The codling moth, Cydia pomonella
L., is a serious insect pest in pome fruit production worldwide with a preference for apple. The pest is known for having developed resistance to several chemical groups of insecticides, making its control difficult. The control and management of the codling moth is often hindered by a lack of understanding about its biology and ecology, including aspects of its population genetics. This review summarizes the information about the origin and biology of the codling moth, describes the mechanisms of resistance in this pest, and provides an overview of current research of resistant pest populations and genetic research both in Europe and globally. The main focus of this review is on non-pesticide control measures and anti-resistance strategies which help to reduce the number of chemical pesticides used and their residues on food and the local environment. Regular monitoring for insecticide resistance is essential for proactive management to mitigate potential insecticide resistance. Here we describe techniques for the detection of resistant variants and possibilities for monitoring resistance populations. Also, we present our present work on developing new methods to maintain effective control using appropriate integrated resistance management (IRM) strategies for this economically important perennial pest.
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