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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2490;

Nitroxides as Antioxidants and Anticancer Drugs

Department of Molecular Biophysics, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, 90-136 Lodz, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 15 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammaging and Oxidative Stress in Aging and Age-Related Disorders)
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Nitroxides are stable free radicals that contain a nitroxyl group with an unpaired electron. In this paper, we present the properties and application of nitroxides as antioxidants and anticancer drugs. The mostly used nitroxides in biology and medicine are a group of heterocyclic nitroxide derivatives of piperidine, pyrroline and pyrrolidine. The antioxidant action of nitroxides is associated with their redox cycle. Nitroxides, unlike other antioxidants, are characterized by a catalytic mechanism of action associated with a single electron oxidation and reduction reaction. In biological conditions, they mimic superoxide dismutase (SOD), modulate hemoprotein’s catalase-like activity, scavenge reactive free radicals, inhibit the Fenton and Haber-Weiss reactions and suppress the oxidation of biological materials (peptides, proteins, lipids, etc.). The use of nitroxides as antioxidants against oxidative stress induced by anticancer drugs has also been investigated. The application of nitroxides and their derivatives as anticancer drugs is discussed in the contexts of breast, hepatic, lung, ovarian, lymphatic and thyroid cancers under in vivo and in vitro experiments. In this article, we focus on new natural spin-labelled derivatives such as camptothecin, rotenone, combretastatin, podophyllotoxin and others. The applications of nitroxides in the aging process, cardiovascular disease and pathological conditions were also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: nitroxide; antioxidant properties; nitroxide as drugs; spin labelled drug analogues; oxidative stress nitroxide; antioxidant properties; nitroxide as drugs; spin labelled drug analogues; oxidative stress

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Lewandowski, M.; Gwozdzinski, K. Nitroxides as Antioxidants and Anticancer Drugs. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2490.

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