/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), a multifunctional serine (Ser)/threonine (Thr) protein kinase, regulates diverse activities related to Ca2+
-mediated neuronal plasticity in the brain, including synaptic activity and gene expression. Among its regulators, protein phosphatase-1 (PP1), a Ser/Thr phosphatase, appears to be critical in controlling CaMKII-dependent neuronal signaling. In postsynaptic densities (PSDs), CaMKII is required for hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a cellular process correlated with learning and memory. In response to Ca2+
elevation during hippocampal LTP induction, CaMKIIα, an isoform that translocates from the cytosol to PSDs, is activated through autophosphorylation at Thr286, generating autonomous kinase activity and a prolonged Ca2+
/CaM-bound state. Moreover, PP1 inhibition enhances Thr286 autophosphorylation of CaMKIIα during LTP induction. By contrast, CaMKII nuclear import is regulated by Ser332 phosphorylation state. CaMKIIδ3, a nuclear isoform, is dephosphorylated at Ser332 by PP1, promoting its nuclear translocation, where it regulates transcription. In this review, we summarize physio-pathological roles of CaMKII/PP1 signaling in neurons. CaMKII and PP1 crosstalk and regulation of gene expression is important for neuronal plasticity as well as survival and/or differentiation.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited