Topical Collection "Integrated Pest Management in Arable and Open Field Horticultural Crops"

A topical collection in Insects (ISSN 2075-4450). This collection belongs to the section "Insect Pest and Vector Management".

Editor

Dr. Andrew G. S. Cuthbertson
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Independent Science Advisor, York, UK
Interests: Arable and Horticultural Crop production, Biological Control, Integrated Pest Management, Invasive species
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Invertebrate pest control within both agricultural and horticultural production systems continues to present many challenges. Over the past decades the commonly used method for pest control has been the direct application of chemical products. However, in response to environmental, economic, and other problems associated with the over-reliance on chemical insecticides there has been an increasing drive towards the development of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) approaches. Many IPM strategies are now well developed under protected environments. However, within the open field in many situations targeted success is yet to be achieved. This collection will include original research articles and reviews by leading research entomologists and associated experts. Articles will focus on the development and implementation of IPM strategies against various major arable and horticultural invertebrate pests (both indigenous and invasive species). Articles that outline the integration of various control options for a given pest species and also the appropriate use of chemicals within management strategies are particularly welcome.

Dr. Andrew G. S. Cuthbertson
Collection Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Insects is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Arable Crops
  • Horticulture
  • Integrated Pest Management
  • Pesticides

Published Papers (11 papers)

2021

Jump to: 2020

Article
Hot Water Treatment for Post-Harvest Disinfestation of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Its Effect on cv. Tommy Atkins Mango
Insects 2021, 12(12), 1070; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12121070 - 29 Nov 2021
Viewed by 228
Abstract
Mango production and trade in sub-Saharan Africa is hampered by direct damage and the high quarantine status of B. dorsalis and the paucity of effective post-harvest phytosanitary treatments. The current study reports the development of a quarantine treatment protocol using hot water to [...] Read more.
Mango production and trade in sub-Saharan Africa is hampered by direct damage and the high quarantine status of B. dorsalis and the paucity of effective post-harvest phytosanitary treatments. The current study reports the development of a quarantine treatment protocol using hot water to disinfest B. dorsalis and assess its effect on cv. Tommy Atkins mango quality. We first determined the development of the eggs and all larval stages of B. dorsalis in cv. Tommy Atkins mango and used the information to establish a time–mortality relationship of the immature stages after subjecting infested fruits to a regimen of eight, time instances of hot water at 46.1 °C. Using probit analysis, we estimated the minimum time required to achieve 99.9968% mortality of each stage. Our results indicate that the egg was the least heat tolerant, followed by the first, second, and third instar. The time required to achieve 99.9968% control of the third instar in cv. Tommy Atkins mango (400–600 g) was determined to be 72.63 min (95% Cl: 70.32–74.95). In the confirmatory trials, the hot water treatment schedule of 46.1 °C/72.63 min was validated, and none of the 59,120 most heat-tolerant individuals treated survived. Further, there were no significant differences between hot water-treated and untreated mangoes recorded in weight loss, fruit firmness, pH, total soluble solids, moisture content, and titratable acidity eleven days post-treatment. These findings demonstrate an effectively optimum post-harvest disinfestation treatment against B. dorsalis in cv. Tommy Atkins mango that should be adopted commercially to facilitate access to profitable but strict export markets globally. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Anthonomus rubi on Strawberry Fruit: Its Biology, Ecology, Damage, and Control from an IPM Perspective
Insects 2021, 12(8), 701; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12080701 - 05 Aug 2021
Viewed by 851
Abstract
The strawberry blossom weevil (SBW), Anthonomus rubi, is a well-documented pest of strawberry. Recently, in strawberry fields of Trento Province (north-east Italy), new noteworthy damage on fruit linked to SBW adults was observed, combined with a prolonged adult activity until the autumn. [...] Read more.
The strawberry blossom weevil (SBW), Anthonomus rubi, is a well-documented pest of strawberry. Recently, in strawberry fields of Trento Province (north-east Italy), new noteworthy damage on fruit linked to SBW adults was observed, combined with a prolonged adult activity until the autumn. In this new scenario, we re-investigated SBW biology, ecology, monitoring tools, and potential control methods to develop Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies. Several trials were conducted on strawberry in the laboratory, field and semi-natural habitats. The feeding activity of adult SBW results in small deep holes on berries at different stages, causing yield losses of up to 60%. We observed a prolonged survival of newly emerged adults (>240 days) along with their ability to sever flower buds without laying eggs inside them in the same year (one generation per year). SBW adults were present in the strawberry field year-round, with movement between crop and no crop habitats, underlying a potential role of other host/feeding plants to support its populations. Yellow sticky traps combined with synthetic attractants proved promising for both adult monitoring and mass trapping. Regarding control, adhesive tapes and mass trapping using green bucket pheromone traps gave unsatisfactory results, while the high temperatures provided by the black fabric, the periodic removal of severed buds or adults and Chlorpyrifos-methyl application constrained population build-up. The findings are important for the development of an IPM strategy. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Combined Effect of Entomopathogens against Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): Laboratory, Greenhouse and Field Trials
Insects 2021, 12(5), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12050456 - 16 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 814
Abstract
Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is one of the most damaging insect pests of onions, Allium cepa L., which is an economically important agricultural crop cultivated worldwide. In this study, the combined application of entomopathogenic nematodes with entomopathogenic fungi against different [...] Read more.
Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is one of the most damaging insect pests of onions, Allium cepa L., which is an economically important agricultural crop cultivated worldwide. In this study, the combined application of entomopathogenic nematodes with entomopathogenic fungi against different soil dwelling stages of T. tabaci was evaluated. The nematodes included Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (VS strain) and Steinernema feltiae (SN strain), and fungi included Beauveria bassiana (WG-11) and Metarhizium anisopliae (WG-02); all four paired combinations (nematode + fungus) were included. In a small cup bioassay, only the combined application of H. bacteriophora and B. bassiana (WG-11) caused a synergistic interaction against pre-pupae, while all other combinations were compatible in an additive manner against pupae and late second instars. In a larger arena, a potted soil bioassay, again, combined applications of both pathogens produced greater mortality compared to single applications of each pathogen; all the combinations exhibited additive interactions, with the highest mortality observed in pre-pupae, followed by pupae and late second instar larvae using H. bacteriophora and B. bassiana (WG-11). Additionally, in the potted plant bioassay, lower adult emergence was observed from treated groups compared to control groups. Under field conditions, lower numbers of adults and larvae were found in treated groups relative to controls. Overall, the pre-pupal stage was more susceptible to the pathogen treatments, followed by pupae and late second instar larvae, and also combined applications of both pathogens suppressed the adult population. Combined application of entomopathogenic nematodes and fungi could be used for integrated pest management (IPM) of T. tabaci in onion production systems. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

2020

Jump to: 2021

Article
Risk Assessment for Tomato Fruitworm in Processing Tomato Crop-Egg Location and Sequential Sampling
Insects 2021, 12(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12010013 - 28 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 726
Abstract
Helicoverpa armigera is one of the key pests affecting processing tomatoes and many other crops. A three-year study was conducted to describe the oviposition preferences of this species on determinate tomato plants (mainly the stratum, leaf, leaflet, and leaf side) and the spatial [...] Read more.
Helicoverpa armigera is one of the key pests affecting processing tomatoes and many other crops. A three-year study was conducted to describe the oviposition preferences of this species on determinate tomato plants (mainly the stratum, leaf, leaflet, and leaf side) and the spatial pattern of the eggs in the field, to form a sequential sampling plan. Eggs were found mainly in the exposed canopy, on leaves a (upper stratum) and b (upper-middle stratum) and significantly fewer eggs on leaf c (middle-lower stratum) below flower clusters. This vertical pattern in the plant was found in all phenological growth stages. The spatial pattern was found to be aggregated, with a trend towards a random pattern at lower densities. A sequential sampling plan was developed, based on Iwao’s method with the parameters of Taylor’s power law, with minimum and maximum sample size of 20 and 80 sample units (plants), respectively (two leaves/plant). For its validation, operating characteristic (OC) and average sample number (ASN) curves were calculated by means of simulation with independent data sets. The β-error was higher than desirable in the vicinity of the economic threshold, but this sampling plan is regarded as an improvement both in effort and precision, compared with the fixed sample plan, and further improvements are discussed. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
Integration of Entomopathogenic Fungi into IPM Programs: Studies Involving Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) Affecting Horticultural Crops
Insects 2020, 11(10), 659; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11100659 - 25 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1877
Abstract
Weevils are significant pests of horticultural crops and are largely managed with insecticides. In response to concerns about negative impacts of synthetic insecticides on humans and the environment, entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) have been developed as an alternative method of control, and as such [...] Read more.
Weevils are significant pests of horticultural crops and are largely managed with insecticides. In response to concerns about negative impacts of synthetic insecticides on humans and the environment, entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) have been developed as an alternative method of control, and as such appear to be “ready-made” components of integrated pest management (IPM) programs. As the success of pest control requires a thorough knowledge of the biology of the pests, this review summarises our current knowledge of weevil biology on nut trees, fruit crops, plant storage roots, and palm trees. In addition, three groups of life cycles are defined based on weevil developmental habitats, and together with information from studies of EPF activity on these groups, we discuss the tactics for integrating EPF into IPM programs. Finally, we highlight the gaps in the research required to optimise the performance of EPF and provide recommendations for the improvement of EPF efficacy for the management of key weevils of horticultural crops. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Potato Tuberworm Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea) Leaf Infestation Affects Performance of Conspecific Larvae on Harvested Tubers by Inducing Chemical Defenses
Insects 2020, 11(9), 633; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11090633 - 15 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 787
Abstract
Conspecific aboveground and belowground herbivores can interact with each other, mediated by plant secondary chemicals; however, little attention has been paid to the interaction between leaf feeders and tuber-feeders. Here, we evaluated the effect of the foliar feeding of P. operculella larvae on [...] Read more.
Conspecific aboveground and belowground herbivores can interact with each other, mediated by plant secondary chemicals; however, little attention has been paid to the interaction between leaf feeders and tuber-feeders. Here, we evaluated the effect of the foliar feeding of P. operculella larvae on the development of conspecific larvae feeding on harvested tubers by determining the nutrition and defense metabolites in the whole plant (leaf, root and tuber). We found that leaf feeding negatively affected tuber larval performance by increasing the female larval developmental time and reducing the male pupal weight. In addition, aboveground herbivory increased α-chaconine and glycoalkaloids in tubers and α-solanine in leaves, but decreased α-chaconine and glycoalkaloids in leaves. Aboveground herbivory also altered the levels of soluble sugar, soluble protein, starch, carbon (C), nitrogen (N), as well as the C:N ratio in both leaves and tubers. Aboveground P. operculella infestations could affect the performance of conspecific larvae feeding on harvested tubers by inducing glycoalkaloids in the host plant. Our findings indicate that field leaf herbivory should be considered when assessing the quality of potato tubers and their responses to pests during storage. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Slug Monitoring and Impacts on the Ground Beetle Community in the Frame of Sustainable Pest Control in Conventional and Conservation Agroecosystems
Insects 2020, 11(6), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060380 - 18 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1235
Abstract
In conservation agriculture, slugs are considered significant pests and their monitoring is a key option in the integrated pest management framework. Together with molluscicide applications, predators such as ground beetles can offer a tool for slug control in the field. Through the evaluation [...] Read more.
In conservation agriculture, slugs are considered significant pests and their monitoring is a key option in the integrated pest management framework. Together with molluscicide applications, predators such as ground beetles can offer a tool for slug control in the field. Through the evaluation of slug and ground beetle monitoring strategies, this work compared their presence in conventional and conservation agricultural plots. The invasive Deroceras invadens was the dominant slug species to occur in all sampling periods. Among Carabidae, Poecilus cupreus and Pterostichus melas were the most abundant species, and Bembidion spp., Brachinus spp., and Harpalus spp. were also common. Beer-baited pitfall traps, whatever their alcoholic content, caught more slugs and ground beetles than wooden boards used as shelters. Slugs were more abundant in conventional plots than in conservation plots, possibly due to the lower presence of natural enemies such as ground beetles. Despite possible impacts on Carabidae, beer-baited pitfall traps should be considered a useful tool for slug monitoring and for the planning of molluscicide applications. Soil management such as minimum- or no-tillage and the presence of cover crops are important elements influencing both slug and ground beetle presence, possibly playing a key role in the maintenance of natural enemy populations. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effect of Different Combinations of Phosphorus and Nitrogen Fertilization on Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Aphids in Wheat
Insects 2020, 11(6), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060365 - 11 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1142
Abstract
While chemical fertilizers can be used to increase crop yield, the abuse of fertilizers aggravates environmental pollution and soil degradation. Understanding the effects of chemical fertilizers on the interaction between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and pest insects is of great benefit to crop [...] Read more.
While chemical fertilizers can be used to increase crop yield, the abuse of fertilizers aggravates environmental pollution and soil degradation. Understanding the effects of chemical fertilizers on the interaction between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and pest insects is of great benefit to crop and environmental protection, because AMF can enhance the nutrition absorption and insect resistance of crops. This study tested the effect of different levels of phosphorus, nitrogen, and their interactions on AMF, secondary metabolites, Sitobion avenae in garden, as well as the wheat traits in field. The results showed that AMF colonization on roots in the P0N1 treatment (0 g P/pot, 1.3083 g N/pot in the garden, and 0 g P/plot, 299.84 g N/plot) was the highest in both the garden and the field. The abundance of aphid was reduced in the P0N1 treatment, and there were negative relationships between aphids and AMF and phenolics, but a positive relationship between AMF and phenolics. Our results indicated that a change in the ratio of phosphorus to nitrogen affects the relationship among AMF, aphid abundance, and metabolites. The results also suggested an approach to save chemical fertilizers that could improve crop health and protect the agroecosystem against pollution at the same time. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Susceptibility of Selected Tea Shoots to Oviposition by Empoasca onukii (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and Feasibility of Egg Removal with Harvesting
Insects 2020, 11(6), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060338 - 01 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 823
Abstract
The Empoasca onukii (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) female lays its eggs inside the epidermis of the tea plant shoots. This has led to speculation that shoot harvesting could represent a method of egg removal. To verify the validity of this hypothesis, we sought to determine [...] Read more.
The Empoasca onukii (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) female lays its eggs inside the epidermis of the tea plant shoots. This has led to speculation that shoot harvesting could represent a method of egg removal. To verify the validity of this hypothesis, we sought to determine which part of the shoot was used for the oviposition and how the value of the harvested shoot affects the cost of the egg removal. In this study, four tea cultivars were chosen to examine the preferences for the site of oviposition. In addition, a mathematical model was used to describe the correlation between the economic value of the selected shoot and eggs laid within the shoot. Our study revealed that the pest preferred the 3rd and 4th leaf order intervals of the shoot as the oviposition sites, and the oviposition preferences was dependent on the leaf order interval class across all tea cultivars. In addition, a significant negative exponential relationship was found between the economic value of the selected shoot and the percentage of the eggs laid within the shoot, indicating that egg removal through shoot harvesting was limited. The findings of this study could be used to better understand the role of shoot harvesting in egg removal and would provide new insights into the understanding of the incidence of this pest. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Airborne Pheromone Quantification in Treated Vineyards with Different Mating Disruption Dispensers against Lobesia botrana
Insects 2020, 11(5), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11050289 - 09 May 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1171
Abstract
Mating disruption (MD) is widely used against the European grapevine moth (EGVM), Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermüller; Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), by installing passive dispensers or aerosol devices. The present work reports a new sampling and quantification methodology to obtain absolute data about field airborne [...] Read more.
Mating disruption (MD) is widely used against the European grapevine moth (EGVM), Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermüller; Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), by installing passive dispensers or aerosol devices. The present work reports a new sampling and quantification methodology to obtain absolute data about field airborne pheromone concentration based on air samplings and sensitive chromatographic-spectroscopic methods. Samplings were performed in fields treated with passive dispensers or aerosol devices at different moments throughout the crop cycle to study how they act and how the disruption is triggered. Moreover, pheromone adsorption and releasing capacity of vine leaves were studied to elucidate their role in the disruption. Although both types of dispensers were effective in limiting the damage inflicted by EGVM, they performed differently and provided different airborne pheromone concentration profiles. Results also proved that leaves were able to adsorb and release part of the airborne pheromone acting as subsequent and additional pheromone sources. This fact could explain the different concentration profiles. Moreover, our results suggest that lower pheromone emission than that of the current passive dispensers still could provide an adequate performance in the field. Competitive mechanisms involved in MD using both dispensers, the dynamics of the airborne pheromone throughout the time and the importance of the canopy are discussed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Editorial
Special Issue: Integrated Pest Management in Arable and Open Field Horticultural Crops
Insects 2020, 11(2), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11020082 - 23 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1012
Abstract
Invertebrate pest control within both agricultural and horticultural production systems continues to present many challenges. Over the past decades the commonly used method for pest control has been the direct application of chemical products. However, in response to environmental, economic, and other problems [...] Read more.
Invertebrate pest control within both agricultural and horticultural production systems continues to present many challenges. Over the past decades the commonly used method for pest control has been the direct application of chemical products. However, in response to environmental, economic, and other problems associated with the over-reliance on chemical insecticides there has been an increasing drive towards the development of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) approaches. Many IPM strategies are now well developed under protected environments. However, within the open field in many situations targeted success is yet to be achieved. This special issue will seek to showcase original articles and reviews by leading research entomologists and associated experts. Articles presented will focus on the development and implementation of IPM strategies against various major arable and horticultural invertebrate pests (both indigenous and invasive species). Full article
Back to TopTop