Next Article in Journal
Neuroprotective Surgical Strategies in Parkinson’s Disease: Role of Preclinical Data
Next Article in Special Issue
Modulation of the Senescence-Associated Inflammatory Phenotype in Human Fibroblasts by Olive Phenols
Previous Article in Journal
Isoproterenol Increases RANKL Expression in a ATF4/NFATc1-Dependent Manner in Mouse Osteoblastic Cells
Open AccessArticle

Antioxidant Defence, Oxidative Stress and Oxidative Damage in Saliva, Plasma and Erythrocytes of Dementia Patients. Can Salivary AGE be a Marker of Dementia?

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Medical University of Bialystok, 15-276 Bialystok, Poland
Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Bialystok, 16-070 Choroszcz, Poland
Department of Physiology, Medical University of Bialystok, 15-222 Bialystok, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2205;
Received: 30 September 2017 / Revised: 15 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammaging and Oxidative Stress in Aging and Age-Related Disorders)
Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in dementia pathogenesis; however, its impact on salivary secretion and salivary qualities is still unknown. This study included 80 patients with moderate dementia and 80 healthy age- and sex-matched individuals. Salivary flow, antioxidants (salivary peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, uric acid and total antioxidant capacity), and oxidative damage products (advanced oxidation protein products, advanced glycation end products (AGE), 8-isoprostanes, 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine and total oxidant status) were estimated in non-stimulated and stimulated saliva, as well as in plasma and erythrocytes. We show that in dementia patients the concentration/activity of major salivary antioxidants changes, and the level of oxidative damage to DNA, proteins and lipids is increased compared to healthy controls. Non-stimulated and stimulated salivary secretions were significantly reduced in dementia patients. The deterioration in mini mental state examination (MMSE) score correlated with salivary AGE levels, which when considered with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, suggests their potential role in the non-invasive diagnosis of dementia. In conclusion, dementia is associated with disturbed salivary redox homeostasis and impaired secretory function of the salivary glands. Salivary AGE may be useful in the diagnosis of dementia. View Full-Text
Keywords: dementia; oxidative stress; oxidative damage; saliva dementia; oxidative stress; oxidative damage; saliva
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Choromańska, M.; Klimiuk, A.; Kostecka-Sochoń, P.; Wilczyńska, K.; Kwiatkowski, M.; Okuniewska, N.; Waszkiewicz, N.; Zalewska, A.; Maciejczyk, M. Antioxidant Defence, Oxidative Stress and Oxidative Damage in Saliva, Plasma and Erythrocytes of Dementia Patients. Can Salivary AGE be a Marker of Dementia? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2205.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop