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Special Issue "Dental Pulp Stem Cells: Unveiling Their Multifaceted Therapeutic Potential"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Carnevale Gianluca
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Surgery, Medicine, Dentistry and Morphological Sciences with interest in Transplant, Oncology and Regenerative Medicine, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 41125 Modena, Italy
Interests: dental pulp stem cells; mesenchymal cells; regenerative medicine
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Alessandra Pisciotta
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Surgery, Medicine, Dentistry and Morphological Sciences with interest in Transplant, Oncology and Regenerative Medicine, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 41125 Modena, Italy
Interests: dental pulp stem cells; regenerative potential; human stem cells isolated from amniotic fluid
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Dental pulp is a loose connective tissue entrapped within the pulp chamber of the teeth and is a reservoir of adult stem cells characterized by self-renewal, a high proliferation rate, and a wide differentiation potential, features to be attributed to the peculiar embryological origin from the neural crest, which is so far considered the fourth germ layer. Since the discovery in the early 2000s, the differentiation potential of these stem cells has been extensively investigated, demonstrating their plasticity of application to several animal models of tissue injury, including bone, nerve, muscle, and cartilage defects, often in association with the use of different types of biomaterials/scaffolds. A further notable feature of these stem cells is represented by their immunosuppressive/immunomodulatory capabilities, which are currently under investigation and might provide insights into their potential application to allogeneic transplants under immunosuppression-free regimens as well as to the treatment of immune and inflammatory-related diseases. In this Special Issue, we invite researchers to contribute original research articles as well as review articles, to elucidate novel insights regarding the potential of dental pulp stem cells for multiple therapeutic applications. These include but are not limited to the fields mentioned in the keywords.

Dr. Carnevale Gianluca
Dr. Alessandra Pisciotta
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Molecular mechanisms of immunosuppression/immunomodulation
  • Secretome role in tumor growth/progression
  • miRNA signature
  • Modulation of angiogenesis
  • Dynamic culture systems for large-scale expansion
  • Organ on a chip and microfluidics
  • Bioactive molecules and growth factors effects
  • Interactions with different biomaterials for soft and hard tissue regeneration
  • Stem cell potential for neurodegenerative diseases

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Antimicrobial Effect of Air-Polishing Treatments and Their Influence on Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Seeded on Titanium Disks
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(2), 865; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020865 - 16 Jan 2021
Viewed by 408
Abstract
Dental implants are one of the most frequently used treatment options for tooth replacement, and titanium is the metal of choice due to its demonstrated superiority in resisting corrosion, lack of allergic reactions and mechanical strength. Surface roughness of titanium implants favors the [...] Read more.
Dental implants are one of the most frequently used treatment options for tooth replacement, and titanium is the metal of choice due to its demonstrated superiority in resisting corrosion, lack of allergic reactions and mechanical strength. Surface roughness of titanium implants favors the osseointegration process; nevertheless, its topography may provide a suitable substrate for bacterial biofilm deposition, causing peri-implantitis and leading to implant failure. Subgingival prophylaxis treatments with cleansing powders aimed to remove the bacterial accumulation are under investigation. Two different air-polishing powders—glycine and tagatose—were assayed for their cleaning and antimicrobial potential against a Pseudomonas biofilm and for their effects on human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs), seeded on sandblasted titanium disks. Immunofluorescence analyses were carried out to evaluate cell adhesion, proliferation, stemness and osteogenic differentiation. The results demonstrate that both the powders have a great in vitro cleaning potential in the early period and do not show any negative effects during hDPSCs osteogenic differentiation process, suggesting their suitability for enhancing the biocompatibility of titanium implants. Our data suggest that the evaluated cleansing systems reduce microbial contamination and allow us to propose tagatose as an adequate alternative to the gold standard glycine for the air-polishing prophylaxis treatment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Differentiation and Establishment of Dental Epithelial-Like Stem Cells Derived from Human ESCs and iPSCs
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(12), 4384; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124384 - 19 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 812
Abstract
Tooth development and regeneration occur through reciprocal interactions between epithelial and ectodermal mesenchymal stem cells. However, the current studies on tooth development are limited, since epithelial stem cells are relatively difficult to obtain and maintain. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent [...] Read more.
Tooth development and regeneration occur through reciprocal interactions between epithelial and ectodermal mesenchymal stem cells. However, the current studies on tooth development are limited, since epithelial stem cells are relatively difficult to obtain and maintain. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) may be alternative options for epithelial cell sources. To differentiate hESCs/hiPSCs into dental epithelial-like stem cells, this study investigated the hypothesis that direct interactions between pluripotent stem cells, such as hESCs or hiPSCs, and Hertwig’s epithelial root sheath/epithelial rests of Malassez (HERS/ERM) cell line may induce epithelial differentiation. Epithelial-like stem cells derived from hES (EPI-ES) and hiPSC (EPI-iPSC) had morphological and immunophenotypic characteristics of HERS/ERM cells, as well as similar gene expression. To overcome a rare population and insufficient expansion of primary cells, EPI-iPSC was immortalized with the SV40 large T antigen. The immortalized EPI-iPSC cell line had a normal karyotype, and a short tandem repeat (STR) analysis verified that it was derived from hiPSCs. The EPI-iPSC cell line co-cultured with dental pulp stem cells displayed increased amelogenic and odontogenic gene expression, exhibited higher dentin sialoprotein (DSPP) protein expression, and promoted mineralized nodule formation. These results indicated that the direct co-culture of hESCs/hiPSCs with HERS/ERM successfully established dental epithelial-like stem cells. Moreover, this differentiation protocol could help with understanding the functional roles of cell-to-cell communication and tissue engineering of teeth. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pentraxin-3 Modulates Osteogenic/Odontogenic Differentiation and Migration of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(22), 5778; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20225778 - 17 Nov 2019
Viewed by 1005
Abstract
Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) is recognized as a modulator of inflammation and a mediator of tissue repair. In this study, we characterized the role of PTX3 on some biological functions of human dental pulp stem cells (HDPSCs). The expression level of PTX3 significantly increased during [...] Read more.
Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) is recognized as a modulator of inflammation and a mediator of tissue repair. In this study, we characterized the role of PTX3 on some biological functions of human dental pulp stem cells (HDPSCs). The expression level of PTX3 significantly increased during osteogenic/odontogenic differentiation of HDPSCs, whereas the knockdown of PTX3 decreased this differentiation. Silencing of PTX3 in HDPSCs inhibited their migration and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) expression. Our present study indicates that PTX3 is involved in osteogenic/odontogenic differentiation and migration of HDPSCs, and may contribute to the therapeutic potential of HDPSCs for regeneration and repair. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparing the Osteogenic Potentials and Bone Regeneration Capacities of Bone Marrow and Dental Pulp Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Rabbit Calvarial Bone Defect Model
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5015; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205015 - 10 Oct 2019
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 1550
Abstract
The bone regeneration efficiency of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells (DPSCs) combined with xenografts in the craniofacial region remains unclear. Accordingly, this study commenced by comparing the cell morphology, cell proliferation, trilineage differentiation, mineral synthesis, and [...] Read more.
The bone regeneration efficiency of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells (DPSCs) combined with xenografts in the craniofacial region remains unclear. Accordingly, this study commenced by comparing the cell morphology, cell proliferation, trilineage differentiation, mineral synthesis, and osteogenic gene expression of BMSCs and DPSCs in vitro. Four experimental groups (empty control, Bio-Oss only, Bio-Oss+BMSCs, and Bio-Oss+DPSCs) were then designed and implanted in rabbit calvarial defects. The BMSCs and DPSCs showed a similar morphology, proliferative ability, surface marker profile, and trilineage-differentiation potential in vitro. However, the BMSCs exhibited a higher mineral deposition and expression levels of osteogenic marker genes, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), runt related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), and osteocalcin (OCN). In the in vivo studies, the bone volume density in both MSC groups was significantly greater than that in the empty control or Bio-Oss only group. Moreover, the new bone formation and Collagen I / osteoprotegerin protein expressions of the scaffold+MSC groups were higher than those of the Bio-Oss only group. Finally, the Bio-Oss+BMSC and Bio-Oss+DPSC groups had a similar bone mineral density, new bone formation, and osteogenesis-related protein expression. Overall, the DPSCs seeded on Bio-Oss matched the bone regeneration efficacy of BMSCs in vivo and hence appear to be a promising strategy for craniofacial defect repair in future clinical applications. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Advances and Perspectives in Dental Pulp Stem Cell Based Neuroregeneration Therapies
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(7), 3546; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073546 - 29 Mar 2021
Viewed by 626
Abstract
Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) are some of the most promising stem cell types for regenerative therapies given their ability to grow in the absence of serum and their realistic possibility to be used in autologous grafts. In this review, we describe [...] Read more.
Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) are some of the most promising stem cell types for regenerative therapies given their ability to grow in the absence of serum and their realistic possibility to be used in autologous grafts. In this review, we describe the particular advantages of hDPSCs for neuroregenerative cell therapies. We thoroughly discuss the knowledge about their embryonic origin and characteristics of their postnatal niche, as well as the current status of cell culture protocols to maximize their multilineage differentiation potential, highlighting some common issues when assessing neuronal differentiation fates of hDPSCs. We also review the recent progress on neuroprotective and immunomodulatory capacity of hDPSCs and their secreted extracellular vesicles, as well as their combination with scaffold materials to improve their functional integration on the injured central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). Finally, we offer some perspectives on the current and possible future applications of hDPSCs in neuroregenerative cell therapies. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Wound Healing and Cell Dynamics Including Mesenchymal and Dental Pulp Stem Cells Induced by Photobiomodulation Therapy: An Example of Socket-Preserving Effects after Tooth Extraction in Rats and a Literature Review
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(18), 6850; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21186850 - 18 Sep 2020
Viewed by 684
Abstract
High-intensity laser therapy (HILT) and photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) are two types of laser treatment. According to recent clinical reports, PBMT promotes wound healing after trauma or surgery. In addition, basic research has revealed that cell differentiation, proliferation, and activity and subsequent tissue activation [...] Read more.
High-intensity laser therapy (HILT) and photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) are two types of laser treatment. According to recent clinical reports, PBMT promotes wound healing after trauma or surgery. In addition, basic research has revealed that cell differentiation, proliferation, and activity and subsequent tissue activation and wound healing can be promoted. However, many points remain unclear regarding the mechanisms for wound healing induced by PBMT. Therefore, in this review, we present an example from our study of HILT and PBMT irradiation of tooth extraction wounds using two types of lasers with different characteristics (diode laser and carbon dioxide laser). Then, the effects of PBMT on the wound healing of bone tissues are reviewed from histological, biochemical, and cytological perspectives on the basis of our own study of the extraction socket as well as studies by other researchers. Furthermore, we consider the feasibility of treatment in which PBMT irradiation is applied to stem cells including dental pulp stem cells, the theme of this Special Issue, and we discuss research that has been reported on its effect. Full article
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