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A Re-Evaluation of Olive Fruit Fly Organophosphate-Resistant Ace Alleles in Iberia, and Field-Testing Population Effects after in-Practice Dimethoate Use

Laboratory of Entomology, ICAAM—Instituto de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais Mediterrânicas, Universidade de Évora, 7006-554 Évora, Portugal
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Insects 2019, 10(8), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10080232
Received: 4 July 2019 / Revised: 29 July 2019 / Accepted: 31 July 2019 / Published: 1 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Detection of Insect Resistance)
The management of the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) is traditionally based upon the use of organophosphate insecticides, mainly dimethoate. In this evolutionary arms race between man and pest, the flies have adapted a pesticide resistance, implying two point-mutations of the Ace gene -I214V and G488S- and a 9bp deletion -Δ3Q. We revisited 11 Iberian locations to evaluate this adaptation of organophosphate (OP)-resistant alleles through amplicon sequencing. Screening for populations where the wild type is prevalent allows an identification of hotspots for targeted mitigation measures; we have hence refined the scale to the region with the lowest OP-resistant alleles frequency 71 locations were sampled and individuals checked using a fast and low-cost allele-specific-primer polymerase chain reaction (ASP-PCR) method]. An increase in Ace gene point-mutations was observed, and the Δ3Q mutation remains undetected. The lowest frequencies of the OP-resistant alleles remain in the west, underlining the hypothesis of an introduction of resistance from eastern Mediterranean areas. A field test was performed by sampling the fly population before and after in-practice dimethoate application. A clear reduction in olive fruit fly numbers was observed, with no relevant changes in the genotypic frequencies of the resistance alleles. The findings are discussed in frame of the type and intensity of the selection pressure that has led to the adaptation to resistance and its consequences from the producer perspective. View Full-Text
Keywords: dimethoate; Bactrocera oleae; resistance; organophosphate; acetylcholinesterase; in-practice field test dimethoate; Bactrocera oleae; resistance; organophosphate; acetylcholinesterase; in-practice field test
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Nobre, T.; Gomes, L.; Rei, F.T. A Re-Evaluation of Olive Fruit Fly Organophosphate-Resistant Ace Alleles in Iberia, and Field-Testing Population Effects after in-Practice Dimethoate Use. Insects 2019, 10, 232.

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