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Pathogenesis, Early Diagnosis, and Therapeutic Management of Alcoholic Liver Disease

1
Laboratory of Animal Genetic Engineering and Stem Cell Biology, Advanced Convergence Technology and Science, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea
2
Immunotherapy Convergence Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Daejeon 34141, Korea
3
Department of Disease Model Animal Research Center, College of Life Science and Technology, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing 163319, China
4
Primate Resources Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Jeongeup-si, Jeonbuk 56216, Korea
5
Futuristic Animal Resource & Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Cheongju-si, Chungcheongbuk-do 28116, Korea
6
Subtropical/Tropical Organism Gene Bank, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea
7
Department of Biotechnology, College of Applied Life Science, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(11), 2712; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20112712
Received: 9 April 2019 / Revised: 30 May 2019 / Accepted: 31 May 2019 / Published: 2 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liver Damage and Repair)
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) refers to the damages to the liver and its functions due to alcohol overconsumption. It consists of fatty liver/steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis, steatohepatitis, chronic hepatitis with liver fibrosis or cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the mechanisms behind the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease are extremely complicated due to the involvement of immune cells, adipose tissues, and genetic diversity. Clinically, the diagnosis of ALD is not yet well developed. Therefore, the number of patients in advanced stages has increased due to the failure of proper early detection and treatment. At present, abstinence and nutritional therapy remain the conventional therapeutic interventions for ALD. Moreover, the therapies which target the TNF receptor superfamily, hormones, antioxidant signals, and MicroRNAs are used as treatments for ALD. In particular, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are gaining attention as a potential therapeutic target of ALD. Therefore, in this review, we have summarized the current understandings of the pathogenesis and diagnosis of ALD. Moreover, we also discuss the various existing treatment strategies while focusing on promising therapeutic approaches for ALD. View Full-Text
Keywords: ALD; pathogenesis; diagnose; phytochemical; MSCs ALD; pathogenesis; diagnose; phytochemical; MSCs
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kong, L.-Z.; Chandimali, N.; Han, Y.-H.; Lee, D.-H.; Kim, J.-S.; Kim, S.-U.; Kim, T.-D.; Jeong, D.K.; Sun, H.-N.; Lee, D.S.; Kwon, T. Pathogenesis, Early Diagnosis, and Therapeutic Management of Alcoholic Liver Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 2712. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20112712

AMA Style

Kong L-Z, Chandimali N, Han Y-H, Lee D-H, Kim J-S, Kim S-U, Kim T-D, Jeong DK, Sun H-N, Lee DS, Kwon T. Pathogenesis, Early Diagnosis, and Therapeutic Management of Alcoholic Liver Disease. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(11):2712. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20112712

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kong, Ling-Zu, Nisansala Chandimali, Ying-Hao Han, Dong-Ho Lee, Ji-Su Kim, Sun-Uk Kim, Tae-Don Kim, Dong K. Jeong, Hu-Nan Sun, Dong S. Lee, and Taeho Kwon. 2019. "Pathogenesis, Early Diagnosis, and Therapeutic Management of Alcoholic Liver Disease" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20, no. 11: 2712. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20112712

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