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Special Issue "Kinase Signal Transduction 2017"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Biochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2017).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Atsushi Matsuzawa

Laboratory of Health Chemistry, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +81-22-795-6827
Fax: +81-22-795-6826
Interests: kinase signal transduction; MAP kinase signaling; stress response; ubiquitination; post-translational modifications; redox signaling; cell death; innate immunity; inflammasome; cancer; drug toxicity

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Protein kinases phosphorylate a wide variety of substrates, the phosphorylation of which changes their conformation, activity, stability, intracellular localization, and affinity to other molecules. Therefore, protein kinases are critical for various biological functions and cellular processes, such as signal transduction, transcription, protein degradation, vesicle transport, cell growth and death, stress response, immunoregulation, and metabolism. Various types of protein kinases and their regulators have been identified and play a pivotal role in the determination of cell fate. Dysregulation of the protein kinase signal transduction leads to various diseases, including cancer, inflammation, autoimmune disorder, neurodegeneration, heart failure, ischemia, and diabetes, indicating that protein kinases and their regulators are important therapeutic targets for these diseases. Thus, understanding of how protein kinases respond to stimuli and regulate cellular functions is crucial both biologically and clinically. This Special Issue, “Kinase Signal Transduction”, welcomes contributions in all areas of recent and current research associated with novel physiological and pathological functions and regulatory mechanisms of protein kinases, as shown above.

Prof. Dr. Atsushi Matsuzawa
Guest Editor

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Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of EGFR Inactivation on the Radiation Response in High Grade Glioma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010229
Received: 11 November 2017 / Revised: 8 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 12 January 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2516 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lack of effectiveness of radiation therapy may arise from different factors such as radiation induced receptor tyrosine kinase activation and cell repopulation; cell capability to repair radiation induced DNA damage; high grade glioma (HGG) tumous heterogeneity, etc. In this study, we analyzed the [...] Read more.
Lack of effectiveness of radiation therapy may arise from different factors such as radiation induced receptor tyrosine kinase activation and cell repopulation; cell capability to repair radiation induced DNA damage; high grade glioma (HGG) tumous heterogeneity, etc. In this study, we analyzed the potential of targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in inducing radiosensitivity in two human HGG cell lines (11 and 15) that displayed similar growth patterns and expressed the receptor protein at the cell surface. We found that 15 HGG cells that express more EGFR at the cell surface were more sensitive to AG556 (an EGFR inhibitor), compared to 11 HGG cells. Although in line 15 the effect of the inhibitor was greater than in line 11, it should be noted that the efficacy of this small-molecule EGFR inhibitor as monotherapy in both cell lines has been modest, at best. Our data showed a slight difference in the response to radiation of the HGG cell lines, three days after the treatment, with line 15 responding better than line 11. However, both cell lines responded to ionizing radiation in the same way, seven days after irradiation. EGFR inhibition induced radiosensitivity in 11 HGG cells, while, in 15 HGG cells, the effect of AG556 treatment on radiation response was almost nonexistent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinase Signal Transduction 2017)
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Open AccessArticle
Site-Directed Mutagenesis of the Fibronectin Domains in Insulin Receptor-Related Receptor
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2461; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112461
Received: 10 October 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 19 November 2017
PDF Full-text (1439 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The orphan insulin receptor-related receptor (IRR), in contrast to its close homologs, the insulin receptor (IR) and insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) can be activated by mildly alkaline extracellular medium. We have previously demonstrated that IRR activation is defined by its extracellular region, [...] Read more.
The orphan insulin receptor-related receptor (IRR), in contrast to its close homologs, the insulin receptor (IR) and insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) can be activated by mildly alkaline extracellular medium. We have previously demonstrated that IRR activation is defined by its extracellular region, involves multiple domains, and shows positive cooperativity with two synergistic sites. By the analyses of point mutants and chimeras of IRR with IR in, we now address the role of the fibronectin type III (FnIII) repeats in the IRR pH-sensing. The first activation site includes the intrinsically disordered subdomain ID (646–716) within the FnIII-2 domain at the C-terminus of IRR alpha subunit together with closely located residues L135, G188, R244, H318, and K319 of L1 and C domains of the second subunit. The second site involves residue T582 of FnIII-1 domain at the top of IRR lambda-shape pyramid together with M406, V407, and D408 from L2 domain within the second subunit. A possible importance of the IRR carbohydrate moiety for its activation was also assessed. IRR is normally less glycosylated than IR and IGF-IR. Swapping both FnIII-2 and FnIII-3 IRR domains with those of IR shifted beta-subunit mass from 68 kDa for IRR to about 100 kDa due to increased glycosylation and abolished the IRR pH response. However, mutations of four asparagine residues, potential glycosylation sites in chimera IRR with swapped FnIII-2/3 domains of IR, decreased the chimera glycosylation and resulted in a partial restoration of IRR pH-sensing activity, suggesting that the extensive glycosylation of FnIII-2/3 provides steric hindrance for the alkali-induced rearrangement of the IRR ectodomain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinase Signal Transduction 2017)
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Open AccessCommunication
Effect of Saturated Stearic Acid on MAP Kinase and ER Stress Signaling Pathways during Apoptosis Induction in Human Pancreatic β-Cells Is Inhibited by Unsaturated Oleic Acid
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2313; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112313
Received: 27 September 2017 / Revised: 27 October 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 2 November 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3142 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It has been shown that saturated fatty acids (FAs) have a detrimental effect on pancreatic β-cells function and survival, leading to apoptosis, whereas unsaturated FAs are well tolerated and are even capable of inhibiting the pro-apoptotic effect of saturated FAs. Molecular mechanisms of [...] Read more.
It has been shown that saturated fatty acids (FAs) have a detrimental effect on pancreatic β-cells function and survival, leading to apoptosis, whereas unsaturated FAs are well tolerated and are even capable of inhibiting the pro-apoptotic effect of saturated FAs. Molecular mechanisms of apoptosis induction and regulation by FAs in β-cells remain unclear; however, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling pathways may be involved. In this study, we tested how unsaturated oleic acid (OA) affects the effect of saturated stearic acid (SA) on the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways as well as the ER stress signaling pathways during apoptosis induction in the human pancreatic β-cells NES2Y. We demonstrated that OA is able to inhibit all effects of SA. OA alone has only minimal or no effects on tested signaling in NES2Y cells. The point of OA inhibitory intervention in SA-induced apoptotic signaling thus seems to be located upstream of the discussed signaling pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinase Signal Transduction 2017)
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Open AccessArticle
Gastric Cancer Cell Glycosylation as a Modulator of the ErbB2 Oncogenic Receptor
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2262; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112262
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 25 October 2017 / Published: 28 October 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2738 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aberrant expression and hyperactivation of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ErbB2) constitute crucial molecular events underpinning gastric neoplastic transformation. Despite ErbB2 extracellular domain being a well-known target for glycosylation, its glycosylation profile and the molecular mechanisms through which it actively tunes [...] Read more.
Aberrant expression and hyperactivation of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ErbB2) constitute crucial molecular events underpinning gastric neoplastic transformation. Despite ErbB2 extracellular domain being a well-known target for glycosylation, its glycosylation profile and the molecular mechanisms through which it actively tunes tumorigenesis in gastric cancer (GC) cells remain elusive. We aimed at disclosing relevant ErbB2 glycan signatures and their functional impact on receptor’s biology in GC cells. The transcriptomic profile of cancer-relevant glycosylation enzymes, and the expression and activation of the ErbB receptors were characterized in four GC cell lines. Cellular- and receptor-specific glycan profiling of ErbB2-overexpressing NCI-N87 cells unveiled a heterogeneous glycosylation pattern harboring the tumor-associated sialyl Lewis a (SLea) antigen. The expression of SLea and key enzymes integrating its biosynthetic pathway were strongly upregulated in this GC cell line. An association between the expression of ERBB2 and FUT3, a central gene in SLea biosynthesis, was disclosed in GC patients, further highlighting the crosstalk between ErbB2 and SLea expression. Moreover, cellular deglycosylation and CA 19.9 antibody-mediated blocking of SLea drastically altered ErbB2 expression and activation in NCI-N87 cells. Altogether, NCI-N87 cell line constitutes an appealing in vitro model to address glycan-mediated regulation of ErbB2 in GC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinase Signal Transduction 2017)
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Open AccessArticle
The Peptidylarginine Deiminase Inhibitor Cl-Amidine Suppresses Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression in Dendritic Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2258; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112258
Received: 7 September 2017 / Revised: 16 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3438 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The conversion of peptidylarginine into peptidylcitrulline by calcium-dependent peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases, identifying PADs as therapeutic targets for various diseases. The PAD inhibitor Cl-amidine ameliorates the disease course, severity, and clinical manifestation in [...] Read more.
The conversion of peptidylarginine into peptidylcitrulline by calcium-dependent peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases, identifying PADs as therapeutic targets for various diseases. The PAD inhibitor Cl-amidine ameliorates the disease course, severity, and clinical manifestation in multiple disease models, and it also modulates dendritic cell (DC) functions such as cytokine production, antigen presentation, and T cell proliferation. The beneficial effects of Cl-amidine make it an attractive compound for PAD-targeting therapeutic strategies in inflammatory diseases. Here, we found that Cl-amidine inhibited nitric oxide (NO) generation in a time- and dose-dependent manner in maturing DCs activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This suppression of NO generation was independent of changes in NO synthase (NOS) enzyme activity levels but was instead dependent on changes in inducible NO synthase (iNOS) transcription and expression levels. Several upstream signaling pathways for iNOS expression, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase, nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65), and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 pathways, were not affected by Cl-amidine. By contrast, the LPS-induced signal transducer and the activator of transcription (STAT) phosphorylation and activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcriptional activities (c-Fos, JunD, and phosphorylated c-Jun) were decreased in Cl-amidine-treated DCs. Inhibition of Janus kinase/STAT signaling dramatically suppressed iNOS expression and NO production, whereas AP-1 inhibition had no effect. These results indicate that Cl-amidine-inhibited STAT activation may suppress iNOS expression. Additionally, we found mildly reduced cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 production in Cl-amidine-treated DCs. Our findings indicate that Cl-amidine acts as a novel suppressor of iNOS expression, suggesting that Cl-amidine has the potential to ameliorate the effects of excessive iNOS/NO-linked immune responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinase Signal Transduction 2017)
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Open AccessCommunication
A Novel Vav3 Homolog Identified in Lamprey, Lampetra japonica, with Roles in Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Immune Response
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2035; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18102035
Received: 4 September 2017 / Revised: 19 September 2017 / Accepted: 20 September 2017 / Published: 22 September 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7434 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vav guanine nucleotide exchange factor 3 (Vav3), a Rho family GTPase, regulates multiple cell signaling pathways including those of T- and B-cell receptors in vertebrates through mediating the activities of the Rho family members. Whether the lamprey possesses Vav3 homolog and what role [...] Read more.
Vav guanine nucleotide exchange factor 3 (Vav3), a Rho family GTPase, regulates multiple cell signaling pathways including those of T- and B-cell receptors in vertebrates through mediating the activities of the Rho family members. Whether the lamprey possesses Vav3 homolog and what role it plays in immune response remain unknown. Gene cloning, recombinant expression, antibody production and expression pattern analyses were performed to characterize the lamprey Vav3 in the current study. The lamprey Vav3 is closer to jawed vertebrates’ Vav3 molecules (about 53% identities in general) than to Vav2 molecules of jawless and jawed vertebrates (about 51% identities in general) in sequence similarity. Conserved motif analysis showed that the most distinguished parts between Vav3 and Vav2 proteins are their two Src-homology 3 domains. The relative expression levels of lamprey vav3 mRNA and protein were significantly up-regulated in lamprey lymphocytes and supraneural myeloid bodies after mixed-antigens stimulation, respectively. In addition, lamprey Vav3 were up-regulated drastically in lymphocytes and supraneural myeloid bodies after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) rather than phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation. Lamprey Vav3 distributed in the cytoplasm of variable lymphocyte receptor B positive (VLRB+) lymphocytes, and the number of plasmacytes (VLRB and lamprey Vav3 double positive) in blood lymphocytes also increased after LPS stimulation. Our results proved that lamprey Vav3 was involved in the LPS-mediated immune reaction of lamprey and provided a clue for the further study of the precise role lamprey Vav3 played in the signaling pathway of lamprey VLRB+ lymphocytes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinase Signal Transduction 2017)
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Open AccessArticle
SCF/C-Kit/JNK/AP-1 Signaling Pathway Promotes Claudin-3 Expression in Colonic Epithelium and Colorectal Carcinoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 765; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040765
Received: 4 March 2017 / Revised: 29 March 2017 / Accepted: 30 March 2017 / Published: 6 April 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (4172 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Claudin-3 is a major protein of tight junctions (TJs) in the intestinal epithelium and is critical for maintaining cell-cell adhesion, barrier function, and epithelium polarity. Recent studies have shown high claudin-3 levels in several solid tumors, but the regulation mechanism of claudin-3 expression [...] Read more.
Claudin-3 is a major protein of tight junctions (TJs) in the intestinal epithelium and is critical for maintaining cell-cell adhesion, barrier function, and epithelium polarity. Recent studies have shown high claudin-3 levels in several solid tumors, but the regulation mechanism of claudin-3 expression remains poorly understood. In the present study, colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues, HT-29 and DLD-1 CRC cell lines, CRC murine model (C57BL/6 mice) and c-kit loss-of-function mutant mice were used. We demonstrated that elevated claudin-3 levels were positively correlated with highly expressed c-kit in CRC tissues based upon analysis of protein expression. In vitro, claudin-3 expression was clearly increased in CRC cells by overexpressed c-kit or stimulated by exogenous recombinant human stem cell factor (rhSCF), while significantly decreased by the treatment with c-kit or c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitors. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and luciferase reporter assay showed that SCF/c-kit signaling significantly promoted activator protein-1 (AP-1) binding with CLDN-3 promoter and enhanced its transcription activity. Furthermore, decreased expression of claudin-3 was obtained in the colonic epithelium from the c-Kit loss-of-function mutant mice. In conclusion, SCF/c-kit-JNK/AP-1 signaling pathway significantly promoted claudin-3 expression in colonic epithelium and CRC, which could contribute to epithelial barrier function maintenance and to CRC development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinase Signal Transduction 2017)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Physiological and Pathological Roles of CaMKII-PP1 Signaling in the Brain
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010020
Received: 23 November 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (669 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), a multifunctional serine (Ser)/threonine (Thr) protein kinase, regulates diverse activities related to Ca2+-mediated neuronal plasticity in the brain, including synaptic activity and gene expression. Among its regulators, protein phosphatase-1 (PP1), a Ser/Thr phosphatase, [...] Read more.
Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), a multifunctional serine (Ser)/threonine (Thr) protein kinase, regulates diverse activities related to Ca2+-mediated neuronal plasticity in the brain, including synaptic activity and gene expression. Among its regulators, protein phosphatase-1 (PP1), a Ser/Thr phosphatase, appears to be critical in controlling CaMKII-dependent neuronal signaling. In postsynaptic densities (PSDs), CaMKII is required for hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a cellular process correlated with learning and memory. In response to Ca2+ elevation during hippocampal LTP induction, CaMKIIα, an isoform that translocates from the cytosol to PSDs, is activated through autophosphorylation at Thr286, generating autonomous kinase activity and a prolonged Ca2+/CaM-bound state. Moreover, PP1 inhibition enhances Thr286 autophosphorylation of CaMKIIα during LTP induction. By contrast, CaMKII nuclear import is regulated by Ser332 phosphorylation state. CaMKIIδ3, a nuclear isoform, is dephosphorylated at Ser332 by PP1, promoting its nuclear translocation, where it regulates transcription. In this review, we summarize physio-pathological roles of CaMKII/PP1 signaling in neurons. CaMKII and PP1 crosstalk and regulation of gene expression is important for neuronal plasticity as well as survival and/or differentiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinase Signal Transduction 2017)
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Open AccessReview
Protein Kinase Targets in Breast Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2543; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122543
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 27 November 2017
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (9488 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With 1.67 million new cases and 522,000 deaths in the year 2012, breast cancer is the most common type of diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer death in women around the world. Despite the success of screening programs and the [...] Read more.
With 1.67 million new cases and 522,000 deaths in the year 2012, breast cancer is the most common type of diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer death in women around the world. Despite the success of screening programs and the development of adjuvant therapies, a significant percentage of breast cancer patients will suffer a metastatic disease that, to this day, remains incurable and justifies the research of new therapies to improve their life expectancy. Among the new therapies that have been developed in recent years, the emergence of targeted therapies has been a milestone in the fight against cancer. Over the past decade, many studies have shown a causal role of protein kinase dysregulations or mutations in different human diseases, including cancer. Along these lines, cancer research has demonstrated a key role of many protein kinases during human tumorigenesis and cancer progression, turning these molecules into valid candidates for new targeted therapies. The subsequent discovery and introduction in 2001 of the kinase inhibitor imatinib, as a targeted treatment for chronic myelogenous leukemia, revolutionized cancer genetic pathways research, and lead to the development of multiple small-molecule kinase inhibitors against various malignancies, including breast cancer. In this review, we analyze studies published to date about novel small-molecule kinase inhibitors and evaluate if they would be useful to develop new treatment strategies for breast cancer patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinase Signal Transduction 2017)
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Open AccessReview
Molecular-Targeted Therapies for Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Its Resistance Mechanisms
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2420; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112420
Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 11 November 2017 / Accepted: 12 November 2017 / Published: 15 November 2017
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (436 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cancer therapies targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), such as small-molecule kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies, have been developed as standard therapies for several cancers, such as non-small cell lung cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, and squamous cell carcinoma of the [...] Read more.
Cancer therapies targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), such as small-molecule kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies, have been developed as standard therapies for several cancers, such as non-small cell lung cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Although these therapies can significantly prolong progression-free survival, curative effects are not often achieved because of intrinsic and/or acquired resistance. The resistance mechanisms to EGFR-targeted therapies can be categorized as resistant gene mutations, activation of alternative pathways, phenotypic transformation, and resistance to apoptotic cell death. Analysis of the processes that modulate EGFR signal transduction by EGFR-targeted inhibitors, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies, has revealed new therapeutic opportunities and has elucidated novel mechanisms contributing to the discovery of more effective anticancer treatments. In this review, we discuss the roles of EGFR in cancer development, therapeutic strategies for targeting EGFR, and resistance mechanisms to EGFR-targeted therapies, with a focus on cancer therapies for individual patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinase Signal Transduction 2017)
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Open AccessReview
Kinases of eIF2a Switch Translation of mRNA Subset during Neuronal Plasticity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2213; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18102213
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 18 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 22 October 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2084 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Compared to other types of cells, neurons express the largest number of diverse mRNAs, including neuron-specific ones. This mRNA diversity is required for neuronal function, memory storage, maintenance and retrieval. Regulation of translation in neurons is very complicated and involves various proteins. Some [...] Read more.
Compared to other types of cells, neurons express the largest number of diverse mRNAs, including neuron-specific ones. This mRNA diversity is required for neuronal function, memory storage, maintenance and retrieval. Regulation of translation in neurons is very complicated and involves various proteins. Some proteins, implementing translational control in other cell types, are used by neurons for synaptic plasticity. In this review, we discuss the neuron-specific activity of four kinases: protein kinase R (PKR), PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), general control nonderepressible 2 kinase (GCN2), and heme-reguated eIF2α kinase (HRI), the substrate for which is α-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). Phosphorylation of eIF2α is necessary for the cell during stress conditions, such as lack of amino acids, energy stress or viral infection. We propose that, during memory formation, neurons use some mechanisms similar to those involved in the cellular stress. The four eIF2α kinases regulate translation of certain mRNAs containing upstream open reading frames (uORFs). These mRNAs encode proteins involved in the processes of long-term potentiation (LTP) or long-term depression (LTD). The review examines some neuronal proteins for which translation regulation by eIF2 was suggested and checked experimentally. Of such proteins, we pay close attention to protein kinase Mζ, which is involved in memory storage and regulated at the translational level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinase Signal Transduction 2017)
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Open AccessReview
Kinases Involved in Both Autophagy and Mitosis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 1884; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18091884
Received: 16 August 2017 / Revised: 25 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 31 August 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (278 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Both mitosis and autophagy are highly regulated dynamic cellular processes and involve various phosphorylation events catalysed by kinases, which play vital roles in almost all physiological and pathological conditions. Mitosis is a key event during the cell cycle, in which the cell divides [...] Read more.
Both mitosis and autophagy are highly regulated dynamic cellular processes and involve various phosphorylation events catalysed by kinases, which play vital roles in almost all physiological and pathological conditions. Mitosis is a key event during the cell cycle, in which the cell divides into two daughter cells. Autophagy is a process in which the cell digests its own cellular contents. Although autophagy regulation has mainly been studied in asynchronous cells, increasing evidence indicates that autophagy is in fact tightly regulated in mitosis. Here in this review, we will discuss kinases that were originally identified to be involved in only one of either mitosis or autophagy, but were later found to participate in both processes, such as CDKs (cyclin-dependent kinases), Aurora kinases, PLK-1 (polo-like kinase 1), BUB1 (budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 1), MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases), mTORC1 (mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1), AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase), PI3K (phosphoinositide-3 kinase) and protein kinase B (AKT). By focusing on kinases involved in both autophagy and mitosis, we will get a more comprehensive understanding about the reciprocal regulation between the two key cellular events, which will also shed light on their related therapeutic investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinase Signal Transduction 2017)
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Open AccessReview
Protein Kinases C-Mediated Regulations of Drug Transporter Activity, Localization and Expression
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 764; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040764
Received: 9 March 2017 / Revised: 25 March 2017 / Accepted: 27 March 2017 / Published: 4 April 2017
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1216 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Drug transporters are now recognized as major actors in pharmacokinetics, involved notably in drug–drug interactions and drug adverse effects. Factors that govern their activity, localization and expression are therefore important to consider. In the present review, the implications of protein kinases C (PKCs) [...] Read more.
Drug transporters are now recognized as major actors in pharmacokinetics, involved notably in drug–drug interactions and drug adverse effects. Factors that govern their activity, localization and expression are therefore important to consider. In the present review, the implications of protein kinases C (PKCs) in transporter regulations are summarized and discussed. Both solute carrier (SLC) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug transporters can be regulated by PKCs-related signaling pathways. PKCs thus target activity, membrane localization and/or expression level of major influx and efflux drug transporters, in various normal and pathological types of cells and tissues, often in a PKC isoform-specific manner. PKCs are notably implicated in membrane insertion of bile acid transporters in liver and, in this way, are thought to contribute to cholestatic or choleretic effects of endogenous compounds or drugs. The exact clinical relevance of PKCs-related regulation of drug transporters in terms of drug resistance, pharmacokinetics, drug–drug interactions and drug toxicity remains however to be precisely determined. This issue is likely important to consider in the context of the development of new drugs targeting PKCs-mediated signaling pathways, for treating notably cancers, diabetes or psychiatric disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinase Signal Transduction 2017)
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