Next Article in Journal
Crosstalk of the Brassinosteroid Signalosome with Phytohormonal and Stress Signaling Components Maintains a Balance between the Processes of Growth and Stress Tolerance
Next Article in Special Issue
Feeding the Walls: How Does Nutrient Availability Regulate Cell Wall Composition?
Previous Article in Journal
Unraveling the Molecular Determinants of Manual Therapy: An Approach to Integrative Therapeutics for the Treatment of Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Novel Insights from Comparative In Silico Analysis of Green Microalgal Cellulases
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessConcept Paper
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2674; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092674

The Role of the Primary Cell Wall in Plant Morphogenesis

1
School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QG, UK
2
Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
3
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 9 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Wall Proteins and Development)
Full-Text   |   PDF [5233 KB, uploaded 9 September 2018]   |  

Abstract

Morphogenesis remains a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma. It remains a formidable problem viewed from many different perspectives of morphology, genetics, and computational modelling. We propose a biochemical reductionist approach that shows how both internal and external physical forces contribute to plant morphogenesis via mechanical stress–strain transduction from the primary cell wall tethered to the plasma membrane by a specific arabinogalactan protein (AGP). The resulting stress vector, with direction defined by Hechtian adhesion sites, has a magnitude of a few piconewtons amplified by a hypothetical Hechtian growth oscillator. This paradigm shift involves stress-activated plasma membrane Ca2+ channels and auxin-activated H+-ATPase. The proton pump dissociates periplasmic AGP-glycomodules that bind Ca2+. Thus, as the immediate source of cytosolic Ca2+, an AGP-Ca2+ capacitor directs the vectorial exocytosis of cell wall precursors and auxin efflux (PIN) proteins. In toto, these components comprise the Hechtian oscillator and also the gravisensor. Thus, interdependent auxin and Ca2+ morphogen gradients account for the predominance of AGPs. The size and location of a cell surface AGP-Ca2+ capacitor is essential to differentiation and explains AGP correlation with all stages of morphogenetic patterning from embryogenesis to root and shoot. Finally, the evolutionary origins of the Hechtian oscillator in the unicellular Chlorophycean algae reflect the ubiquitous role of chemiosmotic proton pumps that preceded DNA at the dawn of life. View Full-Text
Keywords: morphogenesis; cell wall protein; hechtian oscillator; calcium signaling; H+-ATPase morphogenesis; cell wall protein; hechtian oscillator; calcium signaling; H+-ATPase
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lamport, D.T.A.; Tan, L.; Held, M.; Kieliszewski, M.J. The Role of the Primary Cell Wall in Plant Morphogenesis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2674.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top