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Special Issue "Understanding Traumatic Brain Injury: Mechanisms and Therapeutic Targets"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Neurobiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. András Büki
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Neurosurgery, University Medical School, Pécs University, Pecs, Hungary
Interests: traumatic brain injury; brain injury biomarkers; advanced neuroimaging; translational research; neurotrauma models; transcortical magnetic stimulation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is currently appreciated that understanding the molecular mechanisms of traumatic brain injury is of ample importance to launch goal-driven, rationally targeted therapies.

Thus far, despite promising developments in fundamental research, practically no clinical trials have proved effective in the treatment of traumatic brain injury. This has led to the recognition that our exploratory strategies should be revisited, and clinically relevant trauma models as well as translationally relevant endpoints should be established.

This conclusion has materialized in the construction of the Common Data Elements and the initiation of the Operation Brain Trauma Therapy program.

This Special Issue is aimed to summarize and coordinate thoughts, knowledge, and efforts to provide a better understanding of traumatic brain injury and open up new perspectives in bench-to-bedside approaches leading to a more efficient care for the head injured.

Specifically, we invite manuscripts focusing on molecular/pathobiological processes operant in various clinically relevant models of traumatic brain injury. We particularly encourage submission of reports on molecular, proteomic, metabolomic, and imaging markers of traumatically evoked brain injury, as well as studies of therapeutic interventions where target engagement is based on well-defined pathobiological processes with morphological, functional endpoints of translational relevance.

Prof. András Büki
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Traumatic brain injury
  • Neurotrauma
  • Translational research
  • Axonal injury
  • Neuroimaing
  • Apoptosis
  • Biomarker

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase and Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Enzymes Are Sensitive Targets of Traumatic Brain Injury Induced Metabolic Derangement
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(22), 5774; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20225774 - 16 Nov 2019
Abstract
Using a closed-head impact acceleration model of mild or severe traumatic brain injury (mTBI or sTBI, respectively) in rats, we evaluated the effects of graded head impacts on the gene and protein expressions of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), as well as major enzymes of [...] Read more.
Using a closed-head impact acceleration model of mild or severe traumatic brain injury (mTBI or sTBI, respectively) in rats, we evaluated the effects of graded head impacts on the gene and protein expressions of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), as well as major enzymes of mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA). TBI was induced in anaesthetized rats by dropping 450 g from 1 (mTBI) or 2 m height (sTBI). After 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 120 h gene expressions of enzymes and subunits of PDH. PDH kinases and phosphatases (PDK1-4 and PDP1-2, respectively), citrate synthase (CS), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), succinyl-CoA synthase (SUCLG), and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) were determined in whole brain extracts (n = 6 rats at each time for both TBI levels). In the same samples, the high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) determination of acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) and free coenzyme A (CoA-SH) was performed. Sham-operated animals (n = 6) were used as controls. After mTBI, the results indicated a general transient decrease, followed by significant increases, in PDH and TCA gene expressions. Conversely, permanent PDH and TCA downregulation occurred following sTBI. The inhibitory conditions of PDH (caused by PDP1-2 downregulations and PDK1-4 overexpression) and SDH appeared to operate only after sTBI. This produced almost no change in acetyl-CoA and free CoA-SH following mTBI and a remarkable depletion of both compounds after sTBI. These results again demonstrated temporary or steady mitochondrial malfunctioning, causing minimal or profound modifications to energy-related metabolites, following mTBI or sTBI, respectively. Additionally, PDH and SDH appeared to be highly sensitive to traumatic insults and are deeply involved in mitochondrial-related energy metabolism imbalance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro and In Vivo Pipeline for Validation of Disease-Modifying Effects of Systems Biology-Derived Network Treatments for Traumatic Brain Injury—Lessons Learned
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(21), 5395; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20215395 - 29 Oct 2019
Abstract
We developed a pipeline for the discovery of transcriptomics-derived disease-modifying therapies and used it to validate treatments in vitro and in vivo that could be repurposed for TBI treatment. Desmethylclomipramine, ionomycin, sirolimus and trimipramine, identified by in silico LINCS analysis as candidate treatments [...] Read more.
We developed a pipeline for the discovery of transcriptomics-derived disease-modifying therapies and used it to validate treatments in vitro and in vivo that could be repurposed for TBI treatment. Desmethylclomipramine, ionomycin, sirolimus and trimipramine, identified by in silico LINCS analysis as candidate treatments modulating the TBI-induced transcriptomics networks, were tested in neuron-BV2 microglial co-cultures, using tumour necrosis factor α as a monitoring biomarker for neuroinflammation, nitrite for nitric oxide-mediated neurotoxicity and microtubule associated protein 2-based immunostaining for neuronal survival. Based on (a) therapeutic time window in silico, (b) blood-brain barrier penetration and water solubility, (c) anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in vitro (p < 0.05) and (d) target engagement of Nrf2 target genes (p < 0.05), desmethylclomipramine was validated in a lateral fluid-percussion model of TBI in rats. Despite the favourable in silico and in vitro outcomes, in vivo assessment of clomipramine, which metabolizes to desmethylclomipramine, failed to demonstrate favourable effects on motor and memory tests. In fact, clomipramine treatment worsened the composite neuroscore (p < 0.05). Weight loss (p < 0.05) and prolonged upregulation of plasma cytokines (p < 0.05) may have contributed to the worsened somatomotor outcome. Our pipeline provides a rational stepwise procedure for evaluating favourable and unfavourable effects of systems-biology discovered compounds that modulate post-TBI transcriptomics. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Single Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Induces Persistent Disruption of the Blood-Brain Barrier, Neuroinflammation and Cognitive Decline in Hypertensive Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(13), 3223; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20133223 - 30 Jun 2019
Abstract
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, which contributes to secondary injury of brain tissue and development of chronic cognitive decline. However, single mild (m)TBI, the most frequent form of brain trauma disrupts the BBB only transiently. We hypothesized, that co-morbid [...] Read more.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, which contributes to secondary injury of brain tissue and development of chronic cognitive decline. However, single mild (m)TBI, the most frequent form of brain trauma disrupts the BBB only transiently. We hypothesized, that co-morbid conditions exacerbate persistent BBB disruption after mTBI leading to long term cognitive dysfunction. Since hypertension is the most important cerebrovascular risk factor in populations prone to mild brain trauma, we induced mTBI in normotensive Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and we assessed BBB permeability, extravasation of blood-borne substances, neuroinflammation and cognitive function two weeks after trauma. We found that mTBI induced a significant BBB disruption two weeks after trauma in SHRs but not in normotensive Wistar rats, which was associated with a significant accumulation of fibrin and increased neuronal expression of inflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6 in the cortex and hippocampus. SHRs showed impaired learning and memory two weeks after mild TBI, whereas cognitive function of normotensive Wistar rats remained intact. Future studies should establish the mechanisms through which hypertension and mild TBI interact to promote persistent BBB disruption, neuroinflammation and cognitive decline to provide neuroprotection and improve cognitive function in patients with mTBI. Full article
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