang Zhang, Yaomeng Liu, Rui Dong, Limin Hua and Guixin Hu
Insects 2024, 15(4), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects15040243 - 30 Mar 2024
Viewed by 694
Abstract
Angaracris rhodopa (Fischer et Walheim), Calliptamus abbreviatus (Ikonnikov), Myrmeleotettix palpalis (Zubowsky), and Oedaleus decorus asiaticus (Bey-Bienko) are the main grasshoppers that harm the natural grassland in the Hexi Corridor in Gansu, northwest China. In this study, the MaxEnt model was employed to identify [...] Read more.
Angaracris rhodopa (Fischer et Walheim), Calliptamus abbreviatus (Ikonnikov), Myrmeleotettix palpalis (Zubowsky), and Oedaleus decorus asiaticus (Bey-Bienko) are the main grasshoppers that harm the natural grassland in the Hexi Corridor in Gansu, northwest China. In this study, the MaxEnt model was employed to identify the key environmental factors affecting the distribution of the four grasshoppers’ habitats and to assess their distribution under current and future climate conditions. The aim was to provide a basis for grasshopper monitoring, prediction, and precise control. In this study, distribution of suitable habitats for A. rhodopa, C. abbreviates, M. palpalis, O. decorus asiaticus were predicted under current and future climatic scenarios using the Maxent model. The average AUC (area under the ROC curve) and TSS (true skill statistic) values of the four grasshoppers were greater than 0.9, and the simulation results were excellent and highly reliable. The mean annual precipitation was the main factor limiting the current range of suitable areas for these four species. Under the current climate, A. rhodopa, C. abbreviatus, and O. decorus asiaticus were mainly distributed in the central and eastern parts of the Hexi Corridor, and M. palpalis was distributed throughout the Hexi Corridor, with a suitable area of 1.29 × 104, 1.43 × 104, 1.44 × 104, and 2.12 × 104 km2, accounting for 13.7%, 15.2%, 15.3%, and 22.5% of the total area of the grasslands in the Hexi Corridor, respectively. The highly suitable areas of A. rhodopa, C. abbreviatus, and O. decorus asiaticus were mainly distributed in the eastern-central part of Zhangye City, the western part of Wuwei City, and the western and southern parts of Jinchang City, with areas of 0.20 × 104, 0.29 × 104, and 0.35 × 104 km2, accounting for 2.2%, 3%, and 3.7% of the grassland area, respectively. The high habitat of M. palpalis was mainly distributed in the southeast of Jiuquan City, the west, middle, and east of Zhangye City, the west of Wuwei City, and the west and south of Jinchang City, with an area of 0.32 × 104 km2, accounting for 3.4% of the grassland area. In the 2030s, the range of A. rhodopa, C. abbreviatus, and O. decorus asiaticus was predicted to increase; the range of M. palpalis will decrease. The results of this study could provide a theoretical basis for the precise monitoring and control of key areas of grasshoppers in the Hexi Corridor. Full article
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13 pages, 2034 KiB  
Article
Genetic Differentiation of the Bloodsucking Midge Forcipomyia taiwana (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae): Implication of the Geographic Isolation by the Central Mountain Ranges in Taiwan
by Yung-Hao Ching, Yuan-Chen Kuo, Ming-Ching Su, Szu-Chieh Wang, Chuen-Fu Lin, Wu-Chun Tu and Ming-Der Lin
Insects 2024, 15(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects15010023 - 01 Jan 2024
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Abstract
Forcipomyia (Lasiohelea) taiwana, a small bloodsucking midge, thrives in moderately moist habitats and is commonly found in grassy and bushy areas at an elevation below 250 m. This species exhibits a diurnal biting pattern and shows a marked preference for [...] Read more.
Forcipomyia (Lasiohelea) taiwana, a small bloodsucking midge, thrives in moderately moist habitats and is commonly found in grassy and bushy areas at an elevation below 250 m. This species exhibits a diurnal biting pattern and shows a marked preference for human blood. Although not known to transmit arthropod-borne diseases, the bites of F. taiwana can induce severe allergic reactions in some individuals. As a significant nuisance in Taiwan, affecting both daily life and the tourism industry, comprehensive studies on its population genetics across different geographical regions remain scarce. The central mountain ranges in Taiwan, comprising more than two hundred peaks above 3000 m in elevation, extend from the north to the south of the island, creating distinct eastern and western geographical divisions. This study utilizes microsatellite markers to explore the genetic differentiation of F. taiwana populations located in the eastern and western regions of the mountain ranges. Our findings reveal substantial genetic differentiation among populations inhabiting Taiwan’s western region compared to those in the eastern region. This indicates that the topographical barriers presented by the mountain ranges significantly restrict gene flow, particularly given the species’ limited active flight ability and habitat preferences. Although passive dispersal mechanisms, like wind or human activity, could contribute, this study concludes that the gene flow of F. taiwana between the western and eastern regions is primarily influenced by topographical constraints. Full article
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2023

Jump to: 2024, 2022, 2021, 2020

14 pages, 1635 KiB  
Article
Drivers of Insect Community Change along the Margins of Mountain Streams in Serra da Estrela Natural Park (Portugal)
by Ana Ceia-Hasse, Mário Boieiro, Albano Soares, Sandra Antunes, Hugo Figueiredo, Carla Rego, Paulo A.V. Borges, José Conde and Artur R.M. Serrano
Insects 2023, 14(3), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14030243 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1945
Abstract
Mountain ecosystems are important biodiversity hotspots and valuable natural laboratories to study community assembly processes. Here, we analyze the diversity patterns of butterflies and odonates in a mountainous area of high conservation value—Serra da Estrela Natural Park (Portugal)—and we assess the drivers of [...] Read more.
Mountain ecosystems are important biodiversity hotspots and valuable natural laboratories to study community assembly processes. Here, we analyze the diversity patterns of butterflies and odonates in a mountainous area of high conservation value—Serra da Estrela Natural Park (Portugal)—and we assess the drivers of community change for each of the two insect groups. The butterflies and odonates were sampled along 150 m transects near the margins of three mountain streams, at three elevation levels (500, 1000, and 1500 m). We found no significant differences in odonate species richness between elevations, but marginal differences (p = 0.058) were found for butterflies due to the lower number of species at high altitudes. Both insect groups showed significant differences in beta diversity (βtotal) between elevations, with species richness differences being the most important component for odonates (βrich = 55.2%), while species replacement drove the changes between butterfly assemblages (βrepl = 60.3%). Climatic factors, particularly those depicting harsher conditions of temperature and precipitation, were the best predictors of total beta diversity (βtotal) and its components (βrich, βrepl) for the two study groups. The study of insect biodiversity patterns in mountain ecosystems and of the role played by different predictors contribute to further our understanding on the community assembly processes and may help to better predict environmental change impacts on mountain biodiversity. Full article
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15 pages, 3486 KiB  
Article
Effects of Environmental Factors on the Spatial Distribution Pattern and Diversity of Insect Communities along Altitude Gradients in Guandi Mountain, China
by Lijuan Zhao, Ruihe Gao, Jiaqi Liu, Lei Liu, Rongjiao Li, Lina Men and Zhiwei Zhang
Insects 2023, 14(3), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14030224 - 24 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4059
Abstract
Understanding the distribution patterns and underlying maintenance mechanisms of insect species is a core issue in the field of insect ecology. However, research gaps remain regarding the environmental factors that determine the distribution of insect species along altitudinal gradients in Guandi Mountain, China. [...] Read more.
Understanding the distribution patterns and underlying maintenance mechanisms of insect species is a core issue in the field of insect ecology. However, research gaps remain regarding the environmental factors that determine the distribution of insect species along altitudinal gradients in Guandi Mountain, China. Here, we explored these determinants based on the distribution pattern and diversity of insect species from 1600 m to 2800 m in the Guandi Mountain, which covers all typical vegetation ecosystems in this area. Our results showed that the insect community showed certain differentiation characteristics with the altitude gradient. The results of RDA and correlation analysis also support the above speculation and indicate that soil physicochemical properties are closely related to the distribution and diversity of insect taxa orders along the altitude gradient. In addition, the soil temperature showed an obvious decreasing trend with increasing altitude, and temperature was also the most significant environmental factor affecting the insect community structure and diversity on the altitude gradient. These findings provide a reference for exploring the maintenance mechanisms affecting the structure, distribution pattern, and diversity of insect communities in mountain ecosystems, and the effects of global warming on insect communities. Full article
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0 pages, 2497 KiB  
Article
Monitoring and Prediction of Siberian Silk Moth Dendrolimus sibiricus Tschetv. (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) Outbreaks Using Remote Sensing Techniques
by Vladislav Soukhovolsky, Anton Kovalev, Andrey A. Goroshko, Yulia Ivanova and Olga Tarasova
Insects 2023, 14(12), 955; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14120955 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 893
Abstract
The feasibility of risk assessment of a Siberian silk moth (Dendrolimus sibiricus Tschetv.) outbreak was analyzed by means of landscape and weather characteristics and tree condition parameters. Difficulties in detecting forest pest outbreaks (especially in Siberian conditions) are associated with the inability [...] Read more.
The feasibility of risk assessment of a Siberian silk moth (Dendrolimus sibiricus Tschetv.) outbreak was analyzed by means of landscape and weather characteristics and tree condition parameters. Difficulties in detecting forest pest outbreaks (especially in Siberian conditions) are associated with the inability to conduct regular ground surveillance in taiga territories, which generally occupy more than 2 million km2. Our analysis of characteristics of Siberian silk moth outbreak zones under mountainous taiga conditions showed that it is possible to distinguish an altitudinal belt between 400 and 800 m above sea level where an outbreak develops and trees are damaged. It was found that to assess the resistance of forest stands to pest attacks, researchers can employ new parameters: namely, characteristics of a response of remote sensing variables to changes in land surface temperature. Using these parameters, it is possible to identify in advance (2–3 years before an outbreak) forest stands that are not resistant to the pest. Thus, field studies in difficult-to-access taiga forests are not needed to determine these parameters, and hence the task of monitoring outbreaks of forest insects is simplified substantially. Full article
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2022

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2021, 2020

25 pages, 4580 KiB  
Article
Effects of Habitat Fragmentation on the Population Structure and Genetic Diversity of Erythroneurini in the Typical Karst Rocky Ecosystem, Southwest China
by Xiaoxiao Chen, Jia Jiang, Ni Zhang, Xiao Yang, Yongkuan Chi and Yuehua Song
Insects 2022, 13(6), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13060499 - 26 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1934
Abstract
Karst rocky desertification is one of the main causes of habitat fragmentation in Southwest China. Guizhou Province is located in the center of the karst area in southern China and is a typical karst ecological environment fragile area. Many studies have shown that [...] Read more.
Karst rocky desertification is one of the main causes of habitat fragmentation in Southwest China. Guizhou Province is located in the center of the karst area in southern China and is a typical karst ecological environment fragile area. Many studies have shown that habitat fragmentation is the main factor leading to the loss of biodiversity and species extinction, and it is also one of the important factors that threaten the survival of natural organisms. This study initially explored the habitat fragmentation degree, species diversity, and genetic diversity of leafhoppers in three typical karst areas in Guizhou. The study was combined with the general situation of the study area, understanding the main factors affecting habitat fragmentation, and putting forward reasonable protection suggestions for species resources. Based on satellite imagery, field survey collection, molecular sequencing data, and related index measurement methods, we measured the habitat fragmentation degree, species diversity index, and genetic diversity index of Erythroneurine leafhoppers of Shibing Yuntai Mountain Nature Reserve, Bijie Salaxi Demonstration Zone, Zhenfeng-Huajiang Demonstration Zone. Moreover, we compared the differences in the three study areas, carried out correlation analysis with relevant environmental factors, and discussed the main factors that formed the results. The results of the study show that the species diversity and genetic diversity of Erythroneurine leafhoppers in the study areas are affected by habitat fragmentation, and the weaker the degree of habitat fragmentation in the region, the higher the species diversity and genetic diversity, which is specifically manifested in species, quantity, and gene-flow. Understanding the status of biodiversity in karst areas is conducive to the sustainable development of biological resources. In order to better protect the diversity of such insects and their host plants and other biological diversity, combined with the background of the research area, we propose corresponding protection measures for reference. Full article
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19 pages, 9026 KiB  
Article
Different Distribution Patterns of Hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) and Bees (Hymenoptera: Anthophila) Along Altitudinal Gradients in Dolomiti Bellunesi National Park (Italy)
by Daniele Sommaggio, Livia Zanotelli, Enrico Vettorazzo, Giovanni Burgio and Paolo Fontana
Insects 2022, 13(3), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13030293 - 15 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3229
Abstract
Hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) and bees (Hymenoptera: Anthophila) are two key taxa for plant pollination. In the present research, the altitudinal distribution of these taxa was studied along two gradients (elevation range: 780–2130 m) in the Dolomiti Bellunesi National Park (Northeastern Italy). Pan traps [...] Read more.
Hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) and bees (Hymenoptera: Anthophila) are two key taxa for plant pollination. In the present research, the altitudinal distribution of these taxa was studied along two gradients (elevation range: 780–2130 m) in the Dolomiti Bellunesi National Park (Northeastern Italy). Pan traps were used as a sampling device to collect both hoverflies and bees. Other than altitude, the effect of landscape complexity and plant diversity were considered as potential predictors of hoverfly and bee richness and abundance along the two gradients. A total of 68 species of hoverflies and 67 of bees were collected during one sampling year, confirming the efficacy of pan traps as a sampling device to study these taxa. Altitude was the main variable affecting both hoverfly and bee distribution. The two taxa show different distribution patterns: hoverflies have a unimodal distribution (richness and abundance) with peak at middle altitude (1500 m), while bees have a monotonic decline (richness and abundance) with increasing altitude. Both hoverfly and bee populations change with the increasing altitude, but the change in hoverflies is more pronounced than in bees. Species turnover dominates the β-diversity both for hoverflies and bees; therefore, the hoverfly and bee communities at higher altitudes are not subsamples of species at lower altitude but are characterized by different species. This poses important conservation consequences. Some rare species, typical of an alpine habitat were recorded; the present research represents important baseline data to plan a monitoring scheme aimed at evaluating the effect of climate change on pollinators in these fragile habitats. Full article
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18 pages, 2469 KiB  
Article
The Early Season Community of Flower-Visiting Arthropods in a High-Altitude Alpine Environment
by Marco Bonelli, Elena Eustacchio, Daniele Avesani, Verner Michelsen, Mattia Falaschi, Marco Caccianiga, Mauro Gobbi and Morena Casartelli
Insects 2022, 13(4), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13040393 - 16 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3454
Abstract
In mountain ecosystems, climate change can cause spatiotemporal shifts, impacting the composition of communities and altering fundamental biotic interactions, such as those involving flower-visiting arthropods. On of the main problems in assessing the effects of climate change on arthropods in these environments is [...] Read more.
In mountain ecosystems, climate change can cause spatiotemporal shifts, impacting the composition of communities and altering fundamental biotic interactions, such as those involving flower-visiting arthropods. On of the main problems in assessing the effects of climate change on arthropods in these environments is the lack of baseline data. In particular, the arthropod communities on early flowering high-altitude plants are poorly investigated, although the early season is a critical moment for possible mismatches. In this study, we characterised the flower-visiting arthropod community on the early flowering high-altitude Alpine plant, Androsace brevis (Primulaceae). In addition, we tested the effect of abiotic factors (temperature and wind speed) and other variables (time, i.e., hour of the day, and number of flowers per plant) on the occurrence, abundance, and diversity of this community. A. brevis is a vulnerable endemic species growing in the Central Alps above 2000 m asl and flowering for a very short period immediately after snowmelt, thus representing a possible focal plant for arthropods in this particular moment of the season. Diptera and Hymenoptera were the main flower visitors, and three major features of the community emerged: an evident predominance of anthomyiid flies among Diptera, a rare presence of bees, and a relevant share of parasitoid wasps. Temperature and time (hour of the day), but not wind speed and number of flowers per plant, affected the flower visitors’ activity. Our study contributes to (1) defining the composition of high-altitude Alpine flower-visiting arthropod communities in the early season, (2) establishing how these communities are affected by environmental variables, and (3) setting the stage for future evaluation of climate change effects on flower-visiting arthropods in high-altitude environments in the early season. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2022, 2020

13 pages, 3905 KiB  
Article
Biodiversity and Spatiotemporal Variation of Longhorn Beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Tropical Forest of Thailand
by Sirapat Yotkham, Piyawan Suttiprapan, Natdanai Likhitrakarn, Chayanit Sulin and Wichai Srisuka
Insects 2021, 12(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12010045 - 08 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2954
Abstract
Longhorn beetles are highly diversified and important for agriculture and health of the environment. However, the fauna and ecology of these beetles are not well known in Thailand. This study is the first to report the biodiversity, elevation, and seasonal distribution of longhorn [...] Read more.
Longhorn beetles are highly diversified and important for agriculture and health of the environment. However, the fauna and ecology of these beetles are not well known in Thailand. This study is the first to report the biodiversity, elevation, and seasonal distribution of longhorn beetles. Specimens were collected by malaise traps from 41 localities in 24 national parks throughout the country during 2006–2009. The traps were operated at each site for 12 consecutive months with a monthly service. A total of 199 morphotaxa in 36 tribes of 6 subfamilies were identified from 1376 specimens. Of these, 40.7% and 14.5% of total taxa were singletons and doubletons, respectively. The Shannon diversity index and observed species richness at Panernthung, Loei Forest Unit and Mae Fang Hotspring were high at 0.96 (30), 0.88 (50), and 0.86 (34), respectively. Local richness ranged between 3 and 50 species, while the species richness estimator showed between 6 and 1275 species. The most relatively abundant species, Nupserha lenita, Pterolophia sp.1, Oberea sp.3, Acalolepta pseudospeciosa, and Ac. rustricatrix represented 4.80%, 4.80%, 4.80%, 4.5%, and 4.43% of the species, respectively. The species with the widest distribution range of percentage of species occurrence (% SO) was Pt. sp.1 (63.4%), followed by Ac. rustricatrix (39%) and Moechotypa suffusa (39%). In a significantly negative relationship between species richness and elevation (p > 0.05, R2 = 0.04), the species richness pattern showed a hump-shaped curve that peaked at the middle elevation (501–1000 m asl). Regarding seasonal variation, most of the species occurred during the hot season (March–April) and peaked in early rainy season (May), while a low number of species were found during the mid-rainy (June–October) and cold season (November–February). Ordination analysis indicated that the distribution of most species was associated with regions and forest type, and most of the species correlated with forest located at middle and low elevation. The results of this study indicated the very high biodiversity of longhorn beetles in Thailand, which suggests that an understanding of their seasonal and elevational distribution will be of value to agriculture management and conservation. They also indicated that malaise traps are appropriate for the evaluation of biodiversity. Full article
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11 pages, 2398 KiB  
Article
Insect Herbivore Populations and Plant Damage Increase at Higher Elevations
by Sulav Paudel, Pragya Kandel, Dependra Bhatta, Vinod Pandit, Gary W. Felton and Edwin G. Rajotte
Insects 2021, 12(12), 1129; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12121129 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4273
Abstract
Elevation gradients are used as a proxy to simulate climate change effects. A field study was conducted along an elevational gradient in Nepal to understand the effects of abiotic conditions on agriculturally important insect herbivore populations (tobacco caterpillar: Spodoptera litura, tomato fruit [...] Read more.
Elevation gradients are used as a proxy to simulate climate change effects. A field study was conducted along an elevational gradient in Nepal to understand the effects of abiotic conditions on agriculturally important insect herbivore populations (tobacco caterpillar: Spodoptera litura, tomato fruit worm: Helicoverpa armigera, and South American leaf miner, Tuta absoluta) and herbivory damage on tomatoes. Elevation ranged from 100 m to 1400 m above sea level, representing different climatic zones where tomatoes are grown. Contrary to our hypothesis, natural herbivore populations and herbivory damage significantly increased at higher elevations. Individual insect species responses were variable. Populations of S. litura and T. absoluta increased at higher elevations, whereas the H. armigera population was highest at the mid-elevational range. Temperature variations with elevation also affected insect catch numbers and the level of plant damage from herbivory. In the context of climate warming, our results demonstrate that the interactive effects of elevation and climatic factors (e.g., temperature) will play an important role in determining the changes in insect pest populations and the extent of crop losses. Full article
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9 pages, 20386 KiB  
Article
What Are the Most Important Factors Influencing Springtail Tetrodontophora bielanensis?
by Strahinja Mladenović, Jan Materna, Tereza Brestovanská and Jakub Horák
Insects 2021, 12(10), 858; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12100858 - 23 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1939
Abstract
The springtail, Tetrodontophora bielanensis, dwells in the litter and upper soil layers. This arthropod mainly inhabits humid litter and soil and prefers a cold climate. We determined the main factors influencing this springtail in forests at the landscape level in Krkonoše and [...] Read more.
The springtail, Tetrodontophora bielanensis, dwells in the litter and upper soil layers. This arthropod mainly inhabits humid litter and soil and prefers a cold climate. We determined the main factors influencing this springtail in forests at the landscape level in Krkonoše and site level in Orlické hory in the Czech Republic. We used passive trunk-tree traps. These traps are highly effective for sampling flightless fauna. We used 128 traps in Krkonoše and 17 traps in Orlické hory. The springtail was significantly positively influenced by the presence of Norway spruce (Picea abies) at the landscape level. Springtails’ abundance was, furthermore, influenced by the spatial distribution of the sampling sites. The negative influence of bark coverage and the presence of fungi, and positive influence of an increasing dimension of trees were significant at the site level. We argue for a more diversified management of mountainous forests with respect to forest history. This appears to be also important for mountainous forests in protected areas. Full article
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20 pages, 2885 KiB  
Article
Distributional Patterns of Aquatic Empididae (Diptera) along an Elevational Diversity Gradient in a Low Mountain Range: An Example from Central Europe
by Iwona Słowińska and Radomir Jaskuła
Insects 2021, 12(2), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12020165 - 15 Feb 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2308
Abstract
The two subfamilies Hemerodromiinae and Clinocerinae, also known as aquatic dance flies, are a group of small predatory insects occurring mainly in mountainous areas and the northern temperate. However, very little is known about distribution patterns for most of the species. Habitat preferences [...] Read more.
The two subfamilies Hemerodromiinae and Clinocerinae, also known as aquatic dance flies, are a group of small predatory insects occurring mainly in mountainous areas and the northern temperate. However, very little is known about distribution patterns for most of the species. Habitat preferences for 40 aquatic empidid species were analysed in the Pieniny Mts., Poland. Forty-six sampling sites from a major part of this relatively low mountain massif (400–770 m) were chosen, for which 17 micro and macrohabitat environmental variables were measured including both abiotic (altitude, stream mean width and depth, and shading) and biotic factors (13 dominant plant communities). Here we show that numerous studied aquatic Empididae were characterized by unique habitat preferences and were restricted to the foothills or the lower montane zone with only a few species characterized by wider elevational distribution. Chelifera pectinicauda, C. flavella, C. subangusta and Phyllodromia melanocephala (Hemerodromiinae), and Clinocera appendiculata, C. fontinalis, C. wesmaeli, Dolichocephala guttata, D. oblongoguttata, Kowarzia plectrum, Wiedemannia jazdzewskii, and W. thienemanni (Clinocerinae) were clearly associated with the highest altitudes and shaded areas while W. bistigma, W. lamellata, W. phantasma, and W. tricuspidata (Clinocerinae) were clearly associated with the lower elevated, wider stream valleys overgrown by willow brakes. Species richness and diversity decreased along elevational gradient with the hump-shaped diversity pattern noted for the subfamily Clinocerinae. The altitude, size of river/stream as well as the type of plant community were found as the most important factors in the distribution of the studied aquatic empidid species. The present study is the first one focused on elevational diversity gradient and habitat preferences of Hemerodromiinae and Clinocerinae of central Europe, and one of only a few in the world. Full article
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23 pages, 6696 KiB  
Article
Diversity Patterns of Dung Beetles along a Mediterranean Elevational Gradient
by Cristina Mantoni, Noelline Tsafack, Ettore Palusci, Stefano Di Pietro and Simone Fattorini
Insects 2021, 12(9), 781; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12090781 - 31 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3249
Abstract
Most studies of biodiversity–elevational patterns do not take species abundance into consideration. Hill numbers are a unified family of indices that use species abundance and allow a complete characterization of species assemblages through diversity profiles. Studies on dung beetle responses to elevation were [...] Read more.
Most studies of biodiversity–elevational patterns do not take species abundance into consideration. Hill numbers are a unified family of indices that use species abundance and allow a complete characterization of species assemblages through diversity profiles. Studies on dung beetle responses to elevation were essentially based on species richness and produced inconsistent results because of the non-distinction between different habitats and the use of gradients dispersed over wide areas. We analyzed dung beetle diversity in a Mediterranean mountain (central Italy) for different habitats (woodlands vs. grasslands) and taxonomic groups (scarabaeids and aphodiids). Scarabaeids were the most abundant. Since scarabaeids are able to construct subterranean nests, this indicates that the warm and dry summer climatic conditions of high elevations favor species capable of protecting their larvae from desiccation. Dung beetles were more abundant and diversified in grasslands than in woodlands, which is consistent with their preference for open habitats. In the woodlands, diversity increased with increasing elevation because of increasing tree thinning, whereas, in the grasslands, diversity decreased with elevation because of increasingly harsher environmental conditions. These results indicate a trade-off in the beetle response to elevation between the positive effects of increasing the availability of more suitable habitats and the decrease of optimal environmental conditions. Full article
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15 pages, 3931 KiB  
Article
Community Structure, Biodiversity and Spatiotemporal Distribution of the Black Flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) Using Malaise Traps on the Highest Mountain in Thailand
by Wichai Srisuka, Chayanit Sulin, Kittipat Aupalee, Thapanat Phankaen, Kritsana Taai, Sorawat Thongsahuan, Atiporn Saeung and Hiroyuki Takaoka
Insects 2021, 12(6), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12060504 - 31 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3610
Abstract
Black flies form a group of small blood-sucking insects of medical and veterinary importance. This study aimed to investigate the community structure, biodiversity and spatial and temporal distribution of adult black flies in tropical rain forests, by using malaise traps in Doi Inthanon [...] Read more.
Black flies form a group of small blood-sucking insects of medical and veterinary importance. This study aimed to investigate the community structure, biodiversity and spatial and temporal distribution of adult black flies in tropical rain forests, by using malaise traps in Doi Inthanon National Park, northern Thailand. Malaise traps were placed along six elevational gradients (400 m to 2500 m, above sea level) at Doi Inthanon National Park, Chiang Mai province, from December 2013 to November 2014. A total of 9406 adult female black flies belonging to five subgenera—Daviesellum (2%), Gomphostilbia (23%), Montisimulium (11%), Nevermannia (16%) and Simulium (48%)—were collected. Among 44 taxa found, S. tenebrosum complex had the highest relative abundance (11.1%), followed by the S. asakoae species-group (9.6%), the S. striatum species-group (7.7%), S. inthanonense (6.6%), S. doipuiense complex (6.4%), S. chomthongense complex (5.3%), S. chumpornense (5.1%) and S. nigrogilvum (4.1%). Two human-biting species—S. nigrogilvum and species in the S. asakoae species-group—were found in all of the collection sites with 100% species occurrence. Species richness was highest at mid elevation (1400 m), which is represented by 19 black fly species. The peak and lowest seasonal abundance was observed in the rainy and hot season, respectively. Seasonal species richness was highest in the cold season, except for that from elevation sites at 700 m, 1700 m and 2500 m. This study revealed that the malaise trap is effective in providing important data for further monitoring of the effects of environmental changes and conservation planning on the biodiversity of black flies in Doi Inthanon National Park. Full article
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22 pages, 2861 KiB  
Article
Changes in Alpine Butterfly Communities during the Last 40 Years
by Simona Bonelli, Cristiana Cerrato, Francesca Barbero, Maria Virginia Boiani, Giorgio Buffa, Luca Pietro Casacci, Lorenzo Fracastoro, Antonello Provenzale, Enrico Rivella, Michele Zaccagno and Emilio Balletto
Insects 2022, 13(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13010043 - 30 Dec 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4195
Abstract
Our work aims to assess how butterfly communities in the Italian Maritime Alps changed over the past 40 years, in parallel with altitudinal shifts occurring in plant communities. In 2019, we sampled butterflies at 7 grassland sites, between 1300–1900 m, previously investigated in [...] Read more.
Our work aims to assess how butterfly communities in the Italian Maritime Alps changed over the past 40 years, in parallel with altitudinal shifts occurring in plant communities. In 2019, we sampled butterflies at 7 grassland sites, between 1300–1900 m, previously investigated in 2009 and 1978, by semi-quantitative linear transects. Fine-scale temperature and precipitation data elaborated by optimal interpolation techniques were used to quantify climate changes. The changes in the vegetation cover and main habitat alterations were assessed by inspection of aerial photographs (1978–2018/1978–2006–2015). The vegetation structure showed a marked decrease of grassland habitats and an increase of woods (1978–2009). Plant physiognomy has remained stable in recent years (2009–2019) with some local exceptions due to geomorphic disturbance. We observed butterfly ‘species substitution’ indicating a general loss in the more specialised and a general gain in more tolerant elements. We did not observe any decrease in species richness, but rather a change in guild compositions, with (i) an overall increased abundance in some widespread and common lowland species and (ii) the disappearance (or strong decrease) of some alpine (high elevation) species, so that ‘resilience’ could be just delusive. Changes in butterfly community composition were consistent with predicted impacts of local warming. Full article
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17 pages, 3436 KiB  
Article
Relicts from Glacial Times: The Ground Beetle Pterostichus adstrictus Eschscholtz, 1823 (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in the Austrian Alps
by Wolfgang Paill, Stephan Koblmüller, Thomas Friess, Barbara-Amina Gereben-Krenn, Christian Mairhuber, Michael J. Raupach and Lukas Zangl
Insects 2021, 12(1), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12010084 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3531
Abstract
The last ice age considerably influenced distribution patterns of extant species of plants and animals, with some of them now inhabiting disjunct areas in the subarctic/arctic and alpine regions. This arctic-alpine distribution is characteristic for many cold-adapted species with a limited dispersal ability [...] Read more.
The last ice age considerably influenced distribution patterns of extant species of plants and animals, with some of them now inhabiting disjunct areas in the subarctic/arctic and alpine regions. This arctic-alpine distribution is characteristic for many cold-adapted species with a limited dispersal ability and can be found in many invertebrate taxa, including ground beetles. The ground beetle Pterostichus adstrictus Eschscholtz, 1823 of the subgenus Bothriopterus was previously known to have a holarctic-circumpolar distribution, in Europe reaching its southern borders in Wales and southern Scandinavia. Here, we report the first findings of this species from the Austrian Ötztal Alps, representing also the southernmost edge of its currently known distribution, confirmed by the comparison of morphological characters to other Bothriopterus species and DNA barcoding data. Molecular data revealed a separation of the Austrian and Finish specimens with limited to no gene flow at all. Furthermore, we present the first data on habitat preference and seasonality of P. adstrictus in the Austrian Alps. Full article
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14 pages, 2332 KiB  
Article
Ant Diversity and Community Composition in Alpine Tree Line Ecotones
by Elia Guariento and Konrad Fiedler
Insects 2021, 12(3), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030219 - 04 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2707
Abstract
Ants are crucial for the functioning of many terrestrial ecosystems, but detailed knowledge of their ecological role is often lacking. This is true for high mountains where a steep environmental gradient exists from mountainous forest, densely populated by ants, to grassland habitats above [...] Read more.
Ants are crucial for the functioning of many terrestrial ecosystems, but detailed knowledge of their ecological role is often lacking. This is true for high mountains where a steep environmental gradient exists from mountainous forest, densely populated by ants, to grassland habitats above the tree line, harboring a sparse ant community. We assessed ant communities in and around the tree line ecotone on five slopes in the southern-central Alps, focusing on their species diversity, community composition, and functional dimensions. Species richness and functional diversity were highest directly at the ecotone. Ant community composition was shaped by elevation and shrub cover. Further, the abundance of the dominant mound-building red wood ants (Formica s. str.) influenced the community composition of the subordinate species. We conclude that over the tree line ecotone a shift in predominance from biotic limitations in the forest to abiotic filters in the alpine environment takes place. Full article
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16 pages, 1634 KiB  
Article
A Small-Scale Analysis of Elevational Species Richness and Beta Diversity Patterns of Arthropods on an Oceanic Island (Terceira, Azores)
by Jan Peter Reinier de Vries, Emiel van Loon and Paulo A. V. Borges
Insects 2021, 12(10), 936; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12100936 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2428
Abstract
We present an analysis of arthropod diversity patterns in native forest communities along the small elevation gradient (0–1021 m a.s.l.) of Terceira island, Azores (Portugal). We analysed (1) how the alpha diversity of Azorean arthropods responds to increasing elevation and (2) differs between [...] Read more.
We present an analysis of arthropod diversity patterns in native forest communities along the small elevation gradient (0–1021 m a.s.l.) of Terceira island, Azores (Portugal). We analysed (1) how the alpha diversity of Azorean arthropods responds to increasing elevation and (2) differs between endemic, native non-endemic and introduced (alien) species, and (3) the contributions of species replacement and richness difference to beta diversity. Arthropods were sampled using SLAM traps between 2014 and 2018. We analysed species richness indicators, the Hill series and beta diversity partitioning (species replacement and species richness differences). Selected orders (Araneae, Coleoptera, Hemiptera and Psocoptera) and endemic, native non-endemic and introduced species were analysed separately. Total species richness shows a monotonic decrease with elevation for all species and Coleoptera and Psocoptera, but peaks at mid-high elevation for Araneae and endemic species. Introduced species richness decreases strongly with elevation especially. These patterns are most likely driven by climatic factors but also influenced by human disturbance. Beta diversity is, for most groups, the main component of total (gamma) diversity along the gradient but shows no relation with elevation. It results from a combined effect of richness decrease with elevation and species replacement in groups with many narrow-ranged species. Full article
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2020

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17 pages, 3308 KiB  
Article
Manual Sampling and Video Observations: An Integrated Approach to Studying Flower-Visiting Arthropods in High-Mountain Environments
by Marco Bonelli, Andrea Melotto, Alessio Minici, Elena Eustacchio, Luca Gianfranceschi, Mauro Gobbi, Morena Casartelli and Marco Caccianiga
Insects 2020, 11(12), 881; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11120881 - 11 Dec 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3899
Abstract
Despite the rising interest in biotic interactions in mountain ecosystems, little is known about high-altitude flower-visiting arthropods. In particular, since the research in these environment can be limited or undermined by harsh conditions and logistical difficulties, it is mandatory to develop effective approaches [...] Read more.
Despite the rising interest in biotic interactions in mountain ecosystems, little is known about high-altitude flower-visiting arthropods. In particular, since the research in these environment can be limited or undermined by harsh conditions and logistical difficulties, it is mandatory to develop effective approaches that maximize possibilities to gather high-quality data. Here we compared two different methods, manual sampling and video observations, to investigate the interactions between the high-mountain arthropod community and flowers of Androsace brevis (Primulaceae), a vulnerable endemic alpine species with a short flowering period occurring in early season. We manually sampled flower-visiting arthropods according to the timed-observations method and recorded their activity on video. We assessed differences and effectiveness of the two approaches to estimate flower-visiting arthropod diversity and to identify potential taxa involved in A. brevis pollination. Both methods proved to be effective and comparable in describing the diversity of flower visitors at a high taxonomic level. However, with manual sampling we were able to obtain a fine taxonomic resolution for sampled arthropods and to evaluate which taxa actually carry A. brevis pollen, while video observations were less invasive and allowed us to assess arthropod behavior and to spot rare taxa. By combining the data obtained with these two approaches we could accurately identify flower-visiting arthropods, characterize their behavior, and hypothesize a role of Hymenoptera Apoidea and Diptera Brachycera in A. brevis pollination. Therefore, we propose integrating the two approaches as a powerful instrument to unravel interactions between flowering plants and associated fauna that can provide crucial information for the conservation of vulnerable environments such as high-mountain ecosystems. Full article
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27 pages, 5867 KiB  
Article
Coprophagous Hydrophilid Beetles (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Sphaeridiinae) Distribution in the Polish Carpathians
by Czesław Greń and Andrzej Górz
Insects 2020, 11(6), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060355 - 05 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2535
Abstract
Research on coprophagous beetles of the Hydrophilidae family in the Polish Carpathians was conducted from 2011 to 2013. The beetles were caught using baited traps. The research sites were selected to take into account both the horizontal diversity of habitat conditions and the [...] Read more.
Research on coprophagous beetles of the Hydrophilidae family in the Polish Carpathians was conducted from 2011 to 2013. The beetles were caught using baited traps. The research sites were selected to take into account both the horizontal diversity of habitat conditions and the vertical diversity associated with elevation above sea level. During the study, 9589 coprophagous hydrophilid individuals were collected, representing 17 species and five genera. Two species that were new to Poland were found: Cercyon tatricus and Pachysternum capense. The vertical ranges of the individual species of coprophagous hydrophilid beetles within the Polish Carpathians were determined as well as the elevations above sea level, with the highest and lowest species richness of this group of insects. The capture of Pachysternum capense in the Tatra Mountains may indicate the existence of an unrecognized path of migration of small insects from Southern to Northern Europe. The route and mechanisms of their migration are discussed. Full article
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34 pages, 11245 KiB  
Review
Ecosystem Birth near Melting Glaciers: A Review on the Pioneer Role of Ground-Dwelling Arthropods
by Sigmund Hågvar, Mauro Gobbi, Rüdiger Kaufmann, María Ingimarsdóttir, Marco Caccianiga, Barbara Valle, Paolo Pantini, Pietro Paolo Fanciulli and Amber Vater
Insects 2020, 11(9), 644; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11090644 - 19 Sep 2020
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 5389
Abstract
As glaciers retreat, their forelands represent “natural laboratories” for the study of primary succession. This review describes how certain arthropods conquer pristine ground and develop food webs before the establishment of vascular plants. Based on soil samples, pitfall traps, fallout and sticky traps, [...] Read more.
As glaciers retreat, their forelands represent “natural laboratories” for the study of primary succession. This review describes how certain arthropods conquer pristine ground and develop food webs before the establishment of vascular plants. Based on soil samples, pitfall traps, fallout and sticky traps, gut content studies, and some unpublished data, we compare early arthropod succession on glacial forelands of northern Europe (Iceland, Norway including Svalbard, and Sweden) and of the Alps (Austria, Italy). While macroarthropod predators like ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae), harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones), and spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) have usually been considered as pioneers, assumed to feed on airborne prey, this review explains a different pattern. Here, we highlight that springtails (Collembola), probably feeding on biofilm made up of algae or cyanobacteria, are super-pioneers, even at high altitudes and under arctic conditions. We also point out that macroarthropod predators can use locally available prey, such as springtails or non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae). Pioneer arthropod communities vary under different biogeographical and climatic conditions. Two pioneer food webs, from northern Europe and the Alps, respectively, differed in structure and function. However, certain genera and orders were common to both. Generalists and specialists live together in a pioneer community. Cold-adapted specialists are threatened by glacier melting. Full article
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11 pages, 1876 KiB  
Article
Thermal Tolerance of Fruit-Feeding Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Contrasting Mountaintop Environments
by Vanessa Diniz e Silva, Marina Vale Beirão and Danon Clemes Cardoso
Insects 2020, 11(5), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11050278 - 01 May 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3587
Abstract
Ectothermic organisms, such as insects, are highly temperature dependent and are good models for studies that predict organisms’ responses to global climate change. Predicting how climate change may affect species distributions is a complicated task. However, it is possible to estimate species’ physiological [...] Read more.
Ectothermic organisms, such as insects, are highly temperature dependent and are good models for studies that predict organisms’ responses to global climate change. Predicting how climate change may affect species distributions is a complicated task. However, it is possible to estimate species’ physiological constraints through maximum critical temperature, which may indicate if the species can tolerate new climates. Butterflies are useful organisms for studies of thermal tolerance. We tested if species have different thermal tolerances and if different habitats influence the thermal tolerance of the butterflies present in Brazil’s campo rupestre (open areas) and forest islands (shaded areas). A total of 394 fruit-feeding butterflies, comprising 45 species, were tested. The results separated the species into two statistically different groups: the resistant species with maximum critical temperature of 53.8 ± 7.4 °C, and the non-resistant species with maximum critical temperature of 48.2 ± 7.4 °C. The species of butterflies displayed differences in maximum critical temperature between the campo rupestre and forest islands that can be related to the two distinct habitats, but this did not correlate phylogenetically. Species from the forest islands were also divided into two groups, “resistant” and “non-resistant”, probably due to the heterogeneity of the habitat; the forest islands have a canopy, and in the understory, there are shaded and sunny areas. Species from forest islands, especially species that displayed lower thermal tolerance, may be more susceptible to global warming. Full article
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