Special Issue "MRI Contrast Agents"

A special issue of Inorganics (ISSN 2304-6740). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioinorganic Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Célia S. Bonnet

CNRS Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre de Biophysique Moléculaire, Paris, France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: contrast agents for MRI, molecular imaging, paramagnetic complexes, lanthanide coordination chemistry, responsive contrast agents, CEST agents, thermodynamic stability and kinetic inertness of complexes, multimodal and theranostic contrast agents

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is one of the most powerful techniques used in clinical diagnostics and biomedical research. Due to the low sensitivity of MRI, the development of MRI contrast agents is a very active and wide field of research. There is a high diversity in the objects studied, ranging from small complexes to nanoparticles; the type of contrast agent, T1, T2 or Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST); and their applications. The contrast agents in clinical use today are mainly non-specific. For better and early detection of diseases, targeted and responsive probes (which are selectively activated by a specific biomarker) are gaining increasing interest. Moreover, the combination of MRI and other imaging techniques enables to gain complementary information, and requires the development of multimodal probes. Finally, theranostic agents, that combine diagnostics and therapy in a single entity, represent a whole new area of development. This Special Issue aims to highlight the diversity of MRI contrast agents in terms of chemical structure and broad field of applications.

Dr. Célia S. Bonnet
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • relaxation
  • molecular imaging
  • paramagnetic complexes
  • nanoparticles
  • CEST agents
  • Responsive contrast agents
  • Targeted contrast agents
  • Bimodal contrast agents
  • Theranostic agents

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Electronic Effects of the Substituents on Relaxometric and CEST Behaviour of Ln(III)-DOTA-Tetraanilides
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 8 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 27 March 2019
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Abstract
Three different 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetamide (DOTAM) derivatives bearing as amide N-substituents phenyl, p-methoxyphenyl and p-ethylbenzoate groups were synthesized and the 1H and 17O NMR relaxometric behaviour of the Gd(III)-chelates and chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) effect of the Eu(III) complexes [...] Read more.
Three different 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetamide (DOTAM) derivatives bearing as amide N-substituents phenyl, p-methoxyphenyl and p-ethylbenzoate groups were synthesized and the 1H and 17O NMR relaxometric behaviour of the Gd(III)-chelates and chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) effect of the Eu(III) complexes were evaluated. The electronic properties of the substituents were shown to strongly influence the coordinated water exchange rate (kex), resulting in five times faster kex for the electron donating phenylmethoxy group compared to the electron withdrawing ethylbenzoate group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MRI Contrast Agents)
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Open AccessArticle
A Semi-Empirical Method for the Estimation of the Hydration Number of Mn(II)-Complexes
Inorganics 2018, 6(4), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics6040116
Received: 13 September 2018 / Revised: 23 October 2018 / Accepted: 24 October 2018 / Published: 26 October 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1340 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A semi-empirical equation to estimate the hydration number of Mn(II) complexes was derived from a database of 49 previously published 1H longitudinal Nuclear Magnetic Relaxation Dispersion profiles. This equation has the longitudinal 1H relaxivity and the molecular weight of the Mn(II) [...] Read more.
A semi-empirical equation to estimate the hydration number of Mn(II) complexes was derived from a database of 49 previously published 1H longitudinal Nuclear Magnetic Relaxation Dispersion profiles. This equation has the longitudinal 1H relaxivity and the molecular weight of the Mn(II) complex under consideration as parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MRI Contrast Agents)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Responsive ParaCEST Contrast Agents
Received: 2 May 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 25 May 2019
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Abstract
This article aimed at reviewing the advances on the development of paramagnetic complexes used as chemical exchange saturation transfer agents in magnetic resonance imaging. This relatively new type of contrast opens new avenues in the development of MRI probes for molecular imaging, and [...] Read more.
This article aimed at reviewing the advances on the development of paramagnetic complexes used as chemical exchange saturation transfer agents in magnetic resonance imaging. This relatively new type of contrast opens new avenues in the development of MRI probes for molecular imaging, and coordination chemistry lies at the center of such advances. Strategies to detect important biomarkers such as pH, cations, anions, metabolites, enzyme, and O2 were described. The current challenges, limitations, and opportunities in this field of research were discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MRI Contrast Agents)
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Open AccessReview
Potential of MRI in Radiotherapy Mediated by Small Conjugates and Nanosystems
Received: 6 April 2019 / Revised: 25 April 2019 / Accepted: 25 April 2019 / Published: 30 April 2019
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Abstract
Radiation therapy has made tremendous progress in oncology over the last decades due to advances in engineering and physical sciences in combination with better biochemical, genetic and molecular understanding of this disease. Local delivery of optimal radiation dose to a tumor, while sparing [...] Read more.
Radiation therapy has made tremendous progress in oncology over the last decades due to advances in engineering and physical sciences in combination with better biochemical, genetic and molecular understanding of this disease. Local delivery of optimal radiation dose to a tumor, while sparing healthy surrounding tissues, remains a great challenge, especially in the proximity of vital organs. Therefore, imaging plays a key role in tumor staging, accurate target volume delineation, assessment of individual radiation resistance and even personalized dose prescription. From this point of view, radiotherapy might be one of the few therapeutic modalities that relies entirely on high-resolution imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with its superior soft-tissue resolution is already used in radiotherapy treatment planning complementing conventional computed tomography (CT). Development of systems integrating MRI and linear accelerators opens possibilities for simultaneous imaging and therapy, which in turn, generates the need for imaging probes with therapeutic components. In this review, we discuss the role of MRI in both external and internal radiotherapy focusing on the most important examples of contrast agents with combined therapeutic potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MRI Contrast Agents)
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Open AccessReview
Ferritin: A Platform for MRI Contrast Agents Delivery
Received: 13 January 2019 / Revised: 24 February 2019 / Accepted: 25 February 2019 / Published: 2 March 2019
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Abstract
The search for high relaxivities and increased specificity continues to be central to the development of paramagnetic contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ferritin, due to its unique surface properties, architecture, and biocompatibility, has emerged as a natural nanocage that can potentially [...] Read more.
The search for high relaxivities and increased specificity continues to be central to the development of paramagnetic contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ferritin, due to its unique surface properties, architecture, and biocompatibility, has emerged as a natural nanocage that can potentially help to reach both these goals. This review aims to highlight recent advances in the use of ferritin as a nanoplatform for the delivery of metal-based MRI contrast agents (containing Gd3+, Mn2+, or Fe2O3) alone or in combination with active molecules used for therapeutic purposes. The collected results unequivocally show that the use of ferritin for contrast agent delivery leads to more accurate imaging of cancer cells and a significantly improved targeted therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MRI Contrast Agents)
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Open AccessReview
Smart MRI Agents for Detecting Extracellular Events In Vivo: Progress and Challenges
Received: 3 January 2019 / Revised: 25 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 9 February 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5728 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many elegant inorganic designs have been developed to aid medical imaging. We know better now how to improve imaging due to the enormous efforts made by scientists in probe design and other fundamental sciences, including inorganic chemistry, physiochemistry, analytical chemistry, and biomedical engineering. [...] Read more.
Many elegant inorganic designs have been developed to aid medical imaging. We know better now how to improve imaging due to the enormous efforts made by scientists in probe design and other fundamental sciences, including inorganic chemistry, physiochemistry, analytical chemistry, and biomedical engineering. However, despite several years being invested in the development of diagnostic probes, only a few examples have shown applicability in MRI in vivo. In this short review, we aim to show the reader the latest advances in the application of inorganic agents in preclinical MRI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MRI Contrast Agents)
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Open AccessReview
Molecular Theranostic Agents for Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Received: 17 December 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful non-invasive diagnostic tool that can provide important insights for medical treatment monitoring and optimization. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a minimally invasive treatment for various types of tumors, is drawing increasing interest thanks to its temporal and spatial [...] Read more.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful non-invasive diagnostic tool that can provide important insights for medical treatment monitoring and optimization. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a minimally invasive treatment for various types of tumors, is drawing increasing interest thanks to its temporal and spatial selectivity. The combination of MRI and PDT offers real-time monitoring of treatment and can give significant information for drug-uptake and light-delivery parameters optimization. In this review we will give an overview of molecular theranostic agents that have been designed for their potential application in MRI and PDT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MRI Contrast Agents)
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Open AccessReview
Targeted Contrast Agents for Molecular MRI
Inorganics 2018, 6(4), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics6040129
Received: 8 November 2018 / Revised: 27 November 2018 / Accepted: 30 November 2018 / Published: 4 December 2018
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Abstract
Molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides information non-invasively at cellular and molecular levels, for both early diagnosis and monitoring therapeutic follow-up. This imaging technique requires the development of a new class of contrast agents, which signal changes (typically becomes enhanced) when in presence [...] Read more.
Molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides information non-invasively at cellular and molecular levels, for both early diagnosis and monitoring therapeutic follow-up. This imaging technique requires the development of a new class of contrast agents, which signal changes (typically becomes enhanced) when in presence of the cellular or molecular process to be evaluated. Even if molecular MRI has had a prominent role in the advances in medicine over the past two decades, the large majority of the developed probes to date are still in preclinical level, or eventually in phase I or II clinical trials. The development of novel imaging probes is an emergent active research domain. This review focuses on gadolinium-based specific-targeted contrast agents, providing rational design considerations and examples of the strategies recently reported in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MRI Contrast Agents)
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