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Functional Nanomaterials for Healthcare

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2023) | Viewed by 81044

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Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
HybridBioSystems Lab, Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples Federico II, Via Domenico Montesano 49, 80131 Naples, Italy
Interests: surface functionalization chemistry; nanostructured materials; hybrid materials; chemical characterization; diagnostics; drug delivery
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples Federico II, Via Domenico Montesano 49, 80131 Naples, Italy
Interests: nucleic acid chemistry and biology; DNA quadruplexes formed by telomers, aptamers, and synthetic G-rich oligonucleotides; chemical-physical characterization of soft interfaces; hybrid interfaces; therapeutics; diagnostics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
NanoBioSYstems Group, Functional Nanomaterials and Interfaces Lab, Institute of Applied Sciences and Intelligent Systems (ISASI), National Research Council (CNR), Via Pietro Castellino 111, 80131 Naples, Italy
Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples Federico II, Via Domenico Montesano 49, 80131 Naples, Italy
Interests: hybrid materials; colorectal cancer; nanoparticles; drug delivery; active targeting; small molecules

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent decades, a great effort has been dedicated to the synthesis and surface functionalization of functional nanomaterials for healthcare. This genuine interest has been nourished by the unique properties that nanomaterials offer over bulk materials, such as surface-to-volume ratio, high porosity, and easy tunability of their physicochemical properties. Among the wide array of nanomaterials available for medical applications, nanoparticles (NPs), nanotubes (NTs), nanorods (NRs), and nanofilms (NFs) are having a revolutionary impact on healthcare, offering precise and personalized treatments. Functionalization of nanomaterials involves altering their chemical and physical properties to achieve non-invasive imaging, controlled delivery of therapeutic compounds, and tissue engineering purposes. Furthermore, based on their ability to combine diagnostic and therapeutic compounds, functionalized nanomaterials also hold great promise for theranostic purposes.

The present Special Issue is suited for contributions on functional nanomaterials for drug delivery, bioimaging, diagnosis, theranostics, and tissue engineering. Different synthesis and functionalization procedures, characterization techniques, and medical applications of nanomaterials will be covered, and novel insights can be proposed. Thus, we are delighted to invite you to submit a full paper, letter, communication, review, or perspective article to this Special Issue.

Dr. Monica Terracciano
Dr. Ilaria Rea
Prof. Nicola Borbone
Dr. Chiara Tramontano
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • nanoparticles
  • nanostructured materials
  • porous materials
  • hybrid materials
  • synthesis
  • surface functionalization of nanostructures
  • nanobiotechnology
  • nanomedicine
  • cancer therapy
  • diagnostics
  • drug delivery
  • bioimaging
  • theranostics
  • tissue engineering
  • biocompatibility

Published Papers (24 papers)

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17 pages, 4832 KiB  
Article
Delivery of Doxorubicin by Ferric Ion-Modified Mesoporous Polydopamine Nanoparticles and Anticancer Activity against HCT-116 Cells In Vitro
by Mengwen Guo, Junhong Ling, Xinyi Xu and Xiaokun Ouyang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(7), 6854; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24076854 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2106
Abstract
In clinical cancer research, photothermal therapy is one of the most effective ways to increase sensitivity to chemotherapy. Here, we present a simple and effective method for developing a nanotherapeutic agent for chemotherapy combined with photothermal therapy. The nanotherapeutic agent mesoporous polydopamine-Fe(III)-doxorubicin-hyaluronic acid [...] Read more.
In clinical cancer research, photothermal therapy is one of the most effective ways to increase sensitivity to chemotherapy. Here, we present a simple and effective method for developing a nanotherapeutic agent for chemotherapy combined with photothermal therapy. The nanotherapeutic agent mesoporous polydopamine-Fe(III)-doxorubicin-hyaluronic acid (MPDA-Fe(III)-DOX-HA) was composed of mesoporous polydopamine modified by ferric ions and loaded with the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX), as well as an outer layer coating of hyaluronic acid. The pore size of the mesoporous polydopamine was larger than that of the common polydopamine nanoparticles, and the particle size of MPDA-Fe(III)-DOX-HA nanoparticles was 179 ± 19 nm. With the presence of ferric ions, the heat generation effect of the MPDA-Fe(III)-DOX-HA nanoparticles in the near-infrared light at 808 nm was enhanced. In addition, the experimental findings revealed that the active targeting of hyaluronic acid to tumor cells mitigated the toxicity of DOX on normal cells. Furthermore, under 808 nm illumination, the MPDA-Fe(III)-DOX-HA nanoparticles demonstrated potent cytotoxicity to HCT-116 cells, indicating a good anti-tumor effect in vitro. Therefore, the system developed in this work merits further investigation as a potential nanotherapeutic platform for photothermal treatment of cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Nanomaterials for Healthcare)
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15 pages, 3088 KiB  
Article
ZnO Tetrapods for Label-Free Optical Biosensing: Physicochemical Characterization and Functionalization Strategies
by Monica Terracciano, Simas Račkauskas, Andrea Patrizia Falanga, Sara Martino, Giovanna Chianese, Francesca Greco, Gennaro Piccialli, Guido Viscardi, Luca De Stefano, Giorgia Oliviero, Nicola Borbone and Ilaria Rea
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(5), 4449; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24054449 - 23 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1827
Abstract
In this study, we fabricated three different ZnO tetrapodal nanostructures (ZnO-Ts) by a combustion process and studied their physicochemical properties by different techniques to evaluate their potentiality for label-free biosensing purposes. Then, we explored the chemical reactivity of ZnO-Ts by quantifying the available [...] Read more.
In this study, we fabricated three different ZnO tetrapodal nanostructures (ZnO-Ts) by a combustion process and studied their physicochemical properties by different techniques to evaluate their potentiality for label-free biosensing purposes. Then, we explored the chemical reactivity of ZnO-Ts by quantifying the available functional hydroxyl groups (–OH) on the transducer surface necessary for biosensor development. The best ZnO-T sample was chemically modified and bioconjugated with biotin as a model bioprobe by a multi-step procedure based on silanization and carbodiimide chemistry. The results demonstrated that the ZnO-Ts could be easily and efficiently biomodified, and sensing experiments based on the streptavidin target detection confirmed these structures’ suitability for biosensing applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Nanomaterials for Healthcare)
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13 pages, 2877 KiB  
Article
Employing Supervised Algorithms for the Prediction of Nanomaterial’s Antioxidant Efficiency
by Mahsa Mirzaei, Irini Furxhi, Finbarr Murphy and Martin Mullins
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(3), 2792; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24032792 - 1 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1628
Abstract
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are compounds that readily transform into free radicals. Excessive exposure to ROS depletes antioxidant enzymes that protect cells, leading to oxidative stress and cellular damage. Nanomaterials (NMs) exhibit free radical scavenging efficiency representing a potential solution for oxidative stress-induced [...] Read more.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are compounds that readily transform into free radicals. Excessive exposure to ROS depletes antioxidant enzymes that protect cells, leading to oxidative stress and cellular damage. Nanomaterials (NMs) exhibit free radical scavenging efficiency representing a potential solution for oxidative stress-induced disorders. This study aims to demonstrate the application of machine learning (ML) algorithms for predicting the antioxidant efficiency of NMs. We manually compiled a comprehensive dataset based on a literature review of 62 in vitro studies. We extracted NMs’ physico-chemical (P-chem) properties, the NMs’ synthesis technique and various experimental conditions as input features to predict the antioxidant efficiency measured by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Following data pre-processing, various regression models were trained and validated. The random forest model showed the highest predictive performance reaching an R2 = 0.83. The attribute importance analysis revealed that the NM’s type, core-size and dosage are the most important attributes influencing the prediction. Our findings corroborate with those of the prior research landscape regarding the importance of P-chem characteristics. This study expands the application of ML in the nano-domain beyond safety-related outcomes by capturing the functional performance. Accordingly, this study has two objectives: (1) to develop a model to forecast the antioxidant efficiency of NMs to complement conventional in vitro assays and (2) to underline the lack of a comprehensive database and the scarcity of relevant data and/or data management practices in the nanotechnology field, especially with regards to functionality assessments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Nanomaterials for Healthcare)
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9 pages, 2013 KiB  
Article
Graphene Quantum Dots Modified Upconversion Nanoparticles for Photodynamic Therapy
by Yuting Li, Yufei Wang, Hong Shang and Jing Wu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(20), 12558; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232012558 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1874
Abstract
Photodynamic therapy (PDT), as a novel technique, has been extensively employed in cancer treatment by utilizing reactive oxygen species (ROS) to kill malignant cells. However, most photosensitizers (PSs) are short of ROS yield and affect the therapeutic effect of PDT. Thus, there is [...] Read more.
Photodynamic therapy (PDT), as a novel technique, has been extensively employed in cancer treatment by utilizing reactive oxygen species (ROS) to kill malignant cells. However, most photosensitizers (PSs) are short of ROS yield and affect the therapeutic effect of PDT. Thus, there is a substantial demand for the development of novel PSs for PDT to advance its clinical translation. In this study, we put forward a new strategy for PS synthesis via modifying graphene quantum dots (GQDs) on the surface of rare-earth elements doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) to produce UCNPs@GQDs with core-shell structure. This new type of PSs combined the merits of UCNPs and GQDs and produced ROS efficiently under near-infrared light excitation to trigger the PDT process. UCNPs@GQDs exhibited high biocompatibility and obvious concentration-dependent PDT efficiency, shedding light on nanomaterials-based PDT development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Nanomaterials for Healthcare)
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11 pages, 3150 KiB  
Article
Non-Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles Inhibit Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection
by Diana Gabriela Valencia-Reséndiz, Atenea Villegas, Daniel Bahena, Kenia Palomino, Jose Manuel Cornejo-Bravo, Liliana Quintanar, Giovanni Palomino-Vizcaino and Luis Marat Alvarez-Salas
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(14), 7552; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23147552 - 7 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2488
Abstract
The spontaneous interaction between human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) L1 virus-like particles (VLPs) and non-functionalized gold nanoparticles (nfGNPs) interferes with the nfGNPs’ salt-induced aggregation, inhibiting the red–blue color shift in the presence of NaCl. Electron microscopy and competition studies showed that color-shift inhibition [...] Read more.
The spontaneous interaction between human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) L1 virus-like particles (VLPs) and non-functionalized gold nanoparticles (nfGNPs) interferes with the nfGNPs’ salt-induced aggregation, inhibiting the red–blue color shift in the presence of NaCl. Electron microscopy and competition studies showed that color-shift inhibition is a consequence of direct nfGNP–VLP interaction and, thus, may produce a negative impact on the virus entry cell process. Here, an in vitro infection system based on the HPV16 pseudovirus (PsV) was used to stimulate the natural infection process in vitro. PsVs carry a pseudogenome with a reporter gene, resulting in a fluorescent signal when PsVs infect a cell, allowing quantification of the viral infection process. Aggregation assays showed that nfGNP-treated PsVs also inhibit color shift in the presence of NaCl. High-resolution microscopy confirmed nfGNP–PsV complex formation. In addition, PsVs can interact with silver nanoparticles, suggesting a generalized interaction of metallic nanoparticles with HPV16 capsids. The treatment of PsVs with nfGNPs produced viral infection inhibition at a higher level than heparin, the canonical inhibitor of HPV infection. Thus, nfGNPs can efficiently interfere with the HPV16 cell entry process and may represent a potential active component in prophylactic formulations to reduce the risk of HPV infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Nanomaterials for Healthcare)
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12 pages, 2234 KiB  
Communication
Cationic Surfactants as Disinfectants against SARS-CoV-2
by Eduard V. Karamov, Viktor F. Larichev, Galina V. Kornilaeva, Irina T. Fedyakina, Ali S. Turgiev, Andrey V. Shibaev, Vyacheslav S. Molchanov, Olga E. Philippova and Alexei R. Khokhlov
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(12), 6645; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23126645 - 14 Jun 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2683
Abstract
The virucidal activity of a series of cationic surfactants differing in the length and number of hydrophobic tails (at the same hydrophilic head) and the structure of the hydrophilic head (at the same length of the hydrophobic n-alkyl tail) was compared. It was [...] Read more.
The virucidal activity of a series of cationic surfactants differing in the length and number of hydrophobic tails (at the same hydrophilic head) and the structure of the hydrophilic head (at the same length of the hydrophobic n-alkyl tail) was compared. It was shown that an increase in the length and number of hydrophobic tails, as well as the presence of a benzene ring in the surfactant molecule, enhance the virucidal activity of the surfactant against SARS-CoV-2. This may be due to the more pronounced ability of such surfactants to penetrate and destroy the phospholipid membrane of the virus. Among the cationic surfactants studied, didodecyldimethylammonium bromide was shown to be the most efficient as a disinfectant, its 50% effective concentration (EC50) being equal to 0.016 mM. Two surfactants (didodecyldimethylammonium bromide and benzalkonium chloride) can deactivate SARS-CoV-2 in as little as 5 s. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Nanomaterials for Healthcare)
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14 pages, 3015 KiB  
Communication
Molecular Level Characterisation of the Surface of Carbohydrate-Functionalised Mesoporous silica Nanoparticles (MSN) as a Potential Targeted Drug Delivery System via High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HR-MAS) NMR Spectroscopy
by Karolina Krajewska, Anna M. Gołkowska, Maciej Nowak, Marta Kozakiewicz-Latała, Wojciech Pudło, Andrzej Żak, Bożena Karolewicz, Yaroslav Z. Khimyak and Karol P. Nartowski
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(11), 5906; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23115906 - 25 May 2022
Viewed by 2035
Abstract
Atomistic level characterisation of external surface species of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) poses a significant analytical challenge due to the inherently low content of grafted ligands. This study proposes the use of HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy for a molecular level characterisation of the external [...] Read more.
Atomistic level characterisation of external surface species of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) poses a significant analytical challenge due to the inherently low content of grafted ligands. This study proposes the use of HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy for a molecular level characterisation of the external surface of carbohydrate-functionalised nanoparticles. MSN differing in size (32 nm, 106 nm, 220 nm) were synthesised using the sol-gel method. The synthesised materials displayed narrow particle size distribution (based on DLS and TEM results) and a hexagonal arrangement of the pores with a diameter of ca. 3 nm as investigated with PXRD and N2 physisorption. The surface of the obtained nanoparticles was functionalised with galactose and lactose using reductive amination as confirmed by FTIR and NMR techniques. The functionalisation of the particles surface did not alter the pore architecture, structure or morphology of the materials as confirmed with TEM imaging. HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy was used for the first time to investigate the structure of the functionalised MSN suspended in D2O. Furthermore, lactose was successfully attached to the silica without breaking the glycosidic bond. The results demonstrate that HR-MAS NMR can provide detailed structural information on the organic functionalities attached at the external surface of MSN within short experimental times. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Nanomaterials for Healthcare)
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19 pages, 3905 KiB  
Article
Topical Capsaicin in Poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid (PLGA) Nanoparticles Decreases Acute Itch and Heat Pain
by Nathalie M. Malewicz, Zahra Rattray, Sebastian Oeck, Sebastian Jung, Vicente Escamilla-Rivera, Zeming Chen, Xiangjun Tang, Jiangbing Zhou and Robert H. LaMotte
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(9), 5275; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23095275 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2433
Abstract
Background: Capsaicin, the hot pepper agent, produces burning followed by desensitization. To treat localized itch or pain with minimal burning, low capsaicin concentrations can be repeatedly applied. We hypothesized that alternatively controlled release of capsaicin from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles desensitizes superficially terminating [...] Read more.
Background: Capsaicin, the hot pepper agent, produces burning followed by desensitization. To treat localized itch or pain with minimal burning, low capsaicin concentrations can be repeatedly applied. We hypothesized that alternatively controlled release of capsaicin from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles desensitizes superficially terminating nociceptors, reducing burning. Methods: Capsaicin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles were prepared (single-emulsion solvent evaporation) and characterized (size, morphology, capsaicin loading, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro release profile). Capsaicin-PLGA nanoparticles were applied to murine skin and evaluated in healthy human participants (n = 21) for 4 days under blinded conditions, and itch and nociceptive sensations evoked by mechanical, heat stimuli and pruritogens cowhage, β-alanine, BAM8-22 and histamine were evaluated. Results: Nanoparticles (loading: 58 µg capsaicin/mg) released in vitro 23% capsaicin within the first hour and had complete release at 72 h. In mice, 24 h post-application Capsaicin-PLGA nanoparticles penetrated the dermis and led to decreased nociceptive behavioral responses to heat and mechanical stimulation (desensitization). Application in humans produced a weak to moderate burning, dissipating after 3 h. A loss of heat pain up to 2 weeks was observed. After capsaicin nanoparticles, itch and nociceptive sensations were reduced in response to pruritogens cowhage, β-alanine or BAM8-22, but were normal to histamine. Conclusions: Capsaicin nanoparticles could be useful in reducing pain and itch associated with pruritic diseases that are histamine-independent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Nanomaterials for Healthcare)
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19 pages, 4896 KiB  
Article
Modulatory Effects of Biosynthesized Gold Nanoparticles Conjugated with Curcumin and Paclitaxel on Tumorigenesis and Metastatic Pathways—In Vitro and In Vivo Studies
by Satish Kumar Vemuri, Satyajit Halder, Rajkiran Reddy Banala, Hari Krishnreddy Rachamalla, Vijaya Madhuri Devraj, Chandra Shekar Mallarpu, Uttam Kumar Neerudu, Ravikiran Bodlapati, Sudip Mukherjee, Subbaiah Goli Peda Venkata, Gurava Reddy Annapareddy Venkata, Malarvilli Thakkumalai and Kuladip Jana
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(4), 2150; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23042150 - 15 Feb 2022
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 2973
Abstract
Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women globally, and diagnosing it early and finding potential drug candidates against multi-drug resistant metastatic breast cancers provide the possibilities of better treatment and extending life. Methods: The current study aimed to evaluate the [...] Read more.
Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women globally, and diagnosing it early and finding potential drug candidates against multi-drug resistant metastatic breast cancers provide the possibilities of better treatment and extending life. Methods: The current study aimed to evaluate the synergistic anti-metastatic activity of Curcumin (Cur) and Paclitaxel (Pacli) individually, the combination of Curcumin–Paclitaxel (CP), and also in conjugation with gold nanoparticles (AuNP–Curcumin (Au-C), AuNP–Paclitaxel (Au-P), and AuNP–Curcumin–Paclitaxel (Au-CP)) in various in vitro and in vivo models. Results: The results from combination treatments of CP and Au-CP demonstrated excellent synergistic cytotoxic effects in triple-negative breast cancer cell lines (MDA MB 231 and 4T1) in in vitro and in vivo mouse models. Detailed mechanistic studies were performed that reveal that the anti-cancer effects were associated with the downregulation of the expression of VEGF, CYCLIN-D1, and STAT-3 genes and upregulation of the apoptotic Caspase-9 gene. The group of mice that received CP combination therapy (with and without gold nanoparticles) showed a significant reduction in the size of tumor when compared to the Pacli alone treatment and control groups. Conclusions: Together, the results suggest that the delivery of gold conjugated Au-CP formulations may help in modulating the outcomes of chemotherapy. The present study is well supported with observations from cell-based assays, molecular and histopathological analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Nanomaterials for Healthcare)
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15 pages, 1714 KiB  
Article
3D Printed Graphene-PLA Scaffolds Promote Cell Alignment and Differentiation
by Matteo Gasparotto, Pietro Bellet, Giorgia Scapin, Rebecca Busetto, Chiara Rampazzo, Libero Vitiello, Dhvanit Indravadan Shah and Francesco Filippini
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(3), 1736; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031736 - 3 Feb 2022
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3686
Abstract
Traumas and chronic damages can hamper the regenerative power of nervous, muscle, and connective tissues. Tissue engineering approaches are promising therapeutic tools, aiming to develop reliable, reproducible, and economically affordable synthetic scaffolds which could provide sufficient biomimetic cues to promote the desired cell [...] Read more.
Traumas and chronic damages can hamper the regenerative power of nervous, muscle, and connective tissues. Tissue engineering approaches are promising therapeutic tools, aiming to develop reliable, reproducible, and economically affordable synthetic scaffolds which could provide sufficient biomimetic cues to promote the desired cell behaviour without triggering graft rejection and transplant failure. Here, we used 3D-printing to develop 3D-printed scaffolds based on either PLA or graphene@PLA with a defined pattern. Multiple regeneration strategies require a specific orientation of implanted and recruited cells to perform their function correctly. We tested our scaffolds with induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), neuronal-like cells, immortalised fibroblasts and myoblasts. Our results demonstrated that the specific “lines and ridges” 100 µm-scaffold topography is sufficient to promote myoblast and fibroblast cell alignment and orient neurites along with the scaffolds line pattern. Conversely, graphene is critical to promote cells differentiation, as seen by the iPSC commitment to neuroectoderm, and myoblast fusions into multinuclear myotubes achieved by the 100 µm scaffolds containing graphene. This work shows the development of a reliable and economical 3D-printed scaffold with the potential of being used in multiple tissue engineering applications and elucidates how scaffold micro-topography and graphene properties synergistically control cell differentiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Nanomaterials for Healthcare)
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13 pages, 1373 KiB  
Article
Thymoquinone-Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles as Natural Preservative Agent in Cosmetic Products
by María Mondéjar-López, Alberto José López-Jiménez, Joaquín C. García Martínez, Oussama Ahrazem, Lourdes Gómez-Gómez and Enrique Niza
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(2), 898; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23020898 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3176
Abstract
The current status of controversy regarding the use of certain preservatives in cosmetic products makes it necessary to seek new ecological alternatives that are free of adverse effects on users. In our study, the natural terpene thymoquinone was encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles. The [...] Read more.
The current status of controversy regarding the use of certain preservatives in cosmetic products makes it necessary to seek new ecological alternatives that are free of adverse effects on users. In our study, the natural terpene thymoquinone was encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized by DLS and TEM, showing a particle size of 20 nm. The chemical structure, thermal properties, and release profile of thymoquinone were evaluated and showed a successful stabilization and sustained release of terpenes. The antimicrobial properties of the nanoparticles were evaluated against typical microbial contaminants found in cosmetic products, showing high antimicrobial properties. Furthermore, natural moisturizing cream inoculated with the aforementioned microorganisms was formulated with thymoquinone-chitosan nanoparticles to evaluate the preservative efficiency, indicating its promising use as a preservative in cosmetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Nanomaterials for Healthcare)
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26 pages, 5060 KiB  
Article
Graphene–Oxide Porous Biopolymer Hybrids Enhance In Vitro Osteogenic Differentiation and Promote Ectopic Osteogenesis In Vivo
by Aida Șelaru, Hildegard Herman, George Mihail Vlăsceanu, Sorina Dinescu, Sami Gharbia, Cornel Baltă, Marcel Roșu, Ciprian V. Mihali, Mariana Ioniță, Andrada Serafim, Horia Iovu, Anca Hermenean and Marieta Costache
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(1), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23010491 - 1 Jan 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2341
Abstract
Over the years, natural-based scaffolds have presented impressive results for bone tissue engineering (BTE) application. Further, outstanding interactions have been observed during the interaction of graphene oxide (GO)-reinforced biomaterials with both specific cell cultures and injured bone during in vivo experimental conditions. This [...] Read more.
Over the years, natural-based scaffolds have presented impressive results for bone tissue engineering (BTE) application. Further, outstanding interactions have been observed during the interaction of graphene oxide (GO)-reinforced biomaterials with both specific cell cultures and injured bone during in vivo experimental conditions. This research hereby addresses the potential of fish gelatin/chitosan (GCs) hybrids reinforced with GO to support in vitro osteogenic differentiation and, further, to investigate its behavior when implanted ectopically. Standard GCs formulation was referenced against genipin (Gp) crosslinked blend and 0.5 wt.% additivated GO composite (GCsGp/GO 0.5 wt.%). Pre-osteoblasts were put in contact with these composites and induced to differentiate in vitro towards mature osteoblasts for 28 days. Specific bone makers were investigated by qPCR and immunolabeling. Next, CD1 mice models were used to assess de novo osteogenic potential by ectopic implantation in the subcutaneous dorsum pocket of the animals. After 4 weeks, alkaline phosphate (ALP) and calcium deposits together with collagen synthesis were investigated by biochemical analysis and histology, respectively. Further, ex vivo materials were studied after surgery regarding biomineralization and morphological changes by means of qualitative and quantitative methods. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy underlined the newly fashioned material structuration by virtue of mineralized extracellular matrix. Specific bone markers determination stressed the osteogenic phenotype of the cells populating the material in vitro and successfully differentiated towards mature bone cells. In vivo results of specific histological staining assays highlighted collagen formation and calcium deposits, which were further validated by micro-CT. It was observed that the addition of 0.5 wt.% GO had an overall significant positive effect on both in vitro differentiation and in vivo bone cell recruitment in the subcutaneous region. These data support the GO bioactivity in osteogenesis mechanisms as being self-sufficient to elevate osteoblast differentiation and bone formation in ectopic sites while lacking the most common osteoinductive agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Nanomaterials for Healthcare)
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14 pages, 27617 KiB  
Article
Hyaluronic Acid Derivative Molecular Weight-Dependent Synthesis and Antimicrobial Effect of Hybrid Silver Nanoparticles
by Guillem Ferreres, Sílvia Pérez-Rafael, Juan Torrent-Burgués and Tzanko Tzanov
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(24), 13428; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222413428 - 14 Dec 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2998
Abstract
Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) appeared as promising antimicrobial candidates to face the development of antibiotic resistance. Although reported as toxic towards mammalian cells, their combination with biomolecules have shown reduced toxicity, while maintaining the antimicrobial function. Herein, hyaluronic acid (HA) with low (40 [...] Read more.
Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) appeared as promising antimicrobial candidates to face the development of antibiotic resistance. Although reported as toxic towards mammalian cells, their combination with biomolecules have shown reduced toxicity, while maintaining the antimicrobial function. Herein, hyaluronic acid (HA) with low (40 kDa), medium (200 and 600 kDa) and high (2 MDa) molecular weight (Mw) was modified with adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) and used as reducing and capping agents to synthesise antimicrobial hybrid Ag NPs. The Mw of the polymer played a crucial role in the morphology, size and antibacterial activity of the Ag NPs. The 600 and 200 kDa HA-ADH-Ag NPs were able to reduce the Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus concentration by more than 3 logs, while the 40 kDa NPs reached ~2 logs reduction. The 2 MDa HA-ADH failed to form homogenous NPs with strong bactericidal activity. A mechanistic study of the interaction with a model bacterial membrane using Langmuir isotherms confirmed the greater interaction between bacteria and higher Mw polymers and the effect of the NP’s morphology. The nanocomposites low toxicity to human skin cells was demonstrated in vitro, showing more than 90% cell viability after incubation with the NPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Nanomaterials for Healthcare)
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16 pages, 4474 KiB  
Article
Structural Alterations of Antigens at the Material Interface: An Early Decision Toolbox Facilitating Safe-by-Design Nanovaccine Development
by Litty Johnson, Lorenz Aglas, Wai Tuck Soh, Mark Geppert, Sabine Hofer, Norbert Hofstätter, Peter Briza, Fatima Ferreira, Richard Weiss, Hans Brandstetter, Albert Duschl and Martin Himly
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(19), 10895; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms221910895 - 8 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2390
Abstract
Nanomaterials have found extensive interest in the development of novel vaccines, as adjuvants and/or carriers in vaccination platforms. Conjugation of protein antigens at the particle surface by non-covalent adsorption is the most widely used approach in licensed particulate vaccines. Hence, it is essential [...] Read more.
Nanomaterials have found extensive interest in the development of novel vaccines, as adjuvants and/or carriers in vaccination platforms. Conjugation of protein antigens at the particle surface by non-covalent adsorption is the most widely used approach in licensed particulate vaccines. Hence, it is essential to understand proteins’ structural integrity at the material interface in order to develop safe-by-design nanovaccines. In this study, we utilized two model proteins, the wild-type allergen Bet v 1 and its hypoallergenic fold variant (BM4), to compare SiO2 nanoparticles with Alhydrogel® as particulate systems. A set of biophysical and functional assays including circular dichroism spectroscopy and proteolytic degradation was used to examine the antigens’ structural integrity at the material interface. Conjugation of both biomolecules to the particulate systems decreased their proteolytic stability. However, we observed qualitative and quantitative differences in antigen processing concomitant with differences in their fold stability. These changes further led to an alteration in IgE epitope recognition. Here, we propose a toolbox of biophysical and functional in vitro assays for the suitability assessment of nanomaterials in the early stages of vaccine development. These tools will aid in safe-by-design innovations and allow fine-tuning the properties of nanoparticle candidates to shape a specific immune response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Nanomaterials for Healthcare)
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15 pages, 3356 KiB  
Article
Pro-Apoptotic and Immunotherapeutic Effects of Carbon Nanotubes Functionalized with Recombinant Human Surfactant Protein D on Leukemic Cells
by Haseeb A. Khan, Uday Kishore, Hamed M. Alsulami and Salman H. Alrokayan
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(19), 10445; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms221910445 - 28 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2025
Abstract
Nanoparticles are efficient drug delivery vehicles for targeting specific organs as well as systemic therapy for a range of diseases, including cancer. However, their interaction with the immune system offers an intriguing challenge. Due to the unique physico-chemical properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are [...] Read more.
Nanoparticles are efficient drug delivery vehicles for targeting specific organs as well as systemic therapy for a range of diseases, including cancer. However, their interaction with the immune system offers an intriguing challenge. Due to the unique physico-chemical properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are considered as nanocarriers of considerable interest in cancer diagnosis and therapy. CNTs, as a promising nanomaterial, are capable of both detecting as well as delivering drugs or small therapeutic molecules to tumour cells. In this study, we coupled a recombinant fragment of human surfactant protein D (rfhSP-D) with carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC) CNTs (CMC-CNT, 10–20 nm diameter) for augmenting their apoptotic and immunotherapeutic properties using two leukemic cell lines. The cell viability of AML14.3D10 or K562 cancer cell lines was reduced when cultured with CMC-mwCNT-coupled-rfhSP-D (CNT + rfhSP-D) at 24 h. Increased levels of caspase 3, 7 and cleaved caspase 9 in CNT + rfhSP-D treated AML14.3D10 and K562 cells suggested an involvement of an intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. CNT + rfhSP-D treated leukemic cells also showed higher mRNA expression of p53 and cell cycle inhibitors (p21 and p27). This suggested a likely reduction in cdc2-cyclin B1, causing G2/M cell cycle arrest and p53-dependent apoptosis in AML14.3D10 cells, while p53-independent mechanisms appeared to be in operation in K562 cells. We suggest that CNT + rfhSP-D has therapeutic potential in targeting leukemic cells, irrespective of their p53 status, and thus, it is worth setting up pre-clinical trials in animal models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Nanomaterials for Healthcare)
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40 pages, 9845 KiB  
Article
Influence of Ce3+ Substitution on Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Properties of ZnCexFe2−xO4 Nanoparticles (X = 0.0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, and 0.08) Conjugated with Ebselen and Its Role Subsidised with γ-Radiation in Mitigating Human TNBC and Colorectal Adenocarcinoma Proliferation In Vitro
by Mohamed K. Abdel-Rafei, Noura M. Thabet, M. I. A. Abdel Maksoud, M. Abd Elkodous, Go Kawamura, Atsunori Matsuda, A. H. Ashour, Ahmed I. El-Batal and Gharieb S. El-Sayyad
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(18), 10171; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms221810171 - 21 Sep 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4061
Abstract
Cancers are a major challenge to health worldwide. Spinel ferrites have attracted attention due to their broad theranostic applications. This study aimed at investigating the antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and anticancer activities of ebselen (Eb) and cerium-nanoparticles (Ce-NPs) in the form of ZnCexFe [...] Read more.
Cancers are a major challenge to health worldwide. Spinel ferrites have attracted attention due to their broad theranostic applications. This study aimed at investigating the antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and anticancer activities of ebselen (Eb) and cerium-nanoparticles (Ce-NPs) in the form of ZnCexFe2−XO4 on human breast and colon cancer cell lines. Bioassays of the cytotoxic concentrations of Eb and ZnCexFe2−XO4, oxidative stress and inflammatory milieu, autophagy, apoptosis, related signalling effectors, the distribution of cells through the cell-cycle phases, and the percentage of cells with apoptosis were evaluated in cancer cell lines. Additionally, the antimicrobial and antibiofilm potential have been investigated against different pathogenic microbes. The ZOI, and MIC results indicated that ZnCexFe2−XO4; X = 0.06 specimen reduced the activity of a wide range of bacteria and unicellular fungi at low concentration including P. aeruginosa (9.5 mm; 6.250 µg/mL), S. aureus (13.2 mm; 0.390 µg/mL), and Candida albicans (13.5 mm; 0.195 µg/mL). Reaction mechanism determination indicated that after ZnCexFe2−xO4; X = 0.06 treatment, morphological differences in S.aureus were apparent with complete lysis of bacterial cells, a concomitant decrease in the viable number, and the growth of biofilm was inhibited. The combination of Eb with ZFO or ZnCexFe2−XO4 with γ-radiation exposure showed marked anti-proliferative efficacy in both cell lines, through modulating the oxidant/antioxidant machinery imbalance, restoring the fine-tuning of redox status, and promoting an anti-inflammatory milieu to prevent cancer progression, which may be a valuable therapeutic approach to cancer therapy and as a promising antimicrobial agent to reduce the pathogenic potential of the invading microbes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Nanomaterials for Healthcare)
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17 pages, 3785 KiB  
Article
Comparison Study of Cytotoxicity of Bare and Functionalized Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles
by Anna Król-Górniak, Katarzyna Rafińska, Fernanda Monedeiro, Paweł Pomastowski and Bogusław Buszewski
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(17), 9529; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22179529 - 2 Sep 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2910
Abstract
In this paper, a study of the cytotoxicity of bare and functionalized zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) is presented. The functionalized ZnO NPs were obtained by various types of biological methods including microbiological (intra- and extracellular with Lactobacillus paracasei strain), phytochemical (Medicago [...] Read more.
In this paper, a study of the cytotoxicity of bare and functionalized zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) is presented. The functionalized ZnO NPs were obtained by various types of biological methods including microbiological (intra- and extracellular with Lactobacillus paracasei strain), phytochemical (Medicago sativa plant extract) and biochemical (ovalbumin from egg white protein) synthesis. As a control, the bare ZnO NPs gained by chemical synthesis (commercially available) were tested. The cytotoxicity was measured through the use of (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye as well as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays against murine fibroblast L929 and Caco-2 cell lines. As a complementary method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to assess the morphology of the tested cells after treatment with ZnO NPs. The microscopic data confirmed the occurrence of apoptotic blebbing and loss of membrane permeability after the administration of all ZnO NPs. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration during the cell lines’ exposure to ZnO NPs was measured fluorometrically. Additionally, the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye in the different light conditions, as well as the antioxidant activity of bare and functionalized ZnO NPs, is also reported. The addition of all types of tested ZnO NPs to methylene blue resulted in enhanced rates of photo-degradation in the presence of both types of irradiation, but the application of UV light resulted in higher photocatalytic activity of ZnO NPs. Furthermore, bare (chemically synthetized) NPs have been recognized as the strongest photocatalysts. In the context of the obtained results, a mechanism underlying the toxicity of bio-ZnO NPs, including (a) the generation of reactive oxygen species and (b) the induction of apoptosis, is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Nanomaterials for Healthcare)
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24 pages, 8203 KiB  
Article
Modified Gold Nanoparticles for Efficient Delivery of Betulinic Acid to Cancer Cell Mitochondria
by Olakunle Oladimeji, Jude Akinyelu, Aliscia Daniels and Moganavelli Singh
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(10), 5072; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22105072 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 3390
Abstract
Advances in nanomedicine have seen the adaptation of nanoparticles (NPs) for subcellular delivery for enhanced therapeutic impact and reduced side effects. The pivotal role of the mitochondria in apoptosis and their potential as a target in cancers enables selective induction of cancer cell [...] Read more.
Advances in nanomedicine have seen the adaptation of nanoparticles (NPs) for subcellular delivery for enhanced therapeutic impact and reduced side effects. The pivotal role of the mitochondria in apoptosis and their potential as a target in cancers enables selective induction of cancer cell death. In this study, we examined the mitochondrial targeted delivery of betulinic acid (BA) by the mitochondriotropic TPP+-functionalized epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)-capped gold NPs (AuNPs), comparing the impact of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and poly-L-lysine-graft-polyethylene glycol (PLL-g-PEG) copolymer on delivery efficacy. This included the assessment of their cellular uptake, mitochondrial localization and efficacy as therapeutic delivery platforms for BA in the human Caco-2, HeLa and MCF-7 cancer cell lines. These mitochondrial-targeted nanocomplexes demonstrated significant inhibition of cancer cell growth, with targeted nanocomplexes recording IC50 values in the range of 3.12–13.2 µM compared to that of the free BA (9.74–36.31 µM) in vitro, demonstrating the merit of mitochondrial targeting. Their mechanisms of action implicated high amplitude mitochondrial depolarization, caspases 3/7 activation, with an associated arrest at the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. This nano-delivery system is a potentially viable platform for mitochondrial-targeted delivery of BA and highlights mitochondrial targeting as an option in cancer therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Nanomaterials for Healthcare)
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Review

Jump to: Research

45 pages, 3558 KiB  
Review
Sustainable Biodegradable Biopolymer-Based Nanoparticles for Healthcare Applications
by Nika Kučuk, Mateja Primožič, Željko Knez and Maja Leitgeb
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(4), 3188; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24043188 - 6 Feb 2023
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 5171
Abstract
Biopolymeric nanoparticles are gaining importance as nanocarriers for various biomedical applications, enabling long-term and controlled release at the target site. Since they are promising delivery systems for various therapeutic agents and offer advantageous properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, non-toxicity, and stability compared to [...] Read more.
Biopolymeric nanoparticles are gaining importance as nanocarriers for various biomedical applications, enabling long-term and controlled release at the target site. Since they are promising delivery systems for various therapeutic agents and offer advantageous properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, non-toxicity, and stability compared to various toxic metal nanoparticles, we decided to provide an overview on this topic. Therefore, the review focuses on the use of biopolymeric nanoparticles of animal, plant, algal, fungal, and bacterial origin as a sustainable material for potential use as drug delivery systems. A particular focus is on the encapsulation of many different therapeutic agents categorized as bioactive compounds, drugs, antibiotics, and other antimicrobial agents, extracts, and essential oils into protein- and polysaccharide-based nanocarriers. These show promising benefits for human health, especially for successful antimicrobial and anticancer activity. The review article, divided into protein-based and polysaccharide-based biopolymeric nanoparticles and further according to the origin of the biopolymer, enables the reader to select the appropriate biopolymeric nanoparticles more easily for the incorporation of the desired component. The latest research results from the last five years in the field of the successful production of biopolymeric nanoparticles loaded with various therapeutic agents for healthcare applications are included in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Nanomaterials for Healthcare)
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23 pages, 2596 KiB  
Review
Green Synthesis of Carbon Nanoparticles (CNPs) from Biomass for Biomedical Applications
by Muhammad Qasim, Andrew N. Clarkson and Simon F. R. Hinkley
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(2), 1023; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24021023 - 5 Jan 2023
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 6270
Abstract
In this review, we summarize recent work on the “green synthesis” of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) and their application with a focus on biomedical applications. Recent developments in the green synthesis of carbon nanoparticles, from renewable precursors and their application for environmental, energy-storage and [...] Read more.
In this review, we summarize recent work on the “green synthesis” of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) and their application with a focus on biomedical applications. Recent developments in the green synthesis of carbon nanoparticles, from renewable precursors and their application for environmental, energy-storage and medicinal applications are discussed. CNPs, especially carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon quantum dots (CQDs) and graphene, have demonstrated utility as high-density energy storage media, environmental remediation materials and in biomedical applications. Conventional fabrication of CNPs can entail the use of toxic catalysts; therefore, we discuss low-toxicity manufacturing as well as sustainable and environmentally friendly methodology with a focus on utilizing readily available biomass as the precursor for generating CNPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Nanomaterials for Healthcare)
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31 pages, 2785 KiB  
Review
Current Perspectives on Synthetic Compartments for Biomedical Applications
by Lukas Heuberger, Maria Korpidou, Olivia M. Eggenberger, Myrto Kyropoulou and Cornelia G. Palivan
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(10), 5718; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23105718 - 20 May 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3228
Abstract
Nano- and micrometer-sized compartments composed of synthetic polymers are designed to mimic spatial and temporal divisions found in nature. Self-assembly of polymers into compartments such as polymersomes, giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs), layer-by-layer (LbL) capsules, capsosomes, or polyion complex vesicles (PICsomes) allows for the [...] Read more.
Nano- and micrometer-sized compartments composed of synthetic polymers are designed to mimic spatial and temporal divisions found in nature. Self-assembly of polymers into compartments such as polymersomes, giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs), layer-by-layer (LbL) capsules, capsosomes, or polyion complex vesicles (PICsomes) allows for the separation of defined environments from the exterior. These compartments can be further engineered through the incorporation of (bio)molecules within the lumen or into the membrane, while the membrane can be decorated with functional moieties to produce catalytic compartments with defined structures and functions. Nanometer-sized compartments are used for imaging, theranostic, and therapeutic applications as a more mechanically stable alternative to liposomes, and through the encapsulation of catalytic molecules, i.e., enzymes, catalytic compartments can localize and act in vivo. On the micrometer scale, such biohybrid systems are used to encapsulate model proteins and form multicompartmentalized structures through the combination of multiple compartments, reaching closer to the creation of artificial organelles and cells. Significant progress in therapeutic applications and modeling strategies has been achieved through both the creation of polymers with tailored properties and functionalizations and novel techniques for their assembly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Nanomaterials for Healthcare)
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20 pages, 821 KiB  
Review
Recent Developments in Nanomaterials-Based Drug Delivery and Upgrading Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases
by Nura A. Mohamed, Isra Marei, Sergio Crovella and Haissam Abou-Saleh
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(3), 1404; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031404 - 26 Jan 2022
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 5033
Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, despite the recent developments in the management of CVDs, the early and long outcomes vary considerably in patients, especially with the current challenges facing the detection and treatment of CVDs. [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, despite the recent developments in the management of CVDs, the early and long outcomes vary considerably in patients, especially with the current challenges facing the detection and treatment of CVDs. This disparity is due to a lack of advanced diagnostic tools and targeted therapies, requiring innovative and alternative methods. Nanotechnology offers the opportunity to use nanomaterials in improving health and controlling diseases. Notably, nanotechnologies have recognized potential applicability in managing chronic diseases in the past few years, especially cancer and CVDs. Of particular interest is the use of nanoparticles as drug carriers to increase the pharmaco-efficacy and safety of conventional therapies. Different strategies have been proposed to use nanoparticles as drug carriers in CVDs; however, controversies regarding the selection of nanomaterials and nanoformulation are slowing their clinical translation. Therefore, this review focuses on nanotechnology for drug delivery and the application of nanomedicine in CVDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Nanomaterials for Healthcare)
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10 pages, 586 KiB  
Review
Protein-Based Nanoparticle Vaccines for SARS-CoV-2
by Hyo-Dong Sung, Nayeon Kim, Yeram Lee and Eun Jung Lee
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(24), 13445; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222413445 - 14 Dec 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4346
Abstract
The pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has upended healthcare systems and economies around the world. Rapid understanding of the structural biology and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 has allowed the development of emergency use or FDA-approved vaccines and various candidate [...] Read more.
The pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has upended healthcare systems and economies around the world. Rapid understanding of the structural biology and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 has allowed the development of emergency use or FDA-approved vaccines and various candidate vaccines. Among the recently developed SARS-CoV-2 candidate vaccines, natural protein-based nanoparticles well suited for multivalent antigen presentation and enhanced immune stimulation to elicit potent humoral and cellular immune responses are currently being investigated. This mini-review presents recent innovations in protein-based nanoparticle vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. The design and strategy of displaying antigenic domains, including spike protein, receptor-binding domain (RBD), and other domains on the surface of various protein-based nanoparticles and the performance of the developed nanoparticle-based vaccines are highlighted. In the final part of this review, we summarize and discuss recent advances in clinical trials and provide an outlook on protein-based nanoparticle vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Nanomaterials for Healthcare)
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29 pages, 4034 KiB  
Review
Antimicrobial Resistance and Inorganic Nanoparticles
by Andrea-Sarahí Balderrama-González, Hilda-Amelia Piñón-Castillo, Claudia-Adriana Ramírez-Valdespino, Linda-Lucila Landeros-Martínez, Erasmo Orrantia-Borunda and Hilda-Esperanza Esparza-Ponce
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(23), 12890; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222312890 - 29 Nov 2021
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 5664
Abstract
Antibiotics are being less effective, which leads to high mortality in patients with infections and a high cost for the recovery of health, and the projections that are had for the future are not very encouraging which has led to consider antimicrobial resistance [...] Read more.
Antibiotics are being less effective, which leads to high mortality in patients with infections and a high cost for the recovery of health, and the projections that are had for the future are not very encouraging which has led to consider antimicrobial resistance as a global health problem and to be the object of study by researchers. Although resistance to antibiotics occurs naturally, its appearance and spread have been increasing rapidly due to the inappropriate use of antibiotics in recent decades. A bacterium becomes resistant due to the transfer of genes encoding antibiotic resistance. Bacteria constantly mutate; therefore, their defense mechanisms mutate, as well. Nanotechnology plays a key role in antimicrobial resistance due to materials modified at the nanometer scale, allowing large numbers of molecules to assemble to have a dynamic interface. These nanomaterials act as carriers, and their design is mainly focused on introducing the temporal and spatial release of the payload of antibiotics. In addition, they generate new antimicrobial modalities for the bacteria, which are not capable of protecting themselves. So, nanoparticles are an adjunct mechanism to improve drug potency by reducing overall antibiotic exposure. These nanostructures can overcome cell barriers and deliver antibiotics to the cytoplasm to inhibit bacteria. This work aims to give a general vision between the antibiotics, the nanoparticles used as carriers, bacteria resistance, and the possible mechanisms that occur between them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Nanomaterials for Healthcare)
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