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Special Issue "Inflammaging and Oxidative Stress in Aging and Age-Related Disorders"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Daniela Monti
Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, 50134 Florence, Italy
Interests: aging and age-related diseases; longevity; centenarians and their offsprings; inflammaging; oxidative stress; genetics and epigenetics; metabolomics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the normal aging process, both cumulative oxidative stress and low-grade inflammation (inflammaging) play key roles. Moreover, advanced age is associated with increased incidence of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders and cancer, which share oxidative stress and inflammation as pivotal players. It is evident that oxidative stress and inflammation have interdependent mechanisms, and are able to induce and exacerbate each other. Indeed, aging has been associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species and a concomitant antioxidant systems’ impairment, favouring inflammaging. This Special Issue is devoted to disentangling and understanding some of these intricate mechanisms, in order to identify the major contributor(s) of ageing and age-related diseases. In addition, multidisciplinary approaches are strongly desirable to pinpoint new strategies able to interfere with oxidative stress and inflammaging in order to delay the onset of age-related pathologies and provide a healthy lifespan of aging population in the long run.

Prof. Dr. Daniela Monti
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • aging
  • age-related diseases
  • oxidative stress
  • low grade chronic inflammation (inflammaging)
  • anti-oxidant supplements
  • anti-inflammatory treatments
  • diet

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Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Quercetin Attenuates Pancreatic and Renal D-Galactose-Induced Aging-Related Oxidative Alterations in Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(12), 4348; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124348 - 18 Jun 2020
Abstract
Aging is an oxidative stress-associated process that progresses with age. Our aim is to delay or attenuate these oxidative alterations and to keep individuals healthy as they age using natural compounds supplementation. Therefore, we conducted the present study to investigate the protective potentials [...] Read more.
Aging is an oxidative stress-associated process that progresses with age. Our aim is to delay or attenuate these oxidative alterations and to keep individuals healthy as they age using natural compounds supplementation. Therefore, we conducted the present study to investigate the protective potentials of quercetin against D-galactose (D-gal)-associated oxidative alterations that were induced experimentally in male Wistar rats. Forty-five rats were randomly allocated into five groups of nine rats each. The groups were a control group that was reared on a basal diet and injected subcutaneously with 120 mg D-gal dissolved in physiological saline solution (0.9% NaCl) per kg body weight daily and quercetin-treated groups that received the same basal diet and subcutaneous daily D-gal injections were supplemented orally with 25, 50, and 100 mg of quercetin per kg body weight for 42 days. Pancreatic and renal samples were subjected to histopathological, immunohistochemical, and relative mRNA expression assessments. Aging (p53, p21, IL-6, and IL-8), apoptotic (Bax, CASP-3, and caspase-3 protein), proliferative (Ki67 protein), antiapoptotic (Bcl2 and Bcl2 protein), inflammatory (NF-κB, IL-1β, and TNF-α), antioxidant (SOD1), and functional markers (GCLC and GCLM genes and insulin, glucagon, and podocin proteins) were determined to evaluate the oxidative alterations induced by D-gal and the protective role of quercetin. D-gal caused oxidative alterations of the pancreas and kidneys observed via upregulations of aging, apoptotic, and inflammatory markers and downregulated the antiapoptotic, proliferative, antioxidant, and functional markers. Quercetin potentially attenuated these aging-related oxidative alterations in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, we can conclude that quercetin supplementation is considered as a promising natural protective compound that could be used to delay the aging process and to maintain human health. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Loss of C/EBPδ Exacerbates Radiation-Induced Cognitive Decline in Aged Mice due to Impaired Oxidative Stress Response
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(4), 885; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20040885 - 18 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Aging is characterized by increased inflammation and deterioration of the cellular stress responses such as the oxidant/antioxidant equilibrium, DNA damage repair fidelity, and telomeric attrition. All these factors contribute to the increased radiation sensitivity in the elderly as shown by epidemiological studies of [...] Read more.
Aging is characterized by increased inflammation and deterioration of the cellular stress responses such as the oxidant/antioxidant equilibrium, DNA damage repair fidelity, and telomeric attrition. All these factors contribute to the increased radiation sensitivity in the elderly as shown by epidemiological studies of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. There is a global increase in the aging population, who may be at increased risk of exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) as part of cancer therapy or accidental exposure. Therefore, it is critical to delineate the factors that exacerbate age-related radiation sensitivity and neurocognitive decline. The transcription factor CCAAT enhancer binding protein delta (C/EBPδ) is implicated with regulatory roles in neuroinflammation, learning, and memory, however its role in IR-induced neurocognitive decline and aging is not known. The purpose of this study was to delineate the role of C/EBPδ in IR-induced neurocognitive decline in aged mice. We report that aged Cebpd−/− mice exposed to acute IR exposure display impairment in short-term memory and spatial memory that correlated with significant alterations in the morphology of neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1 apical and basal regions. There were no significant changes in the expression of inflammatory markers. However, the expression of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and catalase (CAT) were altered post-IR in the hippocampus of aged Cebpd−/− mice. These results suggest that Cebpd may protect from IR-induced neurocognitive dysfunction by suppressing oxidative stress in aged mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammaging and Oxidative Stress in Aging and Age-Related Disorders)
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Open AccessArticle
Ginkgolic Acid Rescues Lens Epithelial Cells from Injury Caused by Redox Regulated-Aberrant Sumoylation Signaling by Reviving Prdx6 and Sp1 Expression and Activities
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(11), 3520; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113520 - 08 Nov 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Sumoylation is a downstream effector of aging/oxidative stress; excess oxidative stress leads to dysregulation of a specificity protein1 (Sp1) and its target genes, such as Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6), resulting in cellular damage. To cope with oxidative stress, cells rely on a signaling pathway [...] Read more.
Sumoylation is a downstream effector of aging/oxidative stress; excess oxidative stress leads to dysregulation of a specificity protein1 (Sp1) and its target genes, such as Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6), resulting in cellular damage. To cope with oxidative stress, cells rely on a signaling pathway involving redox-sensitive genes. Herein, we examined the therapeutic efficacy of the small molecule Ginkgolic acid (GA), a Sumoylation antagonist, to disrupt aberrant Sumoylation signaling in human and mouse lens epithelial cells (LECs) facing oxidative stress or aberrantly expressing Sumo1 (small ubiquitin-like modifier). We found that GA globally reduced aberrant Sumoylation of proteins. In contrast, Betulinic acid (BA), a Sumoylation agonist, augmented the process. GA increased Sp1 and Prdx6 expression by disrupting the Sumoylation signaling, while BA repressed the expression of both molecules. In vitro DNA binding, transactivation, Sumoylation and expression assays revealed that GA enhanced Sp1 binding to GC-boxes in the Prdx6 promoter and upregulated its transcription. Cell viability and intracellular redox status assays showed that LECs pretreated with GA gained resistance against oxidative stress-driven aberrant Sumoylation signaling. Overall, our study revealed an unprecedented role for GA in LECs and provided new mechanistic insights into the use of GA in rescuing LECs from aging/oxidative stress-evoked dysregulation of Sp1/Prdx6 protective molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammaging and Oxidative Stress in Aging and Age-Related Disorders)
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Open AccessArticle
Tissue-Specific Profiling of Oxidative Stress-Associated Transcriptome in a Healthy Mouse Model
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 3174; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103174 - 15 Oct 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Oxidative stress is a common phenomenon and is linked to a wide range of diseases and pathological processes including aging. Tissue-specific variation in redox signaling and cellular responses to oxidative stress may be associated with vulnerability especially to age-related and chronic diseases. In [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress is a common phenomenon and is linked to a wide range of diseases and pathological processes including aging. Tissue-specific variation in redox signaling and cellular responses to oxidative stress may be associated with vulnerability especially to age-related and chronic diseases. In order to provide a basis for tissue-specific difference, we examined the tissue-specific transcriptional features of 101 oxidative stress-associated genes in 10 different tissues and organs of healthy mice under physiological conditions. Microarray analysis results, which were consistent with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results, showed that catalase, Gpx3, and Gpx4 were most highly regulated in the liver, kidney, and testes. We also found the tissue-specific gene expression of SOD1 (liver and kidney), SOD2 (heart and muscle), and SOD3 (lung and kidney). The current results will serve as a reference for animal models and help advance our understanding of tissue-specific variability in oxidative stress-associated pathogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammaging and Oxidative Stress in Aging and Age-Related Disorders)
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Open AccessArticle
Augmented Insulin and Leptin Resistance of High Fat Diet-Fed APPswe/PS1dE9 Transgenic Mice Exacerbate Obesity and Glycemic Dysregulation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(8), 2333; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082333 - 08 Aug 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disease is highly associated with metabolic syndromes. We previously demonstrated that glycemic dysregulation and obesity are augmented in high fat diet (HFD)-treated APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice. In the current study, the underlying mechanism mediating exacerbated metabolic stresses [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disease is highly associated with metabolic syndromes. We previously demonstrated that glycemic dysregulation and obesity are augmented in high fat diet (HFD)-treated APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice. In the current study, the underlying mechanism mediating exacerbated metabolic stresses in HFD APP/PS1 transgenic mice was further examined. APP/PS1 mice developed insulin resistance and, consequently, impaired glucose homeostasis after 10 weeks on HFD. [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ([18F]-FDG) positron emission tomography showed that interscapular brown adipose tissue is vulnerable to HFD and AD-related pathology. Chronic HFD induced hyperphagia, with limited effects on basal metabolic rates in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Excessive food intake may be caused by impairment of leptin signaling in the hypothalamus because leptin failed to suppress the food intake of HFD APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Leptin-induced pSTAT3 signaling in the arcuate nucleus was attenuated. Dysregulated energy homeostasis including hyperphagia and exacerbated obesity was elicited prior to the presence of the amyloid pathology in the hypothalamus of HFD APP/PS1 transgenic mice; nevertheless, cortical neuroinflammation and the level of serum Aβ and IL-6 were significantly elevated. Our study demonstrates the pivotal role of AD-related pathology in augmenting HFD-induced insulin and leptin resistance and impairing hypothalamic regulation of energy homeostasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammaging and Oxidative Stress in Aging and Age-Related Disorders)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Long-Term RF-EMF on Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation in Aging Brains of C57BL/6 Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 2103; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19072103 - 19 Jul 2018
Cited by 9
Abstract
The expansion of mobile phone use has raised questions regarding the possible biological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure on oxidative stress and brain inflammation. Despite accumulative exposure of humans to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) from mobile phones, their long-term effects on [...] Read more.
The expansion of mobile phone use has raised questions regarding the possible biological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure on oxidative stress and brain inflammation. Despite accumulative exposure of humans to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) from mobile phones, their long-term effects on oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in the aging brain have not been studied. In the present study, middle-aged C57BL/6 mice (aged 14 months) were exposed to 1950 MHz electromagnetic fields for 8 months (specific absorption rate (SAR) 5 W/kg, 2 h/day, 5 d/week). Compared with those in the young group, levels of protein (3-nitro-tyrosine) and lipid (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal) oxidative damage markers were significantly increased in the brains of aged mice. In addition, levels of markers for DNA damage (8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, p53, p21, γH2AX, and Bax), apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1)), astrocyte (GFAP), and microglia (Iba-1) were significantly elevated in the brains of aged mice. However, long-term RF-EMF exposure did not change the levels of oxidative stress, DNA damage, apoptosis, astrocyte, or microglia markers in the aged mouse brains. Moreover, long-term RF-EMF exposure did not alter locomotor activity in aged mice. Therefore, these findings indicate that long-term exposure to RF-EMF did not influence age-induced oxidative stress or neuroinflammation in C57BL/6 mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammaging and Oxidative Stress in Aging and Age-Related Disorders)
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Open AccessArticle
The Contribution of Oxidative Stress and Inflamm-Aging in Human and Equine Asthma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2612; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122612 - 05 Dec 2017
Cited by 19
Abstract
Aging is associated with a dysregulation of the immune system, leading to a general pro-inflammatory state of the organism, a process that has been named inflamm-aging. Oxidative stress has an important role in aging and in the regulation of immune responses, probably playing [...] Read more.
Aging is associated with a dysregulation of the immune system, leading to a general pro-inflammatory state of the organism, a process that has been named inflamm-aging. Oxidative stress has an important role in aging and in the regulation of immune responses, probably playing a role in the development of age-related diseases. The respiratory system function physiologically declines with the advancement of age. In elderly asthmatic patients, this may contribute to disease expression. In this review, we will focus on age-related changes affecting the immune system and in respiratory structure and function that could contribute to asthma occurrence, and/or clinical presentation in the elderly. Also, naturally occurring equine asthma will be discussed as a possible model for studying the importance of oxidative stress and immun-aging/inflamm-aging in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammaging and Oxidative Stress in Aging and Age-Related Disorders)
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Open AccessArticle
Differential Expression of Nitric Oxide Synthase Isoforms nNOS and iNOS in Patients with Non-Segmental Generalized Vitiligo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2533; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122533 - 26 Nov 2017
Cited by 7
Abstract
Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in several biological processes, but its role in human melanogenesis is still not well understood. Exposure to UVA and UVB induces nitric oxide production in keratinocytes and melanocytes through the activation of constitutive nitric oxide synthase, increasing tyrosinase [...] Read more.
Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in several biological processes, but its role in human melanogenesis is still not well understood. Exposure to UVA and UVB induces nitric oxide production in keratinocytes and melanocytes through the activation of constitutive nitric oxide synthase, increasing tyrosinase activity and melanin synthesis, whereas inducible nitric oxide synthase over expression might be involved in hypopigmentary disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether inducible nitric oxide synthase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression were modified in vitiligo skin compared to healthy controls. Skin biopsies were obtained from inflammatory/lesional and white/lesional skin in 12 patients with active, non-segmental vitiligo; site-matched biopsies of normal skin from eight patients were used as controls. Nitric oxide synthase isoforms expression was evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy and Western Blot analysis. Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression was significantly increased in inflammatory/lesional skin compared to healthy skin; melanocytes showed a moderate neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression in white/lesional skin, demonstrating that metabolic function still goes on. The obtained data demonstrated that vitiligo lesions were characterized by modifications of nitric oxide synthase isoforms, thus confirming the hypothesis that nitric oxide imbalance is involved in vitiligo and supporting the idea that nitric oxide synthase inhibitors might be used as a possible therapeutic approach for the management of vitiligo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammaging and Oxidative Stress in Aging and Age-Related Disorders)
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Open AccessArticle
Modulation of the Senescence-Associated Inflammatory Phenotype in Human Fibroblasts by Olive Phenols
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2275; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112275 - 30 Oct 2017
Cited by 12
Abstract
Senescent cells display an increase in the secretion of growth factors, inflammatory cytokines and proteolytic enzymes, termed the “senescence-associated-secretory-phenotype” (SASP), playing a major role in many age-related diseases. The phenolic compounds present in extra-virgin olive oil are inhibitors of oxidative damage and have [...] Read more.
Senescent cells display an increase in the secretion of growth factors, inflammatory cytokines and proteolytic enzymes, termed the “senescence-associated-secretory-phenotype” (SASP), playing a major role in many age-related diseases. The phenolic compounds present in extra-virgin olive oil are inhibitors of oxidative damage and have been reported to play a protective role in inflammation-related diseases. Particularly, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein are the most abundant and more extensively studied. Pre-senescent human lung (MRC5) and neonatal human dermal (NHDF) fibroblasts were used as cellular model to evaluate the effect of chronic (4–6 weeks) treatment with 1 μM hydroxytyrosol (HT) or 10 μM oleuropein aglycone (OLE) on senescence/inflammation markers. Both phenols were effective in reducing β-galactosidase-positive cell number and p16 protein expression. In addition, senescence/inflammation markers such as IL-6 and metalloprotease secretion, and Ciclooxigenase type 2 (COX-2) and α-smooth-actin levels were reduced by phenol treatments. In NHDF, COX-2 expression, Nuclear Factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) protein level and nuclear localization were augmented with culture senescence and decreased by OLE and HT treatment. Furthermore, the inflammatory effect of Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα) exposure was almost completely abolished in OLE- and HT-pre-treated NHDF. Thus, the modulation of the senescence-associated inflammatory phenotype might be an important mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of olive oil phenols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammaging and Oxidative Stress in Aging and Age-Related Disorders)
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant Defence, Oxidative Stress and Oxidative Damage in Saliva, Plasma and Erythrocytes of Dementia Patients. Can Salivary AGE be a Marker of Dementia?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2205; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18102205 - 20 Oct 2017
Cited by 31
Abstract
Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in dementia pathogenesis; however, its impact on salivary secretion and salivary qualities is still unknown. This study included 80 patients with moderate dementia and 80 healthy age- and sex-matched individuals. Salivary flow, antioxidants (salivary peroxidase, catalase, superoxide [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in dementia pathogenesis; however, its impact on salivary secretion and salivary qualities is still unknown. This study included 80 patients with moderate dementia and 80 healthy age- and sex-matched individuals. Salivary flow, antioxidants (salivary peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, uric acid and total antioxidant capacity), and oxidative damage products (advanced oxidation protein products, advanced glycation end products (AGE), 8-isoprostanes, 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine and total oxidant status) were estimated in non-stimulated and stimulated saliva, as well as in plasma and erythrocytes. We show that in dementia patients the concentration/activity of major salivary antioxidants changes, and the level of oxidative damage to DNA, proteins and lipids is increased compared to healthy controls. Non-stimulated and stimulated salivary secretions were significantly reduced in dementia patients. The deterioration in mini mental state examination (MMSE) score correlated with salivary AGE levels, which when considered with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, suggests their potential role in the non-invasive diagnosis of dementia. In conclusion, dementia is associated with disturbed salivary redox homeostasis and impaired secretory function of the salivary glands. Salivary AGE may be useful in the diagnosis of dementia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammaging and Oxidative Stress in Aging and Age-Related Disorders)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Inflammaging and Oxidative Stress in Human Diseases: From Molecular Mechanisms to Novel Treatments
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(18), 4472; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20184472 - 10 Sep 2019
Cited by 21
Abstract
It has been proposed that a chronic state of inflammation correlated with aging known as inflammaging, is implicated in multiple disease states commonly observed in the elderly population. Inflammaging is associated with over-abundance of reactive oxygen species in the cell, which can lead [...] Read more.
It has been proposed that a chronic state of inflammation correlated with aging known as inflammaging, is implicated in multiple disease states commonly observed in the elderly population. Inflammaging is associated with over-abundance of reactive oxygen species in the cell, which can lead to oxidation and damage of cellular components, increased inflammation, and activation of cell death pathways. This review focuses on inflammaging and its contribution to various age-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis. Recently published mechanistic details of the roles of reactive oxygen species in inflammaging and various diseases will also be discussed. Advancements in potential treatments to ameliorate inflammaging, oxidative stress, and consequently, reduce the morbidity of multiple disease states will be explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammaging and Oxidative Stress in Aging and Age-Related Disorders)
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Open AccessReview
The Link Between Inflammaging and Degenerative Joint Diseases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 614; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030614 - 31 Jan 2019
Cited by 12
Abstract
Aging is an inevitable process in the human body that is associated with a multitude of systemic and localized changes. All these conditions have a common pathogenic mechanism characterized by the presence of a low-grade proinflammatory status. Inflammaging refers to all the processes [...] Read more.
Aging is an inevitable process in the human body that is associated with a multitude of systemic and localized changes. All these conditions have a common pathogenic mechanism characterized by the presence of a low-grade proinflammatory status. Inflammaging refers to all the processes that contribute to the occurrence of various diseases associated with aging such as frailty, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, sarcopenia, type 2 diabetes, or osteoarthritis. Inflammaging is systemic, chronic, and asymptomatic. Osteoarthritis and many age-related degenerative joint diseases are correlated with aging mechanisms such as the presence of an inflammatory microenvironment and the impaired link between inflammasomes and autophagy. There is a close relationship between chondrocyte activity and local articular environment changes due to cell senescence, followed by secretion of inflammatory mediators. In addition, systemic inflammaging can lead to cartilage destruction, pain, disability, and an impaired quality of life. The purpose of this review is to summarize the main mechanisms implicated in inflammaging and the connection it has with degenerative joint diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammaging and Oxidative Stress in Aging and Age-Related Disorders)
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Open AccessReview
Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Damage of Retinal Neurons: Drug Development Targets for Therapies of Chronic Neurodegeneration of the Retina
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(11), 3362; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113362 - 27 Oct 2018
Cited by 12
Abstract
The significance of oxidative stress in the development of chronic neurodegenerative diseases of the retina has become increasingly apparent in recent years. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are free radicals produced at low levels as a result of normal cellular metabolism that are ultimately [...] Read more.
The significance of oxidative stress in the development of chronic neurodegenerative diseases of the retina has become increasingly apparent in recent years. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are free radicals produced at low levels as a result of normal cellular metabolism that are ultimately metabolized and detoxified by endogenous and exogenous mechanisms. In the presence of oxidative cellular stress, ROS are produced in excess, resulting in cellular injury and death and ultimately leading to tissue and organ dysfunction. Recent studies have investigated the role of excess ROS in the pathogenesis and development of chronic neurodegenerative diseases of the retina including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. Findings from these studies are promising insofar as they provide clear rationales for innovative treatment and prevention strategies of these prevalent and disabling diseases where currently therapeutic options are limited. Here, we briefly outline recent developments that have contributed to our understanding of the role of ROS in the pathogenesis of chronic neurodegenerative diseases of the retina. We then examine and analyze the peer-reviewed evidence in support of ROS as targets for therapy development in the area of chronic neurodegeneration of the retina. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammaging and Oxidative Stress in Aging and Age-Related Disorders)
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Open AccessReview
Of Energy and Entropy: The Ineluctable Impact of Aging in Old Age Dementia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2672; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122672 - 09 Dec 2017
Cited by 9
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) represents the most common form of dementia among older age subjects, and despite decades of studies, the underlying mechanisms remain unresolved. The definition of AD has changed over the past 100 years, and while early-onset AD is commonly related to [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) represents the most common form of dementia among older age subjects, and despite decades of studies, the underlying mechanisms remain unresolved. The definition of AD has changed over the past 100 years, and while early-onset AD is commonly related to genetic mutations, late-onset AD is more likely due to a gradual accumulation of age-related modifications. “Normal brain aging” and AD may represent different pathways of successful or failed capability to adapt brain structures and cerebral functions. Cellular senescence and age-related changes (ARCs) affecting the brain may be considered as biologic manifestations of increasing entropy, a measure of disorder. Late-onset AD may be regarded as the final effect of a reduced energy production, due to exhausted mitochondria, and an increased entropy in the brain. This unique trajectory enables a bioenergetics-centered strategy targeting disease-stage specific profile of brain metabolism for disease prevention and treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammaging and Oxidative Stress in Aging and Age-Related Disorders)
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Open AccessReview
Similarity and Differences in Inflammation-Related Characteristics of the Peripheral Immune System of Patients with Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s Diseases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2633; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122633 - 06 Dec 2017
Cited by 12
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Both diseases are characterized by chronic inflammation in the brain—neuroinflammation. The first signs of PD and AD are most often manifested in old age, in which the immune system [...] Read more.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Both diseases are characterized by chronic inflammation in the brain—neuroinflammation. The first signs of PD and AD are most often manifested in old age, in which the immune system is usually characterized by chronic inflammation, so-called “inflammaging” In recent years, there is growing evidence that pathogenesis of these diseases is connected with both regional and peripheral immune processes. Currently, the association of clinical signs of PD and AD with different characteristics of patient immune status is actively being researched. In this mini-review we compare the association of PD and AD alterations of a number of immune system parameters connected with the process of inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammaging and Oxidative Stress in Aging and Age-Related Disorders)
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Open AccessReview
Nitroxides as Antioxidants and Anticancer Drugs
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2490; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112490 - 22 Nov 2017
Cited by 30
Abstract
Nitroxides are stable free radicals that contain a nitroxyl group with an unpaired electron. In this paper, we present the properties and application of nitroxides as antioxidants and anticancer drugs. The mostly used nitroxides in biology and medicine are a group of heterocyclic [...] Read more.
Nitroxides are stable free radicals that contain a nitroxyl group with an unpaired electron. In this paper, we present the properties and application of nitroxides as antioxidants and anticancer drugs. The mostly used nitroxides in biology and medicine are a group of heterocyclic nitroxide derivatives of piperidine, pyrroline and pyrrolidine. The antioxidant action of nitroxides is associated with their redox cycle. Nitroxides, unlike other antioxidants, are characterized by a catalytic mechanism of action associated with a single electron oxidation and reduction reaction. In biological conditions, they mimic superoxide dismutase (SOD), modulate hemoprotein’s catalase-like activity, scavenge reactive free radicals, inhibit the Fenton and Haber-Weiss reactions and suppress the oxidation of biological materials (peptides, proteins, lipids, etc.). The use of nitroxides as antioxidants against oxidative stress induced by anticancer drugs has also been investigated. The application of nitroxides and their derivatives as anticancer drugs is discussed in the contexts of breast, hepatic, lung, ovarian, lymphatic and thyroid cancers under in vivo and in vitro experiments. In this article, we focus on new natural spin-labelled derivatives such as camptothecin, rotenone, combretastatin, podophyllotoxin and others. The applications of nitroxides in the aging process, cardiovascular disease and pathological conditions were also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammaging and Oxidative Stress in Aging and Age-Related Disorders)
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