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Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Damage of Retinal Neurons: Drug Development Targets for Therapies of Chronic Neurodegeneration of the Retina

1
Vision Research Center, Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 2411 Holmes St., Kansas City, MO 64108, USA
2
Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 2411 Holmes St., Kansas City, MO 64108, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(11), 3362; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113362
Received: 20 September 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 19 October 2018 / Published: 27 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammaging and Oxidative Stress in Aging and Age-Related Disorders)
The significance of oxidative stress in the development of chronic neurodegenerative diseases of the retina has become increasingly apparent in recent years. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are free radicals produced at low levels as a result of normal cellular metabolism that are ultimately metabolized and detoxified by endogenous and exogenous mechanisms. In the presence of oxidative cellular stress, ROS are produced in excess, resulting in cellular injury and death and ultimately leading to tissue and organ dysfunction. Recent studies have investigated the role of excess ROS in the pathogenesis and development of chronic neurodegenerative diseases of the retina including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. Findings from these studies are promising insofar as they provide clear rationales for innovative treatment and prevention strategies of these prevalent and disabling diseases where currently therapeutic options are limited. Here, we briefly outline recent developments that have contributed to our understanding of the role of ROS in the pathogenesis of chronic neurodegenerative diseases of the retina. We then examine and analyze the peer-reviewed evidence in support of ROS as targets for therapy development in the area of chronic neurodegeneration of the retina. View Full-Text
Keywords: reactive oxygen species; oxidative stress; glaucoma; diabetic retinopathy; age-related macular degeneration; biologicals; small molecules; therapy; retina reactive oxygen species; oxidative stress; glaucoma; diabetic retinopathy; age-related macular degeneration; biologicals; small molecules; therapy; retina
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rohowetz, L.J.; Kraus, J.G.; Koulen, P. Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Damage of Retinal Neurons: Drug Development Targets for Therapies of Chronic Neurodegeneration of the Retina. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 3362. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113362

AMA Style

Rohowetz LJ, Kraus JG, Koulen P. Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Damage of Retinal Neurons: Drug Development Targets for Therapies of Chronic Neurodegeneration of the Retina. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(11):3362. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113362

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rohowetz, Landon J.; Kraus, Jacob G.; Koulen, Peter. 2018. "Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Damage of Retinal Neurons: Drug Development Targets for Therapies of Chronic Neurodegeneration of the Retina" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 19, no. 11: 3362. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113362

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Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

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