Special Issue "Photochemistry & Photophysics of Transition Metal Complexes"

A special issue of Inorganics (ISSN 2304-6740).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Paul I.P. Elliott
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield, UK
Interests: photochemistry; photophysics; transition metals; complexes; triazole ligands
Dr. Paul A. Scattergood
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield, UK
Interests: coordination chemistry; inorganic synthesis; photophysics; photochemistry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Contributions are invited for this Special Issue of Inorganics entitled “Photochemistry & Photophysics of Transition Metal Complexes”. The molecular manipulation of light remains one of the greatest challenges for the chemical sciences. For more than four decades, the optical properties and applications of transition metal element complexes has been a highly active area in inorganic chemistry. With impacts in areas from climate change mitigation to biomedical sciences, this remains a highly important theme that is at the forefront of the chemical sciences today. We therefore wish to celebrate the vibrancy and diversity of the work of the global inorganic photochemical and photophysical community in this Special Issue.

Contributions may cover any area of fundamental experimental or computational photochemistry, the photophysical properties of metal complexes, or the applications of photoactive metal complexes, including in solar catalysis, photovoltaics, light-emitting technologies, biological luminescence imaging and phototherapeutics.

Prof. Dr. Paul I.P. Elliott
Dr. Paul A. Scattergood
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Inorganics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • photochemistry
  • photophysics
  • complexes
  • transition metals
  • ligands

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Photophysical and Biological Properties of Iridium Tetrazolato Complexes Functionalised with Fatty Acid Chains
Inorganics 2020, 8(4), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics8040023 - 26 Mar 2020
Abstract
Five cyclometalated Ir(III) tetrazolato complexes functionalised with fatty acid chains (octanoic, palmitic, stearic, palmitoleic, and oleic) have been synthesised. The fatty acids were chosen to evaluate the potential effect of the length and degree of unsaturation on the biological properties of the complexes [...] Read more.
Five cyclometalated Ir(III) tetrazolato complexes functionalised with fatty acid chains (octanoic, palmitic, stearic, palmitoleic, and oleic) have been synthesised. The fatty acids were chosen to evaluate the potential effect of the length and degree of unsaturation on the biological properties of the complexes for use as cellular imaging agents. The complexes were analysed in both organic and aqueous media to determine if the presence and nature of the fatty acid chains had a significant effect on their photophysical properties. The complexes display green–yellow emission in dichloromethane solutions with relatively long excited state decays, within the range 360–393 ns, and quantum yields between 5.4% and 6.7% (from degassed solutions). Temperature-dependent photophysical studies suggest that the emitting excited states of the complexes might be quenched by the thermal population of dark states. In water, the quantum yields drop within the range of 0.5%–2.4%, and the photophysical measurements are influenced by the variable degrees of aggregation. In general, the entire series displayed low cytotoxicity and relatively high photostability, which are favourable attributes in the design of cellular imaging agents. Images of live HeLa cells were obtained for all the complexes, but those functionalised with palmitic and stearic acids had limitations due the lower solubility conferred by the saturated aliphatic chains. The complexes were mainly detected within the endoplasmic reticulum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photochemistry & Photophysics of Transition Metal Complexes)
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Open AccessArticle
Photophysical and Electrocatalytic Properties of Rhenium(I) Triazole-Based Complexes
Inorganics 2020, 8(3), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics8030022 - 24 Mar 2020
Abstract
A series of [Re(N^N)(CO)3(Cl)] (N^N = diimine) complexes based on 4-(pyrid-2-yl)-1,2,3-triazole (1), 1-benzyl-4-(pyrimidin-2-yl)-1,2,3-triazole (2), and 1-benzyl-4-(pyrazin-2-yl)-1,2,3-triazole (3) diimine ligands were prepared and their photophysical and electrochemical properties were characterized. The ligand-based reduction wave is shown [...] Read more.
A series of [Re(N^N)(CO)3(Cl)] (N^N = diimine) complexes based on 4-(pyrid-2-yl)-1,2,3-triazole (1), 1-benzyl-4-(pyrimidin-2-yl)-1,2,3-triazole (2), and 1-benzyl-4-(pyrazin-2-yl)-1,2,3-triazole (3) diimine ligands were prepared and their photophysical and electrochemical properties were characterized. The ligand-based reduction wave is shown to be highly sensitive to the nature of the triazole-based ligand, with the peak potential shifting by up to 600 mV toward more positive potential from 1 to 3. All three complexes are phosphorescent in solution at room temperature with λmax ranging from 540 nm (1) to 638 nm (3). Interestingly, the complexes appear to show inverted energy-gap law behaviour (τ = 43 ns for 1 versus 92 ns for 3), which is tentatively interpreted as reduced thermal accessibility of metal-centred (3MC) states from photoexcited metal to ligand charge transfer (3MLCT) states upon stabilisation of the N^N-centred lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO). The photophysical characterisation, supported by computational data, demonstrated a progressive stabilization of the LUMO from complex 1 to 3, which results in a narrowing of the HOMO–LUMO energy gap (HOMO = highest occupied molecular orbital) across the series and, correspondingly, red-shifted electronic absorption and photoluminescence spectra. The two complexes bearing pyridyl (1) and pyrimidyl (2) moieties, respectively, showed a modest ability to catalyse the electroreduction of CO2, with a peak potential at ca. −2.3 V versus Fc/Fc+. The catalytic wave that is observed in the cyclic voltammograms is slightly enhanced by the addition of water as a proton source. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photochemistry & Photophysics of Transition Metal Complexes)
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Open AccessCommunication
On the Possible Coordination on a 3MC State Itself? Mechanistic Investigation Using DFT-Based Methods
Inorganics 2020, 8(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics8020015 - 19 Feb 2020
Abstract
Understanding light-induced ligand exchange processes is key to the design of efficient light-releasing prodrugs or photochemically driven functional molecules. Previous mechanistic investigations had highlighted the pivotal role of metal-centered (MC) excited states in the initial ligand loss step. The question remains whether they [...] Read more.
Understanding light-induced ligand exchange processes is key to the design of efficient light-releasing prodrugs or photochemically driven functional molecules. Previous mechanistic investigations had highlighted the pivotal role of metal-centered (MC) excited states in the initial ligand loss step. The question remains whether they are equally important in the subsequent ligand capture step. This article reports the mechanistic study of direct acetonitrile coordination onto a 3MC state of [Ru(bpy)3]2+, leading to [Ru(bpy)21-bpy)(NCMe)]2+ in a 3MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge transfer) state. Coordination of MeCN is indeed accompanied by the decoordination of one pyridine ring of a bpy ligand. As estimated from Nudged Elastic Band calculations, the energy barrier along the minimum energy path is 20 kcal/mol. Interestingly, the orbital analysis conducted along the reaction path has shown that creation of the metallic vacancy can be achieved by reverting the energetic ordering of key dσ* and bpy-based π* orbitals, resulting in the change of electronic configuration from 3MC to 3MLCT. The approach of the NCMe lone pair contributes to destabilizing the dσ* orbital by electrostatic repulsion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photochemistry & Photophysics of Transition Metal Complexes)
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Open AccessArticle
Excited-State Relaxation in Luminescent Molybdenum(0) Complexes with Isocyanide Chelate Ligands
Inorganics 2020, 8(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics8020014 - 17 Feb 2020
Abstract
Diisocyanide ligands with a m-terphenyl backbone provide access to Mo0 complexes exhibiting the same type of metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) luminescence as the well-known class of isoelectronic RuII polypyridines. The luminescence quantum yields and lifetimes of the homoleptic tris(diisocyanide) Mo [...] Read more.
Diisocyanide ligands with a m-terphenyl backbone provide access to Mo0 complexes exhibiting the same type of metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) luminescence as the well-known class of isoelectronic RuII polypyridines. The luminescence quantum yields and lifetimes of the homoleptic tris(diisocyanide) Mo0 complexes depend strongly on whether methyl- or tert-butyl substituents are placed in α-position to the isocyanide groups. The bulkier tert-butyl substituents lead to a molecular structure in which the three individual diisocyanides ligated to one Mo0 center are interlocked more strongly into one another than the ligands with the sterically less demanding methyl substituents. This rigidification limits the distortion of the complex in the emissive excited-state, causing a decrease of the nonradiative relaxation rate by one order of magnitude. Compared to RuII polypyridines, the molecular distortions in the luminescent 3MLCT state relative to the electronic ground state seem to be smaller in the Mo0 complexes, presumably due to delocalization of the MLCT-excited electron over greater portions of the ligands. Temperature-dependent studies indicate that thermally activated nonradiative relaxation via metal-centered excited states is more significant in these homoleptic Mo0 tris(diisocyanide) complexes than in [Ru(2,2′-bipyridine)3]2+. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photochemistry & Photophysics of Transition Metal Complexes)
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Open AccessArticle
Heteroleptic [Cu(P^P)(N^N)][PF6] Compounds with Isomeric Dibromo-1,10-Phenanthroline Ligands
Inorganics 2020, 8(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics8010004 - 10 Jan 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
A series of [Cu(P^P)(N^N)][PF6] compounds are reported in which N^N is 2,9-dibromo-1,10-phenanthroline (2,9-Br2phen), 3,8-dibromo-1,10-phenanthroline (3,8-Br2phen) or 4,7-dibromo-1,10-phenanthroline (4,7-Br2phen) and P^P is bis(2-(diphenylphosphano)phenyl)ether (POP) or 4,5-bis(diphenylphosphano)-9,9-dimethylxanthene (xantphos). The compounds were characterized by solution multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, [...] Read more.
A series of [Cu(P^P)(N^N)][PF6] compounds are reported in which N^N is 2,9-dibromo-1,10-phenanthroline (2,9-Br2phen), 3,8-dibromo-1,10-phenanthroline (3,8-Br2phen) or 4,7-dibromo-1,10-phenanthroline (4,7-Br2phen) and P^P is bis(2-(diphenylphosphano)phenyl)ether (POP) or 4,5-bis(diphenylphosphano)-9,9-dimethylxanthene (xantphos). The compounds were characterized by solution multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and a single-crystal X-ray analysis. Each compound underwent a partially reversible or irreversible copper-centred oxidation, the highest potential being for 2,9-Br2phen-containing compounds. In solution, the compounds are weak yellow or orange emitters, whereas powdered samples exhibit yellow emissions with photoluminescence quantum yields of up to 45% for [Cu(xantphos)(2,9-Br2phen)][PF6] with an excited state lifetime τ1/2 = 9.9 μs. Values of λemmax for [Cu(POP)(2,9-Br2phen)][PF6] and [Cu(xantphos)(2,9-Br2phen)][PF6] are blue-shifted with respect to compounds with the 3,8-and 4,7-isomers, both in solution and in the solid state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photochemistry & Photophysics of Transition Metal Complexes)
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