E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Liver Damage and Repair"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2019)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Giuliano Ramadori

Department of Internal Medicine, Gastroenterology/Endocrinology,University of Gottingen, Germany
E-Mail

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleauges,

The liver is a “frontier” organ located between two different “worlds”. The first world is the “external world”, which comprises all the nutrients necessary for normal growth and functioning of the body, on the other hand, potentially dangerous components, such as excess of calorie intake, alcoholic beverages, bacteria, bacterial components, viruses, xenobiotics, etc., introduced daily into the body via food through the alimentary tract. The second world is the “internal world” which depends on the delivery of energy sources, hormones and minerals to keep the body functioning under normal and under “emergency” conditions. Under normal conditions, the liver(hepatocyte) takes up the elements from the nutrients absorbed through the small intestine and the waste (Kupffer cells) from the large intestine, both reaching the liver through the portal blood. From the arterial blood of the systemic circulation, the liver takes up xenobiotics (hepatocytes) and “waste” material such as aged erythrocytes, corpuscolate matters and microorganisms reaching systemic circulation trough the blood (Kupffer cells) and hormones from the adrenal glands, thyroid and from the hypophysis (hepatocyte). The most important cells physiologically involved in liver function are the hepatocyte and the liver macrophage, the Kupffer cell. Although the functional “plasticity” of the liver is such that it can clear large amounts of noxious material, when the quality or quantity of the “waste” overcomes the intracellular defense mechanisms it can lead to recruitment of inflammatory cells and to hepatocellular damage.

The damaged cells are then cleared by the mononuclear phagocytes and restitutio ad integrum takes place. In cases of continuous exposure of the liver to the noxious agents and to the inflammatory cells replacement of the damaged cells with healthy ones is no more possible and structural tissue changes become necessary. Liver fibrosis progresses to cirrhosis. As a consequence, hepatic blood supply switches from the mainly portal blood to arterial blood from the hepatic artery. This leads to the so called capillarisation of the sinusoids in the “restructured” remaining liver tissue. Portal blood then reaches the vena cava through collateral vessels of the portal vein, which develop into true varices in the lower esophagus and stomach.

If the noxious agent(s) is eliminated however, a reversible stage can follow. If not, cirrhosis can further progress to an irreversible shrinkage of the organ. Functional activity is then strongly reduced to a minimum(rest) which is provided by the maximally engaged remaining parenchymal and non-parenchymal cells. This functional capacity can be further reduced by the persistence of inflammatory infiltrate and ongoing cellular damage. Under this condition the risk of cancer development reaches 5-8%/year and decompensation symptoms become apparent.

Suggested Topics:

  1. Cellular pathology in acute and chronic liver damage of different origin in human liver
  2. Nutrition and the liver: how can we decide alcoholic, non-alcoholic?
  3. Iron, copper and the liver
  4. The liver and the endocrine system in health and disease
  5. Hepatotropic viruses and liver diseases: Clinics and liver pathology
  6. Liver and radiobiology: just another damaging agent?
  7. Intracellular defense mechanisms in liver cells (hepatocyte, Kupffer cell)
  8. Mechanisms of inflammation in acute and in “chronic” liver damage
  9. Mechanisms of damage and repair: Ischemia-ripe fusion injury
  10. Fibrosis, cirrhosis: mechanisms of development and clinical consequences
  11. How can we stop fibrosis development and when does it make sense?
  12. Tumor development: What is special in the liver?

Prof. Dr. Giuliano Ramadori
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (24 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-24
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
Progression of Repair and Injury in Human Liver Slices
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 4130; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19124130
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 18 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
PDF Full-text (2543 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human liver slice function was stressed by daily dosing of acetaminophen (APAP) or diclofenac (DCF) to investigate injury and repair. Initially, untreated human liver and kidney slices were evaluated with the global human U133A array to assess the extended culture conditions. Then, drug [...] Read more.
Human liver slice function was stressed by daily dosing of acetaminophen (APAP) or diclofenac (DCF) to investigate injury and repair. Initially, untreated human liver and kidney slices were evaluated with the global human U133A array to assess the extended culture conditions. Then, drug induced injury and signals of repair in human liver slices exposed to APAP or DCF (1 mM) were evaluated via specific gene expression arrays. In culture, the untreated human liver and kidney slices remained differentiated and gene expression indicated that repair pathways were activated in both tissues. Morphologically the human liver slices exhibited evidence of repair and regeneration, while kidney slices did not. APAP and DCF exposure caused a direct multi-factorial response. APAP and DCF induced gene expression changes in transporters, oxidative stress and mitochondria energy. DCF caused a greater effect on heat shock and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress gene expression. Concerning wound repair, APAP caused a mild repression of gene expression; DCF suppressed the expression of matrix collagen genes, the remodeling metalloproteases, cell adhesion integrins, indicating a greater hinderance to wound repair than APAP. Thus, human liver slices are a relevant model to investigate the mechanisms of drug-induced injury and repair. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liver Damage and Repair)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Isoquercetin Improves Hepatic Lipid Accumulation by Activating AMPK Pathway and Suppressing TGF-β Signaling on an HFD-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Rat Model
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 4126; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19124126
Received: 8 November 2018 / Revised: 17 December 2018 / Accepted: 19 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (8676 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Isoquercetin (IQ), a glucoside derivative of quercetin, has been reported to have beneficial effects in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, we investigated the potential improvement of IQ in liver lipid accumulation, inflammation, oxidative condition, and activation in Kupffer cells (KCs) [...] Read more.
Isoquercetin (IQ), a glucoside derivative of quercetin, has been reported to have beneficial effects in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, we investigated the potential improvement of IQ in liver lipid accumulation, inflammation, oxidative condition, and activation in Kupffer cells (KCs) on a high-fat diet (HFD) induced NAFLD models. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were induced by HFD, lipopolysaccharides/free fatty acids (LPS/FFA) induced co-culture cells model between primary hepatocytes and Kupffer cells was used to test the effects and the underlying mechanism of IQ. Molecular docking was performed to predict the potential target of IQ. Significant effects of IQ were found on reduced lipid accumulation, inflammation, and oxidative stress. In addition, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway was activated by IQ, and is plays an important role in lipid regulation. Meanwhile, IQ reversed the increase of activated KCs which caused by lipid overload, and also suppression of Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling by TGF-β Recptor-1 and SMAD2/3 signaling. Finally, TGF-βR1 and TGF-βR2 were both found may involve in the mechanism of IQ. IQ can improve hepatic lipid accumulation and decrease inflammation and oxidative stress by its activating AMPK pathway and suppressing TGF-β signaling to alleviate NAFLD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liver Damage and Repair)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Modulation of Chemokine- and Adhesion-Molecule Gene Expression and Recruitment of Neutrophil Granulocytes in Rat and Mouse Liver after a Single Gadolinium Chloride or Zymosan Treatment
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 3891; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19123891
Received: 16 November 2018 / Revised: 26 November 2018 / Accepted: 3 December 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
PDF Full-text (9936 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Kupffer cells are professional phagocytes of the liver clearing bacteria from portal blood. Their clearance capacity, however, can be overwhelmed, transforming them into critical mediators of hepatic-injury. We investigated the consequences of selective Kupffer cell-overload by intraperitoneally administering pyrogen-free gadolinium chloride (GdCl3 [...] Read more.
Kupffer cells are professional phagocytes of the liver clearing bacteria from portal blood. Their clearance capacity, however, can be overwhelmed, transforming them into critical mediators of hepatic-injury. We investigated the consequences of selective Kupffer cell-overload by intraperitoneally administering pyrogen-free gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) or Zymosan into rats and into endotoxin-resistant mice (C3H/HeJ). The number of myeloperoxidase-positive (MPO+) cells increased at 3 h mainly around the portal vessel after both GdCl3 and Zymosan treatment. Simultaneously, GdCl3 administration reduced detectability of ED-1+ (but not ED-2) cells near the portal vessel. Serum chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL-1), CXCL-2 and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL-2) showed a peak at 3 h after both treatment regimens although at a higher extent after Zymosan administration. Accordingly, CXCL-1, CXCL-5 and CCL-2 gene expression in the liver was up-regulated after GdCl3 treatment at 3 h. After Zymosan administration a significant up-regulation of CXCL-1, CXCL-2, CXCL-10, CCL-2, CCL-3 and CCL-20 gene expression in liver at 3 h was observed. After Zymosan administration intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) gene expression was up-regulated in rat liver tissue. In C3H/HeJ mice both treatment regimens up-regulated CCL-2 and ICAM-1 gene expression after 3 h and down-regulated platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1) gene expression. In conclusion, phagocytosis overload of Kupffer cells causes induction of several CXC, CC-chemokines, upregulation of “positive” adhesion molecule gene expression, down-regulation of the “negative” adhesion molecule PECAM-1 and a recruitment of neutrophil granulocytes in the portal area of the liver of treated rats and mice mainly in close contact to the liver macrophages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liver Damage and Repair)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Medium-Chain Triglycerides Attenuate Liver Injury in Lipopolysaccharide-Challenged Pigs by Inhibiting Necroptotic and Inflammatory Signaling Pathways
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(11), 3697; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113697
Received: 19 September 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 16 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
PDF Full-text (3443 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This study was conducted to investigate whether medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) attenuated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury by down-regulating necroptotic and inflammatory signaling pathways. A total of 24 pigs were randomly allotted to four treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design including diet (0 [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to investigate whether medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) attenuated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury by down-regulating necroptotic and inflammatory signaling pathways. A total of 24 pigs were randomly allotted to four treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design including diet (0 and 4% MCTs) and immunological challenge (saline and LPS). After three weeks of feeding with or without 4% MCTs, pigs were challenged with saline or LPS. MCTs led to a significant increase in eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and total (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations. MCTs attenuated LPS-induced liver injury as indicated by an improvement in liver histomorphology and ultrastructural morphology of hepatocytes, a reduction in serum alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities as well as an increase in claudin-1 protein expression. In addition, MCTs also reduced serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 concentrations, liver TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA expression and protein concentrations and enhanced liver heat shock protein 70 protein expression in LPS-challenged pigs. Moreover, MCTs decreased mRNA expression of receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase (RIP) 3, mixed-lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) and phosphoglycerate mutase 5 and inhibited MLKL phosphorylation in the liver. Finally, MCTs decreased liver mRNA expression of toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein (NOD) 1 and multiple downstream signaling molecules. MCTs also suppressed LPS-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and increased extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 phosphorylation in the liver. These results indicated that MCTs are capable of attenuating LPS-induced liver damage by suppressing hepatic necroptotic (RIP1/RIP3/MLKL) and inflammatory (TLR4/NOD1/p38 MAPK) signaling pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liver Damage and Repair)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Intravenous Delivery of piggyBac Transposons as a Useful Tool for Liver-Specific Gene-Switching
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(11), 3452; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113452
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 28 October 2018 / Accepted: 31 October 2018 / Published: 2 November 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3119 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Hydrodynamics-based gene delivery (HGD) is an efficient method for transfecting plasmid DNA into hepatocytes in vivo. However, the resulting gene expression is transient, and occurs in a non-tissue specific manner. The piggyBac (PB) transposon system allows chromosomal integration of a transgene in [...] Read more.
Hydrodynamics-based gene delivery (HGD) is an efficient method for transfecting plasmid DNA into hepatocytes in vivo. However, the resulting gene expression is transient, and occurs in a non-tissue specific manner. The piggyBac (PB) transposon system allows chromosomal integration of a transgene in vitro. This study aimed to achieve long-term in vivo expression of a transgene by performing hepatocyte-specific chromosomal integration of the transgene using PB and HGD. Using this approach, we generated a novel mouse model for a hepatic disorder. A distinct signal from the reporter plasmid DNA was discernible in the murine liver approximately two months after the administration of PB transposons carrying a reporter gene. Then, to induce the hepatic disorder, we first administered mice with a PB transposon carrying a CETD unit (loxP-flanked stop cassette, diphtheria toxin-A chain gene, and poly(A) sites), and then with a plasmid expressing the Cre recombinase under the control of a liver-specific promoter. We showed that this system can be used for in situ manipulation and analysis of hepatocyte function in vivo in non-transgenic (Tg) animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liver Damage and Repair)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Fc Gamma Receptor IIb Expressed in Hepatocytes Promotes Lipid Accumulation and Gluconeogenesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 2932; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19102932
Received: 10 August 2018 / Revised: 3 September 2018 / Accepted: 8 September 2018 / Published: 26 September 2018
PDF Full-text (3560 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by ectopic lipid accumulation in the liver, usually combined with hepatic insulin resistance. Fc-gamma receptor-IIb (FcγRIIb) and its ligand are reported to be associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). As knowledge about FcγRIIb [...] Read more.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by ectopic lipid accumulation in the liver, usually combined with hepatic insulin resistance. Fc-gamma receptor-IIb (FcγRIIb) and its ligand are reported to be associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). As knowledge about FcγRIIb in the literature is mostly generated from studies on skeletal muscle tissue, the expression and function of FcγRIIb in the liver and hepatocytes are largely unknown. In this study, we identified the expression of FcγRIIb in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes: FcγRIIb was upregulated in response to oleic acid (OA) in a dose dependent manner. FcγRIIb knockdown using shRNA suppressed the lipid and triglyceride accumulation, and mRNA expression of ACC1, FASn, CD36, MTTP, and ApoB in OA-treated HepG2 cells. FcγRIIb deficiency mice fed with high fat diet (HFD) had significantly lower liver weight and liver to body weight ratio, as well as less triglyceride accumulation in the livers. In glycometabolism, FcγRIIb hindered insulin-induced phosphorylation of AKT and FOXO1, and in turn upregulated G6Pase and PEPCK mRNA expression, suggesting that FcγRIIb promotes gluconeogenesis by suppressing the AKT/FOXO1/G6Pase/PEPCK pathway in hepatocytes. This study reveals a novel role for FcγRIIb in regulating lipid metabolism and glycometabolism, and provides a new therapeutic target to improve NAFLD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liver Damage and Repair)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Protective Effects of Peroxiredoxin 4 (PRDX4) on Cholestatic Liver Injury
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2509; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092509
Received: 1 August 2018 / Revised: 16 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 24 August 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3826 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress plays a critical role in initiating the progression of inflammatory and fibrotic liver diseases, including cholestatic hepatitis. Peroxiredoxin 4 (PRDX4) is a secretory antioxidase that protects against oxidative damage by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both [...] Read more.
Accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress plays a critical role in initiating the progression of inflammatory and fibrotic liver diseases, including cholestatic hepatitis. Peroxiredoxin 4 (PRDX4) is a secretory antioxidase that protects against oxidative damage by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both the intracellular compartments and extracellular space. In this study, we examined the in vivo net effects of PRDX4 overexpression in a murine model of cholestasis. To induce cholestatic liver injury, we subjected C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) or human PRDX4 (hPRDX4) transgenic (Tg) mice to sham or bile duct ligation (BDL) surgery for seven days. Our results showed that the liver necrosis area was significantly suppressed in Tg BDL mice with a reduction in the severity of liver injuries. Furthermore, PRDX4 overexpression markedly reduced local and systemic oxidative stress generated by BDL. In addition, suppression of inflammatory cell infiltration, reduced proliferation of hepatocytes and intrahepatic bile ducts, and less fibrosis were also found in the liver of Tg BDL mice, along with a reduced mortality rate after BDL surgery. Interestingly, the composition of the hepatic bile acids (BAs) was more beneficial for Tg BDL mice than for WT BDL mice, suggesting that PRDX4 overexpression may affect BA metabolism during cholestasis. These features indicate that PRDX4 plays an important role in protecting against liver injury following BDL and might be a promising therapeutic modality for cholestatic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liver Damage and Repair)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Hepatoprotective Effects of Lactobacillus on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(8), 2212; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082212
Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 29 July 2018
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (4818 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of heat-killed and live Lactobacillus on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury mice. The indexes evaluated included liver pathological changes, the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of heat-killed and live Lactobacillus on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury mice. The indexes evaluated included liver pathological changes, the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the serum, related gene expression (IL-1β, TNF-α, Bcl-2, and Bax), and related proteins levels (Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase 3, and NF-κB p65). Compared with the model group, the results indicated that the levels of ALT, AST, and MDA in the serum, the expression levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, and Bax, and the protein levels of Bax, Caspase 3, and NF-κB p65 significantly decreased, and the pathologic damage degree all significantly reduced after live Lactobacillus fermentum (L-LF) and live Lactobacillus plantarum (L-LP) treatment. Additionally, the levels of SOD and GSH in the serum, the gene expression of Bcl-2, and the protein level of Bcl-2 significantly increased after L-LF and L-LP treatment. Although HK-LF and HK-LP could also have obvious regulating effects on some of the evaluated indexes (ALT, AST, the expression levels of TNF-α and Bax, and the protein level of Bcl-2) and play an important role in weakening liver damage, the regulating effects of L-LF or L-LP on these indexes were all better compared with the corresponding heat-killed Lactobacillus fermentum (HK-LF) and heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum (HK-LP). Therefore, these results suggested that LF and LP have an important role in liver disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liver Damage and Repair)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Endoplasmic Reticular Stress on Free Hemoglobin Metabolism and Liver Injury
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 1977; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19071977
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 29 June 2018 / Published: 6 July 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3343 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Elevated soluble (s) CD163 and free hemoglobin (Hb) levels predict fatty liver progression; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying Hb metabolism and liver injury remain undefined. We investigated the effects of endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress on red blood cell (RBC) rheology and free Hb [...] Read more.
Elevated soluble (s) CD163 and free hemoglobin (Hb) levels predict fatty liver progression; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying Hb metabolism and liver injury remain undefined. We investigated the effects of endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress on red blood cell (RBC) rheology and free Hb recycling pathways. ER stress was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by an intraperitoneal injection of tunicamycin (TM) (50, 100, and 200 μg/100 g body weight (BW)) or an intravenous injection of Hb (5 mg/100 g BW). A TM injection increased sCD163 levels, attenuated free Hb uptake, and maintained RBC aggregability. An Hb injection increased serum LVV-hemorphin-7 and total bilirubin levels, but this effect was suppressed by TM. A Western blot analysis showed that ER stress suppressed Hb degradation in the liver through downregulation of globin degradation proteins cathepsin D and glyoxalase-1, as well as heme degradation protein heme oxyganase-1 and keap-1 expression. An ER stress activator also increased the translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB (p65) and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) to nuclei. In conclusion, ER stress triggers ineffective Hb metabolism via altering globin and heme iron degradation pathways. Inability to recycle and metabolize free Hb may underlie the association between iron dysfunction and liver injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liver Damage and Repair)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Berberine Protects against NEFA-Induced Impairment of Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Function and Insulin Signaling in Bovine Hepatocytes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1691; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061691
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 31 May 2018 / Accepted: 5 June 2018 / Published: 6 June 2018
PDF Full-text (3574 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fatty liver is a major lipid metabolic disease in perinatal dairy cows and is characterized by high blood levels of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and insulin resistance. Berberine (BBR) has been reported to improve insulin sensitivity in mice with hepatic steatosis. Mitochondrial dysfunction [...] Read more.
Fatty liver is a major lipid metabolic disease in perinatal dairy cows and is characterized by high blood levels of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and insulin resistance. Berberine (BBR) has been reported to improve insulin sensitivity in mice with hepatic steatosis. Mitochondrial dysfunction is considered a causal factor that induces insulin resistance. This study investigates the underlying mechanism and the beneficial effects of BBR on mitochondrial and insulin signaling in bovine hepatocytes. Revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (RQUICKI) of cows with fatty liver was significantly lower than that of healthy cows. Importantly, the Akt and GSK3β phosphorylation levels, protein levels of PGC-1α and four of the five representative subunits of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) were significantly decreased in cows with fatty liver using Western Blot analysis. In bovine hepatocytes, 1.2 mmol/L NEFA reduced insulin signaling and mitochondrial respiratory chain function, and 10 and 20 umol/L BBR restored these changes. Furthermore, activation of PGC-1α played the same beneficial effects of BBR on hepatocytes treated with NEFA. BBR treatment improves NEFA-impaired mitochondrial respiratory chain function and insulin signaling by increasing PGC-1α expression in hepatocytes, which provides a potential new strategy for the prevention and treatment of fatty liver in dairy cows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liver Damage and Repair)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Oxaloacetate Ameliorates Chemical Liver Injury via Oxidative Stress Reduction and Enhancement of Bioenergetic Fluxes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1626; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061626
Received: 22 March 2018 / Revised: 23 May 2018 / Accepted: 28 May 2018 / Published: 31 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3548 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chemical injury is partly due to free radical lipid peroxidation, which can induce oxidative stress and produce a large number of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxaloacetic acid is an important intermediary in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) and participates in metabolism and [...] Read more.
Chemical injury is partly due to free radical lipid peroxidation, which can induce oxidative stress and produce a large number of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxaloacetic acid is an important intermediary in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) and participates in metabolism and energy production. In our study, we found that oxaloacetate (OA) effectively alleviated liver injury which was induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in vitro and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in vivo. OA scavenged ROS, prevented oxidative damage and maintained the normal structure of mitochondria. We further confirmed that OA increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by promoting the TCA production cycle and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Finally, OA inhibited the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and apoptotic pathways by suppressing tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Our findings reveal a mechanism for OA ameliorating chemical liver injury and suggest a possible implementation for preventing the chemical liver injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liver Damage and Repair)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Liver Zonation in Health and Disease: Hypoxia and Hypoxia-Inducible Transcription Factors as Concert Masters
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(9), 2347; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20092347
Received: 31 March 2019 / Revised: 6 May 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 11 May 2019
PDF Full-text (1068 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The liver and its zonation contribute to whole body homeostasis. Acute and chronic, not always liver, diseases impair proper metabolic zonation. Various underlying pathways, such as β-catenin, hedgehog signaling, and the Hippo pathway, along with the physiologically occurring oxygen gradient, appear to be [...] Read more.
The liver and its zonation contribute to whole body homeostasis. Acute and chronic, not always liver, diseases impair proper metabolic zonation. Various underlying pathways, such as β-catenin, hedgehog signaling, and the Hippo pathway, along with the physiologically occurring oxygen gradient, appear to be contributors. Interestingly, hypoxia and hypoxia-inducible transcription factors can orchestrate those pathways. In the current review, we connect novel findings of liver zonation in health and disease and provide a view about the dynamic interplay between these different pathways and cell-types to drive liver zonation and systemic homeostasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liver Damage and Repair)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
Human Liver Regeneration: An Etiology Dependent Process
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(9), 2332; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20092332
Received: 11 April 2019 / Revised: 6 May 2019 / Accepted: 9 May 2019 / Published: 10 May 2019
PDF Full-text (3391 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Regeneration of the liver has been an interesting and well-investigated topic for many decades. This etiology and time-dependent mechanism has proven to be extremely challenging to investigate, certainly in human diseases. A reason for this challenge is found in the numerous interactions of [...] Read more.
Regeneration of the liver has been an interesting and well-investigated topic for many decades. This etiology and time-dependent mechanism has proven to be extremely challenging to investigate, certainly in human diseases. A reason for this challenge is found in the numerous interactions of different cell components, of which some are even only temporarily present (e.g., inflammatory cells). To orchestrate regeneration of the epithelial cells, their interaction with the non-epithelial components is of utmost importance. Hepatocytes, cholangiocytes, liver progenitor cells, and peribiliary glands have proven to be compartments of regeneration. The ductular reaction is a common denominator in virtually all liver diseases; however, it is predominantly found in late-stage hepatic and biliary diseases. Ductular reaction is an intriguing example of interplay between epithelial and non-epithelial cells and encompasses bipotential liver progenitor cells which are able to compensate for the loss of the exhausted hepatocytes and cholangiocytes in biliary and hepatocytic liver diseases. In this manuscript, we focus on the etiology-specific damage that is observed in different human diseases and how the liver regulates the regenerative response in an acute and chronic setting. Furthermore, we describe the importance of morphological keynotes in different etiologies and how spatial information is of relevance for every basic and translational research of liver regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liver Damage and Repair)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Intercellular Communication between Hepatic Cells in Liver Diseases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(9), 2180; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20092180
Received: 26 March 2019 / Revised: 23 April 2019 / Accepted: 29 April 2019 / Published: 2 May 2019
PDF Full-text (741 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Liver diseases are perpetuated by the orchestration of hepatocytes and other hepatic non-parenchymal cells. These cells communicate and regulate with each other by secreting mediators such as peptides, hormones, and cytokines. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), small particles secreted from cells, contain proteins, DNAs, and [...] Read more.
Liver diseases are perpetuated by the orchestration of hepatocytes and other hepatic non-parenchymal cells. These cells communicate and regulate with each other by secreting mediators such as peptides, hormones, and cytokines. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), small particles secreted from cells, contain proteins, DNAs, and RNAs as cargos. EVs have attracted recent research interests since they can communicate information from donor cells to recipient cells thereby regulating physiological events via delivering of specific cargo mediators. Previous studies have demonstrated that liver cells secrete elevated numbers of EVs during diseased conditions, and those EVs are internalized into other liver cells inducing disease-related reactions such as inflammation, angiogenesis, and fibrogenesis. Reactions in recipient cells are caused by proteins and RNAs carried in disease-derived EVs. This review summarizes cell-to-cell communication especially via EVs in the pathogenesis of liver diseases and their potential as a novel therapeutic target. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liver Damage and Repair)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Iron-Induced Liver Injury: A Critical Reappraisal
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(9), 2132; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20092132
Received: 1 March 2019 / Revised: 25 April 2019 / Accepted: 27 April 2019 / Published: 30 April 2019
PDF Full-text (553 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Iron is implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of human liver diseases. Hereditary hemochromatosis is the classical example of a liver disease caused by iron, but iron is commonly believed to contribute to the progression of other forms of chronic liver disease [...] Read more.
Iron is implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of human liver diseases. Hereditary hemochromatosis is the classical example of a liver disease caused by iron, but iron is commonly believed to contribute to the progression of other forms of chronic liver disease such as hepatitis C infection and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In this review, we present data from cell culture experiments, animal models, and clinical studies that address the hepatotoxicity of iron. These data demonstrate that iron overload is only weakly fibrogenic in animal models and rarely causes serious liver damage in humans, calling into question the concept that iron overload is an important cause of hepatotoxicity. In situations where iron is pathogenic, iron-induced liver damage may be potentiated by coexisting inflammation, with the resulting hepatocyte necrosis an important factor driving the fibrogenic response. Based on the foregoing evidence that iron is less hepatotoxic than is generally assumed, claims that assign a causal role to iron in liver injury in either animal models or human liver disease should be carefully evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liver Damage and Repair)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Dual Role of Bile Acids on the Biliary Epithelium: Friend or Foe?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(8), 1869; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081869
Received: 21 March 2019 / Revised: 11 April 2019 / Accepted: 13 April 2019 / Published: 16 April 2019
PDF Full-text (1753 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bile acids are a family of amphipathic compounds predominantly known for their role in solubilizing and absorbing hydrophobic compounds (including liposoluble vitamins) in the intestine. Bile acids also are key signaling molecules and inflammatory agents that activate transcriptional factors and cell signaling pathways [...] Read more.
Bile acids are a family of amphipathic compounds predominantly known for their role in solubilizing and absorbing hydrophobic compounds (including liposoluble vitamins) in the intestine. Bile acids also are key signaling molecules and inflammatory agents that activate transcriptional factors and cell signaling pathways that regulate lipid, glucose, and energy metabolism in various human disorders, including chronic liver diseases. However, in the last decade increased awareness has been founded on the physiological and chemical heterogeneity of this category of compounds and their possible beneficial or injurious effects on the biliary tree. In this review, we provide an update on the current understanding of the molecular mechanism involving bile acid and biliary epithelium. The last achievements of the research in this field are summarized, focusing on the molecular aspects and the elements with relevance regarding human liver diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liver Damage and Repair)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Liver Regeneration: Different Sub-Populations of Parenchymal Cells at Play Choreographed by an Injury-Specific Microenvironment
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 4115; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19124115
Received: 23 November 2018 / Revised: 5 December 2018 / Accepted: 13 December 2018 / Published: 18 December 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1037 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Liver regeneration is crucial for the maintenance of liver functional mass during homeostasis and diseases. In a disease context-dependent manner, liver regeneration is contributed to by hepatocytes or progenitor cells. As long as they are replicatively competent, hepatocytes are the main cell type [...] Read more.
Liver regeneration is crucial for the maintenance of liver functional mass during homeostasis and diseases. In a disease context-dependent manner, liver regeneration is contributed to by hepatocytes or progenitor cells. As long as they are replicatively competent, hepatocytes are the main cell type responsible for supporting liver size homeostasisand regeneration. The concept that all hepatocytes within the lobule have the same proliferative capacity but are differentially recruited according to the localization of the wound, or whether a yet to be defined sub-population of hepatocytes supports regeneration is still debated. In a chronically or severely injured liver, hepatocytes may enter a state of replicative senescence. In such conditions, small biliary cells activate and expand, a process called ductular reaction (DR). Work in the last few decades has demonstrated that DR cells can differentiate into hepatocytes and thereby contribute to parenchymal reconstitution. In this study we will review the molecular mechanisms supporting these two processes to determine potential targets that would be amenable for therapeutic manipulation to enhance liver regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liver Damage and Repair)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
Radiation-Induced Reactions in the Liver—Modulation of Radiation Effects by Lifestyle-Related Factors—
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 3855; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19123855
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 29 November 2018 / Accepted: 30 November 2018 / Published: 3 December 2018
PDF Full-text (966 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Radiation has a wide variety of effects on the liver. Fibrosis is a concern in medical fields as one of the acute effects of high-dose irradiation, such as with cancer radiotherapies. Cancer is also an important concern following exposure to radiation. The liver [...] Read more.
Radiation has a wide variety of effects on the liver. Fibrosis is a concern in medical fields as one of the acute effects of high-dose irradiation, such as with cancer radiotherapies. Cancer is also an important concern following exposure to radiation. The liver has an active metabolism and reacts to radiations. In addition, effects are modulated by many environmental factors, such as high-calorie foods or alcohol beverages. Adaptations to other environmental conditions could also influence the effects of radiation. Reactions to radiation may not be optimally regulated under conditions modulated by the environment, possibly leading to dysregulation, disease or cancer. Here, we introduce some reactions to ionizing radiation in the liver, as demonstrated primarily in animal experiments. In addition, modulation of radiation-induced effects in the liver due to factors such as obesity, alcohol drinking, or supplements derived from foods are reviewed. Perspectives on medical applications by modulations of radiation effects are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liver Damage and Repair)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Liver-Derived Exosomes and Their Implications in Liver Pathobiology
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 3715; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19123715
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 18 November 2018 / Accepted: 19 November 2018 / Published: 22 November 2018
PDF Full-text (647 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The liver has a wide range of physiological functions in the body, and its health is maintained by complex cross-talk among hepatic cells, including parenchymal hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells. Exosomes, which are one method of cellular communication, are endosomal-derived small vesicles that are [...] Read more.
The liver has a wide range of physiological functions in the body, and its health is maintained by complex cross-talk among hepatic cells, including parenchymal hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells. Exosomes, which are one method of cellular communication, are endosomal-derived small vesicles that are released by donor cells and delivered to the target cells at both short and long distances. Because exosomes carry a variety of cargoes, including proteins, mRNAs, microRNAs and other noncoding RNAs originating from donor cells, exosomes convey cellular information that enables them to potentially serve as biomarkers and therapeutics in liver diseases. Hepatocytes release exosomes to neighboring hepatocytes or nonparenchymal cells to regulate liver regeneration and repair. Nonparenchymal cells, including hepatic stellate cells, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, and cholangiocytes, also secrete exosomes to regulate liver remodeling upon liver injury. Exosomes that are released from liver cancer cells create a favorable microenvironment for cancer growth and progression. In this review, we summarize and discuss the current findings and understanding of exosome-mediated intercellular communication in the liver, with a particular focus on the function of exosomes in both health and disease. Based on the current findings, we suggest the potential applications of exosomes as biomarkers and therapeutics for liver diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liver Damage and Repair)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
The Role of Adipokines in Surgical Procedures Requiring Both Liver Regeneration and Vascular Occlusion
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(11), 3395; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113395
Received: 30 August 2018 / Revised: 23 October 2018 / Accepted: 26 October 2018 / Published: 30 October 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (975 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Liver regeneration is a perfectly calibrated mechanism crucial to increase mass recovery of small size grafts from living donor liver transplantation, as well as in other surgical procedures including hepatic resections and liver transplantation from cadaveric donors. Regeneration involves multiple events and pathways [...] Read more.
Liver regeneration is a perfectly calibrated mechanism crucial to increase mass recovery of small size grafts from living donor liver transplantation, as well as in other surgical procedures including hepatic resections and liver transplantation from cadaveric donors. Regeneration involves multiple events and pathways in which several adipokines contribute to their orchestration and drive hepatocytes to proliferate. In addition, ischemia-reperfusion injury is a critical factor in hepatic resection and liver transplantation associated with liver failure or graft dysfunction post-surgery. This review aims to summarize the existing knowledge in the role of adipokines in surgical procedures requiring both liver regeneration and vascular occlusion, which increases ischemia-reperfusion injury and regenerative failure. We expose and discuss results in small-for-size liver transplantation and hepatic resections from animal studies focused on the modulation of the main adipokines associated with liver diseases and/or regeneration published in the last five years and analyze future perspectives and their applicability as potential targets to decrease ischemia-reperfusion injury and improve regeneration highlighting marginal states such as steatosis. In our view, adipokines means a promising approach to translate to the bedside to improve the recovery of patients subjected to partial hepatectomy and to increase the availability of organs for transplantation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liver Damage and Repair)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
CEACAM1 in Liver Injury, Metabolic and Immune Regulation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 3110; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103110
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 2 October 2018 / Accepted: 4 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2271 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is expressed on epithelial, endothelial and immune cells. CEACAM1 is a differentiation antigen involved in the maintenance of epithelial polarity that is induced during hepatocyte differentiation and liver regeneration. CEACAM1 regulates [...] Read more.
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is expressed on epithelial, endothelial and immune cells. CEACAM1 is a differentiation antigen involved in the maintenance of epithelial polarity that is induced during hepatocyte differentiation and liver regeneration. CEACAM1 regulates insulin sensitivity by promoting hepatic insulin clearance, and controls liver tolerance and mucosal immunity. Obese insulin-resistant humans with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease manifest loss of hepatic CEACAM1. In mice, deletion or functional inactivation of CEACAM1 impairs insulin clearance and compromises metabolic homeostasis which initiates the development of obesity and hepatic steatosis and fibrosis with other features of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and adipogenesis in white adipose depot. This is followed by inflammation and endothelial and cardiovascular dysfunctions. In obstructive and inflammatory liver diseases, soluble CEACAM1 is shed into human bile where it can serve as an indicator of liver disease. On immune cells, CEACAM1 acts as an immune checkpoint regulator, and deletion of Ceacam1 gene in mice causes exacerbation of inflammation and hyperactivation of myeloid cells and lymphocytes. Hence, hepatic CEACAM1 resides at the central hub of immune and metabolic homeostasis in both humans and mice. This review focuses on the regulatory role of CEACAM1 in liver and biliary tract architecture in health and disease, and on its metabolic role and function as an immune checkpoint regulator of hepatic inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liver Damage and Repair)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
Danger-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs): Molecular Triggers for Sterile Inflammation in the Liver
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 3104; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103104
Received: 29 August 2018 / Revised: 21 September 2018 / Accepted: 8 October 2018 / Published: 10 October 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (648 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Inflammatory liver diseases in the absence of pathogens such as intoxication by xenobiotics, cholestatic liver injury, hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), or alcoholic liver disease (ALD) remain threatening conditions demanding specific therapeutic options. Caused by various different noxae, all these conditions [...] Read more.
Inflammatory liver diseases in the absence of pathogens such as intoxication by xenobiotics, cholestatic liver injury, hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), or alcoholic liver disease (ALD) remain threatening conditions demanding specific therapeutic options. Caused by various different noxae, all these conditions have been recognized to be triggered by danger- or death-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), discompartmentalized self-structures released by dying cells. These endogenous, ectopic molecules comprise proteins, nucleic acids, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), or mitochondrial compounds, among others. This review resumes the respective modes of their release—passively by necrotic hepatocytes or actively by viable or apoptotic parenchymal cells—and their particular roles in sterile liver pathology. It addresses their sensors and the initial inflammatory responses they provoke. It further addresses a resulting second wave of parenchymal death that might be of different mode, boosting the release of additional, second-line DAMPs. Thus, triggering a more complex and pronounced response. Initial and secondary inflammatory responses comprise the activation of Kupffer cells (KCs), the attraction and activation of monocytes and neutrophil granulocytes, and the induction of type I interferons (IFNs) and their effectors. A thorough understanding of pathophysiology is a prerequisite for identifying rational therapeutic targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liver Damage and Repair)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
Roles of Gut-Derived Secretory Factors in the Pathogenesis of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Their Possible Clinical Applications
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 3064; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103064
Received: 27 August 2018 / Revised: 1 October 2018 / Accepted: 6 October 2018 / Published: 8 October 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1576 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The rising prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) parallels the global increase in the number of people diagnosed with obesity and metabolic syndrome. The gut-liver axis (GLA) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In this review, we [...] Read more.
The rising prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) parallels the global increase in the number of people diagnosed with obesity and metabolic syndrome. The gut-liver axis (GLA) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In this review, we discuss the clinical significance and underlying mechanisms of action of gut-derived secretory factors in NAFLD/NASH, focusing on recent human studies. Several studies have identified potential causal associations between gut-derived secretory factors and NAFLD/NASH, as well as the underlying mechanisms. The effects of gut-derived hormone-associated drugs, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 analog and recombinant variant of fibroblast growth factor 19, and other new treatment strategies for NAFLD/NASH have also been reported. A growing body of evidence highlights the role of GLA in the pathogenesis of NAFLD/NASH. Larger and longitudinal studies as well as translational research are expected to provide additional insights into the role of gut-derived secretory factors in the pathogenesis of NAFLD/NASH, possibly providing novel markers and therapeutic targets in patients with NAFLD/NASH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liver Damage and Repair)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
NLRP3 Inflammasome and IL-33: Novel Players in Sterile Liver Inflammation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2732; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092732
Received: 29 August 2018 / Revised: 9 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1194 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In sterile liver inflammation, danger signals are released in response to tissue injury to alert the immune system; e.g., by activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Recently, IL-33 has been identified as a novel type of danger signal or “alarmin”, which is released from [...] Read more.
In sterile liver inflammation, danger signals are released in response to tissue injury to alert the immune system; e.g., by activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Recently, IL-33 has been identified as a novel type of danger signal or “alarmin”, which is released from damaged and necrotic cells. IL-33 is a pleiotropic cytokine that targets a broad range of immune cells and exhibits pro- and anti-inflammatory properties dependent on the disease. This review summarizes the immunomodulatory roles of the NLRP3 inflammasome and IL-33 in sterile liver inflammation and highlights potential therapeutic strategies targeting these pathways in liver disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liver Damage and Repair)
Figures

Figure 1

Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top