Special Issue "Biology and Management of Slug and Snail Pests"

A special issue of Insects (ISSN 2075-4450).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Gordon Port
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK
Interests: ecology and behaviour of invertebrates; management of pest and beneficial invertebrates; Integrated Pest Management of slugs and snails
Dr. Jenna Ross
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Crop Health and Protection (CHAP), National Agri-Food Innovation Campus, Sand Hutton, York. YO411LZ | Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, AB24 3UU, UK | Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology, Faculty of AgriSciences, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa
Interests: mollusc biology; Integrated Pest Management of molluscs; biological control; mollusc-parasitic nematodes; biological invasions
Dr. Rory McDonnell
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Crop and Soil Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis OR 97331, USA
Interests: invasive slug and snail ecology; biorational control; biological control; chemical ecology; Integrated Pest Management

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Terrestrial molluscs (slugs and snails) are pests in many growing systems around the world. Whilst they are a continual source of concern for many commercial growers, they are also a problem for the home garden market. In addition, some species are considered important vectors of plant and human pathogens. The management of these pests is difficult, as we still lack a good understanding of their biology, ecology and behaviour; in fact, they are very different from insect pests. Another difficulty for their improved management is the limited range of control options available. Research on molluscs and their management is widespread and is the subject of many different publications. This Special Issue will bring together original, as well as review articles, that focus on a better understanding of the biology of terrestrial molluscs and on ways to improve their management. Contributions that focus on tests of active ingredients without advancing our knowledge of slug and snail management will not be considered for publication.

Dr. Gordon Port
Dr. Jenna Ross
Dr. Rory McDonnell
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Insects is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Slug
  • Snail
  • Mollusc
  • Ecology
  • Behaviour
  • Molluscicide
  • Chemical control
  • Biological control
  • Cultural control
  • Integrated Pest Management

Published Papers (13 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Article
Multiple Introductions of the Pestiferous Land Snail Theba pisana (Müller, 1774) (Gastropoda: Helicidae) in Southern California
Insects 2021, 12(8), 662; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12080662 - 21 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 628
Abstract
The terrestrial land snail Theba pisana is circum-Mediterranean in native range and widely introduced and pestiferous in regions around the world. In California, USA, T. pisana has been recorded intermittently since 1914, but its source population(s) are unknown, and no morphological or molecular [...] Read more.
The terrestrial land snail Theba pisana is circum-Mediterranean in native range and widely introduced and pestiferous in regions around the world. In California, USA, T. pisana has been recorded intermittently since 1914, but its source population(s) are unknown, and no morphological or molecular analyses within or between California populations have been published. Therefore, we compared molecular data (CO1, 16S, ITS2) and internal morphology (jaw, radula, reproductive system) in T. pisana collected from Los Angeles and San Diego counties in 2019–2020. DNA barcode (CO1 mtDNA) analysis revealed that T. pisana from Los Angeles County was most similar to T. pisana from the Mediterranean island of Malta, and northern San Diego County-collected specimens were most similar to T. pisana from Morocco. Morphology of the jaw and mucous glands also differed between Los Angeles and San Diego populations, but it is unclear if traits are lineage-specific or artifacts of ontogeny. Several pathways of introduction into Southern California are possible for this species, but evidence for intentional vs. accidental introduction of present populations is lacking. Subsequent investigation(s) could use the data generated herein to assess the provenance of T. pisana elsewhere in California and/or worldwide and inform analyses of reproductive biology and systematics in this widespread species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Management of Slug and Snail Pests)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Environment and Diet Influence the Bacterial Microbiome of Ambigolimax valentianus, an Invasive Slug in California
Insects 2021, 12(7), 575; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12070575 - 23 Jun 2021
Viewed by 468
Abstract
Ambigolimax valentianus is an invasive European terrestrial gastropod distributed throughout California. It is a serious pest of gardens, plant nurseries, and greenhouses. We evaluated the bacterial microbiome of whole slugs to capture a more detailed picture of bacterial diversity and composition in this [...] Read more.
Ambigolimax valentianus is an invasive European terrestrial gastropod distributed throughout California. It is a serious pest of gardens, plant nurseries, and greenhouses. We evaluated the bacterial microbiome of whole slugs to capture a more detailed picture of bacterial diversity and composition in this host. We concentrated on the influences of diet and environment on the Ambigolimax valentianus core bacterial microbiome as a starting point for obtaining valuable information to aid in future slug microbiome studies. Ambigolimax valentianus were collected from two environments (gardens or reared from eggs in a laboratory). DNA from whole slugs were extracted and next-generation 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed. Slug microbiomes differed between environmental sources (garden- vs. lab-reared) and were influenced by a sterile diet. Lab-reared slugs fed an unsterile diet harbored greater bacterial species than garden-reared slugs. A small core microbiome was present that was shared across all slug treatments. This is consistent with our hypothesis that a core microbiome is present and will not change due to these treatments. Findings from this study will help elucidate the impacts of slug-assisted bacterial dispersal on soils and plants, while providing valuable information about the slug microbiome for potential integrated pest research applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Management of Slug and Snail Pests)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Listening to Slugs: Acceptability and Consumption of Molluscicide Pellets by the Grey Field Slug, Deroceras reticulatum
Insects 2021, 12(6), 548; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12060548 - 11 Jun 2021
Viewed by 618
Abstract
Gastropod damage to crop plants has a significant economic impact on agricultural and horticultural industries worldwide, with the Grey Field Slug (Deroceras reticulatum (Müller)) considered the main mollusc pest in the United Kingdom and in many other temperate areas. The prevailing form [...] Read more.
Gastropod damage to crop plants has a significant economic impact on agricultural and horticultural industries worldwide, with the Grey Field Slug (Deroceras reticulatum (Müller)) considered the main mollusc pest in the United Kingdom and in many other temperate areas. The prevailing form of crop protection is pellets containing the active ingredient, metaldehyde. Metaldehyde can cause paralysis and death in the mollusc, depending on the amount ingested. The paralysing effects may result in reduced pellet consumption. A greater understanding of metaldehyde consumption may reveal an area that can be manipulated using novel molluscicide formulations. Novel pellet types included commercial metaldehyde pellets coated so that metaldehyde is released more slowly. In both laboratory and arena trials, an audio sensor was used to record individual slugs feeding on a variety of pellet types, including commercially available toxic pellets (metaldehyde and ferric phosphate) and novel metaldehyde formulations. The sensor was used to record the length of each bite and the total number of bites. There was no significant difference in the length of bites between pellet types in laboratory trials. Novel pellets were not consumed more than commercial pellet types. Commercial pellet types did not differ in consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Management of Slug and Snail Pests)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Communication
Recolonization by Slugs: Vertical and Horizontal Dispersal by the Field Slug, Deroceras reticulatum
Insects 2021, 12(6), 531; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12060531 - 08 Jun 2021
Viewed by 574
Abstract
Following treatment with molluscicides or other controls, slugs can recolonize a site very quickly, but the proportion of the colonizing slugs moving from adjacent areas (horizontal dispersal) and the proportion from within the soil (vertical dispersal) has not previously been established. At a [...] Read more.
Following treatment with molluscicides or other controls, slugs can recolonize a site very quickly, but the proportion of the colonizing slugs moving from adjacent areas (horizontal dispersal) and the proportion from within the soil (vertical dispersal) has not previously been established. At a grassland site, barriers were used to exclude and trap slugs in order to estimate horizontal and vertical movement over a period of 32 months. For the first 15 months vertical movement made a significant contribution to the slugs recolonizing a grassland area. The ecological mechanisms occurring and the implications for the control of slugs are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Management of Slug and Snail Pests)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Fate of Deroceras reticulatum Following Metaldehyde Poisoning
Insects 2021, 12(4), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12040344 - 13 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1092
Abstract
The concentration of a pesticide used in agriculture not only has implications for effectiveness of pest control but may also have significant wider environmental consequences. This research explores the acceptability of metaldehyde slug pellets at different concentrations by Deroceras reticulatum (Müller, 1774) (Agriolimacidae), [...] Read more.
The concentration of a pesticide used in agriculture not only has implications for effectiveness of pest control but may also have significant wider environmental consequences. This research explores the acceptability of metaldehyde slug pellets at different concentrations by Deroceras reticulatum (Müller, 1774) (Agriolimacidae), and the changes in the health status of the slug when allowed to recover. The highest metaldehyde concentration (5%) yielded the highest slug mortality; however, it also produced the highest proportion of unpoisoned slugs, suggesting the highest level of pellet rejection. Pellets with 1% metaldehyde were as effective as 3% pellets in paralysing a significant proportion of the population after initial pellet exposure; however, more slugs were able to recover from metaldehyde poisoning at 1% metaldehyde compared with 3%. There was no statistically significant difference between the mortality rate of slugs regardless of metaldehyde concentration, suggesting that a lower concentration of metaldehyde may be as effective as a higher concentration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Management of Slug and Snail Pests)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Fermenting Bread Dough as a Cheap, Effective, Nontoxic, and Generic Attractant for Pest Snails and Slugs
Insects 2021, 12(4), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12040328 - 07 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 874
Abstract
Invasive slugs and snails are among the most damaging pests of agriculture in temperate and tropical regions of the world. Control options, however, are limited and there is a heavy reliance on chemical molluscicides of variable efficacy. There is an ongoing need to [...] Read more.
Invasive slugs and snails are among the most damaging pests of agriculture in temperate and tropical regions of the world. Control options, however, are limited and there is a heavy reliance on chemical molluscicides of variable efficacy. There is an ongoing need to improve management methods. Here, we show that a simple fermenting bread dough formulation (flour, water, and yeast) was effective in attracting pest mollusk species in laboratory tests, and in multiple replicated field trials in Hawaii, Oregon, and Montana. The dough attracted substantially more terrestrial pest gastropods, including invasive species of major economic importance such as Cornu aspersum, Deroceras reticulatum, Ambigolimax valentianus, Xerolenta obvia, Lissachatina fulica, and Parmarion martensi, than water controls. The dough remained attractive for at least 8 days and was significantly more attractive than a widely used metaldehyde-based bait, Deadline® M-Ps™. Thus, fermenting bread dough represents a nontoxic, generic, and effective tool to aid in managing pest gastropod infestations, either using baited traps or in attract-and-kill approaches. Given its simplicity, low cost, and the ready availability of its ingredients, the dough also has potential to be used in developing countries where access to commercial molluscicide baits is limited by cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Management of Slug and Snail Pests)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Evaluation of Slug Refuge Traps in a Soybean Reduced-Tillage Cover Crop System
Insects 2021, 12(1), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12010062 - 12 Jan 2021
Viewed by 518
Abstract
As more farmers adopt no- or reduced-tillage and/or cover crop land management practices, slugs have become more frequent pests of field crops, including soybean. Monitoring slugs visually is difficult because they are nocturnal, so several trapping methods have been developed, though comparisons of [...] Read more.
As more farmers adopt no- or reduced-tillage and/or cover crop land management practices, slugs have become more frequent pests of field crops, including soybean. Monitoring slugs visually is difficult because they are nocturnal, so several trapping methods have been developed, though comparisons of trap types are rare. The objective of this study was to compare trapping efficiency of two types of slug refuge traps in reduced-tillage soybeans following cover crop termination. We tested a traditional shingle trap and a modified shingle trap with a water-filled pitfall trap beneath it. Traps were deployed in 24 pairs in 2018 and 2019 in experimental soybean plots. We counted slug captures weekly over a 5-week time period each year. In 2018, we counted the total number of slugs under each trap type. In 2019, counts were categorized into specific trap components (shingle vs. in/on/under the pitfall). Temperature was also recorded in 2019. The modified shingle traps captured significantly more slugs than the traditional shingle traps, mainly due to the pitfall component. This trend was most pronounced as slug density decreased, suggesting that the modified shingle trap is a more sensitive sampling tool which may be particularly valuable when used for research purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Management of Slug and Snail Pests)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Stability of Patches of Higher Population Density within the Heterogenous Distribution of the Gray Field Slug Deroceras reticulatum in Arable Fields in the UK
Insects 2021, 12(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12010009 - 25 Dec 2020
Viewed by 554
Abstract
Exploitation of heterogenous distributions of Deroceras reticulatum, in arable fields by targeting molluscicide applications toward areas with higher slug densities, relies on these patches displaying sufficient spatio-temporal stability. Regular sampling of slug activity/distribution was undertaken using 1 ha rectangular grids of 100 [...] Read more.
Exploitation of heterogenous distributions of Deroceras reticulatum, in arable fields by targeting molluscicide applications toward areas with higher slug densities, relies on these patches displaying sufficient spatio-temporal stability. Regular sampling of slug activity/distribution was undertaken using 1 ha rectangular grids of 100 refuge traps established in 22 commercial arable field crops. Activity varied significantly between the three years of the study, and the degree of aggregation (Taylor’s Power Law) was higher in fields with higher mean trap catches. Hot spot analysis detected statistically significant spatial clusters in all fields, and in 162 of the 167 individual assessment visits. The five assessment visits in which no clusters were detected coincided with low slug activity (≤0.07 per trap). Generalized Linear Models showed significant spatial stability of patches in 11 fields, with non-significant fields also characterized by low slug activity (≤1.2 per trap). Mantel’s permutation tests revealed a high degree of correlation between location of individual patches between sampling dates. It was concluded that patches of higher slug density were spatio-temporally stable, but detection using surface refuge traps (which rely on slug activity on the soil surface) was less reliable when adverse environmental conditions resulted in slugs retreating into the upper soil horizons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Management of Slug and Snail Pests)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Not All Slugs Are the Same: Variation in Growth and Development of the Slug Deroceras reticulatum
Insects 2020, 11(11), 742; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11110742 - 29 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 510
Abstract
Models to forecast slug populations make assumptions about growth and mortality in response to environmental factors. To refine these models, the growth trajectories and survival of Deroceras reticulatum, a worldwide pest, hatching in spring and autumn were compared at three rearing temperatures [...] Read more.
Models to forecast slug populations make assumptions about growth and mortality in response to environmental factors. To refine these models, the growth trajectories and survival of Deroceras reticulatum, a worldwide pest, hatching in spring and autumn were compared at three rearing temperatures (ambient, 12 °C and 15 °C). Deroceras reticulatum reared under identical conditions showed great variation in growth and strong bimodality in growth rates. At all rearing temperatures, growth was influenced by hatching season; in all cases, fast growers dominated in autumn and slow growers dominated in spring. Survival was influenced by hatching season: autumn-born slugs survived better at ambient temperatures, but spring-born slugs had better survival at 15 °C. Deroceras reticulatum may be partitioned into ”slow growers” and ”fast growers”. Fast growers responded to warmer conditions, growing to large sizes. Slow growers, in contrast, gained weight at comparable rates to ambient reared slugs, regardless of the elevated constant temperatures. The peaks of slug activity in autumn and spring are possibly not distinct generations as some slugs may mature early/late and slip into the alternative cohort. Rather, the observed autumn and spring peaks in slug numbers may be a response of a mixed-age population to the favourable environmental conditions at that time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Management of Slug and Snail Pests)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Lethal Doses of Saponins from Quillaja saponaria for Invasive Slug Arion vulgaris and Non-Target Organism Enchytraeus albidus (Olygochaeta: Enchytraeidae)
Insects 2020, 11(11), 738; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11110738 - 28 Oct 2020
Viewed by 735
Abstract
The slug, Arion vulgaris Moquin-Tandon, 1855, is a serious pest in agriculture and private gardens. White worm, Enchytraeus albidus Henle, 1837, is an important model of decomposer organism in the terrestrial ecosystem. Saponins, which are secondary metabolites of plants, have previously been shown [...] Read more.
The slug, Arion vulgaris Moquin-Tandon, 1855, is a serious pest in agriculture and private gardens. White worm, Enchytraeus albidus Henle, 1837, is an important model of decomposer organism in the terrestrial ecosystem. Saponins, which are secondary metabolites of plants, have previously been shown to have some molluscicidal effect. We investigated which doses of saponins are lethal to the slug, A. vulgaris, and to the non-target organism, E. albidus. An aqueous solution with different concentrations of saponin extract from the bark of the soap tree, Quillaja saponaria Mol., was used in repeat treatments. Slugs were tested in filter paper contact tests as they are naturally exposed to soil contact while crawling. Worms were tested in soil contact tests as they live below ground. It was found that lethality of saponins depends on the slug age group and the environmental temperature. The median lethal concentration (LC50, at 15 °C) on adults was 68.5 g/L, and on juveniles, 96.9 g/L. The slugs were significantly more sensitive at 2 and −1 °C compared to 15 °C. The LC50 (at 6 ℃) on E. albidus was 2.7 g/L (or 0.5 g/kg dry weight of soil), far below those in A. vulgaris (at 15 ℃ and lower). The LC50 for worms at -1℃ was also significantly lower than at 6 ℃. Therefore, we can conclude: (1) that Q. saponaria saponins may be a successful slug control tool used during colder times of the year, but its concentration should be selected according to the age group of A. vulgaris; (2) this measure is more toxic than expected to white worms, which limits its use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Management of Slug and Snail Pests)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Communication
Efficacy of a Novel Metaldehyde Application Method to Control the Brown Garden Snail, Cornu aspersum (Helicidae), in South Africa
Insects 2020, 11(7), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11070437 - 13 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1286
Abstract
Baitchain is a novel molluscicide system that consists of metaldehyde pellets arranged on a cord and is designed to be tied around the base of tree trunks and act as a physical and chemical control method for molluscs. In this study, Baitchain is [...] Read more.
Baitchain is a novel molluscicide system that consists of metaldehyde pellets arranged on a cord and is designed to be tied around the base of tree trunks and act as a physical and chemical control method for molluscs. In this study, Baitchain is tested in a South African apple orchard and compared with traditional metaldehyde pellets (Sluggit) applied to the soil surface to determine the efficacy of the products against the brown garden snail, Cornu aspersum (Helicidae). The products were applied at two different concentrations, including 15 g/kg (Baitchain 15 and Sluggit 15) and 40 g/kg (Baitchain 40 and Sluggit 40) metaldehyde, and the products were either applied on their own, or in combination. Both treatments at 40 g/kg metaldehyde caused significant snail mortality when applied either on their own or in combination. However, significant mortality was also achieved by Baitchain 15 when applied on its own as well as in combination with Sluggit 15. The increased efficacy achieved by using Baitchain, even at the lower concentration, indicates that this novel method offers a viable physical and chemical control option for molluscs and could be incorporated as part of an integrated pest management strategy in South Africa, as well as other parts of the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Management of Slug and Snail Pests)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Review
A Literature Review of Biological and Bio-Rational Control Strategies for Slugs: Current Research and Future Prospects
Insects 2021, 12(6), 541; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12060541 - 10 Jun 2021
Viewed by 842
Abstract
Terrestrial gastropod molluscs (slugs and snails) (Mollusca: Gastropoda) cause significant crop damage around the world. There is no formal approach for differentiating between slugs and snails; however, an organism is usually considered a slug when there is no external shell, or when the [...] Read more.
Terrestrial gastropod molluscs (slugs and snails) (Mollusca: Gastropoda) cause significant crop damage around the world. There is no formal approach for differentiating between slugs and snails; however, an organism is usually considered a slug when there is no external shell, or when the shell is small in comparison to the body, and a snail when there is a large external shell. Although snails are an important pest of many crops, this review focuses on slug pests and their nonchemical control measures. A recent study by the UK Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board concluded that the failure to control slugs could cost the UK agriculture industry over GBP 100 million annually, with similar figures reported around the world. Whilst slugs are mostly controlled using chemical molluscicide products, some actives have come under scrutiny due to their detrimental environmental effects and impact on nontarget organisms. This has resulted in the ban of actives such as methiocarb in the UK and EU, and, more recently, the ban of metaldehyde in the UK. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find alternative and effective nontoxic solutions in the interest of global food security. In this paper, we have integrated extant literature on the three main biological control agents of slugs, namely nematodes, carabid beetles and sciomyzid flies, and various promising bio-rational slug control strategies. The review also highlights current research gaps and indicates some relevant potential future directions towards developing environmentally benign slug control solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Management of Slug and Snail Pests)

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Perspective
Biological Control of Pest Non-Marine Molluscs: A Pacific Perspective on Risks to Non-Target Organisms
Insects 2021, 12(7), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12070583 - 28 Jun 2021
Viewed by 793
Abstract
Classic biological control of pest non-marine molluscs has a long history of disastrous outcomes, and despite claims to the contrary, few advances have been made to ensure that contemporary biocontrol efforts targeting molluscs are safe and effective. For more than half a century, [...] Read more.
Classic biological control of pest non-marine molluscs has a long history of disastrous outcomes, and despite claims to the contrary, few advances have been made to ensure that contemporary biocontrol efforts targeting molluscs are safe and effective. For more than half a century, malacologists have warned of the dangers in applying practices developed in the field of insect biological control, where biocontrol agents are often highly host-specific, to the use of generalist predators and parasites against non-marine mollusc pests. Unfortunately, many of the lessons that should have been learned from these failed biocontrol programs have not been rigorously applied to contemporary efforts. Here, we briefly review the failures of past non-marine mollusc biocontrol efforts in the Pacific islands and their adverse environmental impacts that continue to reverberate across ecosystems. We highlight the fact that none of these past programs has ever been demonstrated to be effective against targeted species, and at least two (the snails Euglandina spp. and the flatworm Platydemus manokwari) are implicated in the extinction of hundreds of snail species endemic to Pacific islands. We also highlight other recent efforts, including the proposed use of sarcophagid flies and nematodes in the genus Phasmarhabditis, that clearly illustrate the false claims that past bad practices are not being repeated. We are not making the claim that biocontrol programs can never be safe and effective. Instead, we hope that in highlighting the need for robust controls, clear and measurable definitions of success, and a broader understanding of ecosystem level interactions within a rigorous scientific framework are all necessary before claims of success can be made by biocontrol advocates. Without such amendments to contemporary biocontrol programs, it will be impossible to avoid repeating the failures of non-marine mollusc biocontrol programs to date. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Management of Slug and Snail Pests)
Back to TopTop